Major Phases (major + phase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The termination of the last major phase of aeolian sand movement, coastal dunefields, Denmark

Lars B. Clemmensen
Abstract Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sand samples from stabilized (or inactive) coastal dunes in Denmark provides information on the age of the termination phase of the last major aeolian activity period. A total of 26 sand samples were taken from four different coastal dunefields around the North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat coasts of Denmark. The OSL dates indicate that the last major phase of aeolian activity terminated between ad 1860 and 1905. Most of the dunes examined in this study were active around 1820, during a period documented to have been very stormy. A dune management scheme started around 1792, and this no doubt was a major cause of dunefield stabilization, but an overall decline of storminess, particularly spring and summer storminess, around the end of the 19th century must also have contributed to the increasing inactivity of coastal dunes. The new OSL dates on aeolian sand movement agree well with historical data and data from topographic maps on dune movement. This agreement supports the observation from earlier work that OSL dating of recent aeolian sand movement is accurate over the last few decades to centuries. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fabrication of Crack-Free C12A7 Nano-Ceramics Composite from Eutectic Glass in the C12A7,CaYAlO4 System

Naonori Sakamoto
Crack formation in the C12A7 nano-composite during crystallization was successfully avoided by using the eutectic glass in the C12A7,CaYAlO4 system. The crystal phases from the eutectic glass were identified to be C12A7 (major phase) and CaYAlO4 (minor phase) by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. It was indicated that origin of cracks upon crystallization of C12A7 glass was the volume expansion caused by crystallization of C12A7 in the glass and the cracking could be avoided by the volume shrinkage by crystallization of CaYAlO4. By using a conventional molding technique, we have also succeeded to fabricate a bulk C12A7 composite with arbitrary shapes. [source]

Analysis of the Defibrillation Efficacy for 5-ms Waveforms

Introduction: Empirical studies have shown that biphasic defibrillation waveforms are more efficacious than monophasic waveforms. However, a more systematic approach to waveform development might be more productive. This study tested 147 multiphasic waveforms uniformly sampled from all possible 5-ms waveforms. Methods and Results: One hundred ninety-eight guinea pigs (850,1,050 g) received 30 episodes of ventricular fibrillation followed by transthoracic defibrillation. The first 10 shocks were used to determine the ED50 for a biphasic control. Then, 20 waveforms including 2 controls were tested once at the ED50. Of the 147 waveforms tested here, 21 waveforms showed equivalent or greater efficacies than the biphasic control, with one being statistically more efficacious (P < 0.05). Two fundamental assumptions were addressed: (1) similarly efficacious waveforms are analytically similar, and (2) a single optimal waveform can be described. The mean percentage of similarly efficacious waveforms with similar shapes was greater than zero in the most efficacious 21 waveforms (P = 0.023), but less efficacious waveforms showed randomly distributed shapes. Cluster analysis revealed that the best waveforms share a major phase containing most of the defibrillation energy. The optimal waveform shape extrapolated from the sample waveforms was a 2.5/1-ms biphasic-type waveform (highest correlation r = 0.701, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This work supports the assumption that efficacious waveforms are similarly shaped and the notion that one single optimum exists. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 15, pp. 447-454, April 2004) [source]

Nucleation and Crystallization of a Lead Halide Phosphate Glass by Differential Thermal Analysis

Hongsheng Zhao
The nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of a lead halide phosphate glass [40P2O530PbBr230PbF2 (mol%)] were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis. There were two crystalline phases in the crystallized samples: the major phase was PbP2O4, and the minor phase was PbP2O6. The average activation energy for crystallization, E, for two different particle sizes of this glass was determined to be 119 4 kJ/mol by the Kissinger method and 124 4 kJ/mol by the Augis,Bennett method. The Avrami constants were determined to be 1.6 and 2.5 for particle sizes of 203 and 1040 ,m, respectively, by the Ozawa equation, and 1.7 and 2.4 for particle sizes of 203 and 1040 ,m, respectively, by the Augis,Bennett equation. The decrease in the crystallization peak height in the DTA curve with increasing particle size suggested that the particles crystallize primarily by surface crystallization. A nucleation-rate type curve was determined by plotting either the reciprocal of the temperature corresponding to the crystallization peak maximum, 1/Tp, or the height of the crystallization peak, (,T)p, as a function of nucleation temperature, Tn. The temperature where nucleation can occur for this glass ranges from 360,450C and the maximum nucleation rate is at 420 10C. [source]

Influence of the processing conditions on a two-phase reactive blend system: EVA/PP thermoplastic vulcanizate

Catherine Joubert
The elaboration of a TPV based on copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) and polypropylene (PP) as thermoplastic phase was investigated in a batch mixer. The crosslinking reaction is carried out through a transesterification reaction between ester groups of EVA and alcoxysilane groups of the crosslinker agent tetrapropoxyorthosilicate (TPOS). The main advantage of this crosslinking reaction is that it can be well controlled and suitable for different processing conditions. The aim of the present study is to get a better understanding of the dispersion mechanism and of the phase inversion of the EVA major phase during its dynamic vulcanization into the PP minor phase. It was proved that the initial viscosity ratio, , = ,pp/,EVA, between EVA and PP plays an important part in the morphology development of the reactive blend. The viscosity ratio must be close to the critical ratio expressed by Utracki's model of phase inversion mechanism. Furthermore, the influence of different processing parameters on the variation of the morphology and on the mechanical properties of the ultimate TPV was investigated. The main conclusion of this study is that the characteristic time of crosslinking must be of the same order than the time of mixing. Indeed, better mechanical properties are obtained when a progressive phase inversion occurred and when it is controlled by rheological aspects and transient morphology equilibrium of the two phases and not by the mechanical fragmentation of the crosslinked EVA. For example, in our experimental conditions (concerning the amounts of catalyst and crosslinker reagents), high shear rates can be avoided ( < 80 s,1) as the self-heating of the blend under shear considerably increases (,T , 50C for = 225 s,1), leading to faster kinetics and consequently to a phase inversion controlled by the fragmentation of the crosslinked EVA phase. [source]


ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 5 2009
Samples of red pigment from a group of seven Roman-period Egyptian mummies, known as red-shroud mummies, are investigated. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP,TOFMS) shows that the samples contain mostly Pb (83,92% by weight), along with 0.2,2.0% Sn. All of the samples are found to have similar trace element distributions when normalized to the continental crust, suggesting that they share a common geological origin. Lead isotope ratios are found to match the mixed lead sources typically associated with Rio Tinto, Spain , a site extensively mined for silver during the first century ad. Raman microspectroscopy identifies the major phase of each sample to be red lead (Pb3O4) with a minor phase of lead tin oxide (Pb2SnO4). Lead tin oxide does not occur naturally, and its incidental occurrence within the sample indicates that the material was heated under oxidative conditions at temperatures in excess of 650C. In archaeological contexts, the high-temperature oxidative treatment of lead is typically associated with metallurgical refinement processes such as cupellation. Based on this evidence, it is argued that the pigment was produced out of litharge associated with silver cupellation at the Rio Tinto site. [source]

Cutaneous melanoma: estimating survival and recurrence risk based on histopathologic features

David E. Elder
ABSTRACT:, The prognosis of melanoma is best understood in terms of a model of tumor progression, in which most melanomas may evolve through two major phases of progression: from a lesion that is nontumorigenic and has little or no capacity for metastasis; to a more advanced lesion that is tumorigenic and may have capacity for metastasis. The likelihood of metastasis varies with a number of attributes of the primary melanoma, including the phase of progression, the Breslow tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and host response to the tumorigenic compartment of the lesion, Clark's level of invasion, and other factors. When distant metastasis has occurred, the prognosis for the patient is very poor. In this monograph, the focus will be the discussion of factors related to the prognosis of melanomas that at diagnosis are clinically localized to the primary site. [source]

Contribution to X-ray analysis of carbo-nitrided steel layers

J. M. Sprauel
The non-destructive X-ray diffraction method is used to analyse carbo-nitrided steel layers after wear testing. These measurements are carried out on the two major phases of the material, i.e. the martensite and the retained austenite. Such measurements are particularly difficult for three reasons. First, strong gradients exist across the wear track. Second, the diffraction peaks obtained for the martensite are broadened, as a result of the overlap of different reflections of the tetragonal structure. Third, the studied material is multiphase. Its major phases are martensite and austenite, but it also contains carbide and nitride clusters, which lead to incoherent scattering of X-rays. A new quantitative phase analysis method is thus proposed to define the volume fractions of these different constituents of the material. This method accounts for the evolution of the background level during wear. A micro-mechanical model is then developed to process the diffraction peak positions obtained for the martensite and the retained austenite. This model defines the `true' stress and carbon content of both phases. It also allows separation of the reflections of the martensite. The true widths of the diffraction peaks, which characterize the plastic deformation, can thus be quantified. Results for wear-test specimens show a strong plastic deformation of the retained austenite during contact fatigue. This leads to a partial transformation of this phase into martensite. In the martensite, on the contrary, the plastic deformation remains low but the carbon content decreases. This is caused by a stress-induced precipitation of carbides. [source]

The impact of the pH value on skin integrity and cutaneous wound healing

S Schreml
Abstract The process of cutaneous wound healing comprises three overlapping major phases: inflammation, proliferation and tissue remodelling. However, while mechanisms are studied scientifically on the cellular and subcellular level, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning basic clinical parameters like wound pH or pO2. It could be proven that wound healing is affected by wound pH changes as they can lead to an inhibition of endogenous and therapeutically applied enzymes. Besides, the conformational structure of proteins and their functionality in wound healing is altered. Furthermore, the likelihood of bacterial colonization, which is a common problem in chronic wound pathogenesis, is affected by wound pH alterations. However, wound pH is rarely taken into account in current wound therapy strategies. A routinely performed monitoring of the wound pH and a subsequently adapted wound therapy would most possibly improve chronic wound therapy. [source]

Ca,Al-rich inclusions in Rumuruti (R) chondrites

Surya Snata ROUT
Many of these meteorites are breccias containing primitive type 3 fragments as well as fragments of higher petrologic type. Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur within all lithologies. Here, we present the results of our search for and analysis of Al-rich objects in Rumuruti chondrites. We studied 20 R chondrites and found 126 Ca,Al-rich objects (101 CAIs, 19 Al-rich chondrules, and 6 spinel-rich fragments). Based on mineralogical characterization and analysis by SEM and electron microprobe, the inclusions can be grouped into six different types: (1) simple concentric spinel-rich inclusions (42), (2) fassaite-rich spherules, (3) complex spinel-rich CAIs (53), (4) complex diopside-rich inclusions, (5) Al-rich chondrules, and (6) Al-rich (spinel-rich) fragments. The simple concentric and complex spinel-rich CAIs have abundant spinel and, based on the presence or absence of different major phases (fassaite, hibonite, Na,Al-(Cl)-rich alteration products), can be subdivided into several subgroups. Although there are some similarities between CAIs from R chondrites and inclusions from other chondrite groups with respect to their mineral assemblages, abundance, and size, the overall assemblage of CAIs is distinct to the R-chondrite group. Some Ca,Al-rich inclusions appear to be primitive (e.g., low FeO-contents in spinel, low abundances of Na,Al-(Cl)-rich alteration products; abundant perovskite), whereas others were highly altered by nebular and/or parent body processes (e.g., high concentrations of FeO and ZnO in spinel, ilmenite instead of perovskite, abundant Na,Al-(Cl)-rich alteration products). There is complete absence of grossite and melilite, which are common in CAIs from most other groups. CAIs from equilibrated R-chondrite lithologies have abundant secondary Ab-rich plagioclase (oligoclase) and differ from those in unequilibrated type 3 lithologies which have nepheline and sodalite instead. [source]

Strategic Frame Analysis: Providing the "evidence" for evidence-based communications

Tiffany Manuel
This article describes the five major phases of research associated with Strategic Frame Analysis, an approach to communications research and practice that advances new ways of pursuing social change of entrenched and complex social problems. This multimethod approach is characterized by multidisciplinary and iterative research techniques that give emphasis to empirical testing of potential frame effects. The logic behind this constellation of methods and the order in which they are taken up in the research cycle is discussed as an introduction to the articles that follow that review specific parts of the research trajectory. [source]

Complementing Mass Customization Toolkits with User Communities: How Peer Input Improves Customer Self-Design,

Nikolaus Franke
In this paper, the authors propose that the canonical customer,toolkit dyad in mass customization (MC) should be complemented with user communities. Many companies in various industries have begun to offer their customers the opportunity to design their own products online. The companies provide Web-based MC toolkits that allow customers who prefer individualized products to tailor items such as sneakers, personal computers (PCs), cars, kitchens, cereals, or skis to their specific preferences. Most existing MC toolkits are based on the underlying concept of an isolated, dyadic interaction process between the individual customer and the MC toolkit. Information from external sources is not provided. As a result, most academic research on MC toolkits has focused on this dyadic perspective. The main premise of this paper is that novice MC toolkit users in particular might largely benefit from information given by other customers. Pioneering research shows that customers in the computer gaming and digital music instruments industries are willing to support each other for the sake of efficient toolkit use (e.g., how certain toolkit functions work). Expanding on their work, the present paper provides evidence that peer assistance appears also extremely useful in the two other major phases of the customer's individual self-design process, namely, the development of an initial idea and the evaluation of a preliminary design solution. Two controlled experiments were conducted in which 191 subjects used an MC toolkit to design their own individual skis. The authors found that during the phase of developing an initial idea, having access to other users' designs as potential starting points stimulates the integration of existing solution chunks into the problem-solving process, which indicates more systematic problem-solving behavior. Peer customer input also turned out to have positive effects on the evaluation of preliminary design solutions. Providing other customers' opinions on interim design solutions stimulated favorable problem-solving behavior, namely, the integration of external feedback. The use of these two problem-solving heuristics in turn leads to an improved process outcome,that is, self-designed products that meet the preferences of the customers more effectively (measured in terms of perceived preference fit, purchase intention, and willingness to pay). These findings have important theoretical and managerial implications. [source]

Carbonate sedimentation in a starved pull-apart basin, Middle to Late Devonian, southern Guilin, South China

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2001
D. Chen
ABSTRACT Geological mapping and sedimentological investigations in the Guilin region, South China, have revealed a spindle- to rhomb-shaped basin filled with Devonian shallow- to deep-water carbonates. This Yangshuo Basin is interpreted as a pull-apart basin created through secondary, synthetic strike-slip faulting induced by major NNE,SSW-trending, sinistral strike-slip fault zones. These fault zones were initially reactivated along intracontinental basement faults in the course of northward migration of the South China continent. The nearly N,S-trending margins of the Yangshuo Basin, approximately coinciding with the strike of regional fault zones, were related to the master strike-slip faults; the NW,SE-trending margins were related to parallel, oblique-slip extensional faults. Nine depositional sequences recognized in Givetian through Frasnian strata can be grouped into three sequence sets (Sequences 1,2, 3,5 and 6,9), reflecting three major phases of basin evolution. During basin nucleation, most basin margins were dominated by stromatoporoid biostromes and bioherms, upon a low-gradient shelf. Only at the steep, fault-controlled, eastern margin were thick stromatoporoid reefs developed. The subsequent progressive offset and pull-apart of the master strike-slip faults during the late Givetian intensified the differential subsidence and produced a spindle-shaped basin. The accelerated subsidence of the basin centre led to sediment starvation, reduced current circulation and increased environmental stress, leading to the extensive development of microbial buildups on platform margins and laminites in the basin centre. Stromatoporoid reefs only survived along the windward, eastern margin for a short time. The architectures of the basin margins varied from aggradation (or slightly backstepping) in windward positions (eastern and northern margins) to moderate progradation in leeward positions. A relay ramp was present in the north-west corner between the northern oblique fault zone and the proximal part of the western master fault. In the latest Givetian (corresponding to the top of Sequence 5), a sudden subsidence of the basin induced by further offset of the strike-slip faults was accompanied by the rapid uplift of surrounding carbonate platforms, causing considerable platform-margin collapse, slope erosion, basin deepening and the demise of the microbialites. Afterwards, stromatoporoid reefs were only locally restored on topographic highs along the windward margin. However, a subsequent, more intense basin subsidence in the early Frasnian (top of Sequence 6), which was accompanied by a further sharp uplift of platforms, caused more profound slope erosion and platform backstepping. Poor circulation and oxygen-depleted waters in the now much deeper basin centre led to the deposition of chert, with silica supplied by hydrothermal fluids through deep-seated faults. Two ,subdeeps' were diagonally arranged in the distal parts of the master faults, and the relay ramp was destroyed. At this time, all basin margins except the western one evolved into erosional types with gullies through which granular platform sediments were transported by gravity flows to the basin. This situation persisted into the latest Frasnian. This case history shows that the carbonate platform architecture and evolution in a pull-apart basin were not only strongly controlled by the tectonic activity, but also influenced by the oceanographic setting (i.e. windward vs. leeward) and environmental factors. [source]