Major Phosphorylation Site (major + phosphorylation_site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Calcium,calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation modulates PSD-95 binding to NMDA receptors

Fabrizio Gardoni
Abstract At the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses, NMDA-type receptors are bound to scaffolding and signalling proteins that regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. The cytosolic tails of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor bind to calcium,calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and to members of the MAGUK family such as PSD-95. In particular, although NR2A and NR2B subunits are highly homologous, the sites of their interaction with CaMKII as well as the regulation of this binding differ. We identified PSD-95 phosphorylation as a molecular mechanism responsible for the dynamic regulation of the interaction of both PSD-95 and CaMKII with the NR2A subunit. CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of PSD-95 occurs both in vitro, in GST-PSD-95 fusion proteins phosphorylated by purified active CaMKII, and in vivo, in transfected COS-7 as well as in cultured hippocampal neurons. We identified Ser73 as major phosphorylation site within the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95, as confirmed by point mutagenesis experiments and by using a phospho-specific antibody. PSD-95 Ser73 phosphorylation causes NR2A dissociation from PSD-95, while it does not interfere with NR2B binding to PSD-95. These results identify CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the PDZ1 domain of PSD-95 as a mechanism regulating the signalling transduction pathway downstream NMDA receptor. [source]

Ser-59 is the major phosphorylation site in ,B-crystallin accumulated in the brains of patients with Alexander's disease

Kanefusa Kato
The phosphorylation state of ,B-crystallin accumulated in the brains of two patients with Alexander's disease (one infantile and one juvenile type) was determined by means of SDS-PAGE or isoelectric focusing of soluble and insoluble fractions of brain extracts and subsequent western blot analysis with specific antibodies against ,B-crystallin and each of three phosphorylated serine residues. The level of mammalian small heat shock protein of 25,28 kDa (Hsp27) in the same fraction was also estimated by western blot analysis. The majority of ,B-crystallin was detected in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates and phosphorylation was preferentially observed at Ser-59 in both cases. A significant level of phosphorylation at Ser-45 but not Ser-19 was also detected. Hsp27 was found at considerable levels in the insoluble fractions. ,B-crystallin and phosphorylated forms were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patient with the juvenile type. ,B-crystallin and phosphorylated forms were also detectable at considerable levels in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates from patients with Alzheimer's disease and aged controls. The phosphorylation site was mostly at Ser-59 in all cases. Immunohistochemically, ,B-crystallin was stained in Rosenthal fibers in brains of patients with Alexander's disease and their peripheral portions were immunostained with antibodies recognizing phosphorylated Ser-59. These results indicate that the major phosphorylation site in ,B-crystallin in brains of patients with Alexander's disease or Alzheimer's disease as well as in aged controls is Ser-59. [source]

Impairment of CaMKII activation and attenuation of neuropathic pain in mice lacking NR2B phosphorylated at Tyr1472

Shinji Matsumura
Abstract Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP), which can be triggered by N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. We previously demonstrated that Fyn kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors at Tyr1472 in the dorsal horn was involved in a neuropathic pain state even 1 week after nerve injury. Here we show that Y1472F-KI mice with a knock-in mutation of the Tyr1472 site to phenylalanine did not exhibit neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve transection, whereas they did retain normal nociceptive responses and induction of inflammatory pain. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr1472 was only impaired in the spinal cord of Y1472F-KI mice among the major phosphorylation sites. There was no difference in the Ca2+ response to glutamate and sensitivity to NMDA receptor antagonists between naive wild-type and Y1472F-KI mice, and the Ca2+ response to glutamate was attenuated in the Y1472F-KI mice after nerve injury. Autophosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr286 was markedly impaired in Y1472F-KI mice after nerve injury, but there was no difference in phosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr305 or protein kinase C, at Thr674, and activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and microglia in the superficial layer of spinal cord between wild-type and Y1472F-KI mice after the operation. These results demonstrate that the attenuation of neuropathic pain is caused by the impaired NMDA receptor-mediated CaMKII signaling in Y1472F-KI mice, and suggest that autophosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr286 plays a central part not only in LTP, but also in persistent neuropathic pain. [source]

Phosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin by p21-activated kinase (PAK)

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 2 2002
Hidemasa Goto
Background: Intermediate filament (IF) is one of the three major cytoskeletal filaments. Vimentin is the most widely expressed IF protein component. The Rho family of small GTPases, such as Cdc42, Rac and Rho, are thought to control the organization of actin filaments as well as other cytoskeletal filaments. Results: We determined if the vimentin filaments can be regulated by p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of targets downstream of Cdc42 or Rac. In vitro analyses revealed that vimentin served as an excellent substrate for PAK. This phosphorylated vimentin lost the potential to form 10 nm filaments. We identified Ser25, Ser38, Ser50, Ser65 and Ser72 in the amino-terminal head domain as the major phosphorylation sites on vimentin for PAK. The ectopic expression of constitutively active PAK in COS-7 cells induced vimentin phosphorylation. Fibre bundles or granulates of vimentin were frequent in these transfected cells. However, the kinase-inactive mutant induced neither vimentin phosphorylation nor filament reorganization. Conclusion: Our observations suggest that PAK may regulate the reorganization of vimentin filaments through direct vimentin phosphorylation. [source]

Fast track to a phosphoprotein sketch , MALDI-TOF characterization of TLC-based tryptic phosphopeptide maps at femtomolar detection sensitivity

Vitaly Kochin
Abstract Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping by TLC on microcrystalline cellulose has been a convenient method to get a fast and highly reproducible overview of the number of phosphopeptides present in any given 32P-labeled phosphoprotein. This method also provides an immediate presentation of the relative phosphorylation stoichiometry between individual phosphopeptides. However, so far, traditional tryptic phosphopeptide maps have not been useful for phosphoproteomics applications, as the S/N has been very poor, due to the large number of quenching substances and contaminants present on cellulose plates. In this study, we present a rapid and easy method for phosphopeptides identification from 2-D phosphopeptide maps (2-D-PPMs). We obtain improved sensitivity (femtomole levels) upon MALDI-TOF MS analysis of phosphopeptides extracted from 2-D-PPMs. Using this approach we could confidently characterize the major phosphorylation sites of in,vivo and in,vitro32P-labeled proteins. [source]