Major Parameter (major + parameter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Runoff generation and routing on artificial slopes in a Mediterranean,continental environment: the Teruel coalfield, Spain

José-Manuel Nicolau
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms of runoff generation and routing and their controlling factors at the hillslope scale, on artificial slopes derived from surface coal mining reclamation in a Mediterranean,continental area. Rainfall and runoff at interrill and microcatchment scales were recorded for a year on two slopes with different substrata: topsoil cover and overburden cover. Runoff coefficient and runoff routing from interrill areas to microcatchment outlets were higher in the overburden substratum than in topsoil, and greater in the most developed rill network. Rainfall volume is the major parameter responsible for runoff response on overburden, suggesting that this substratum is very impermeable,at least during the main rainfall periods of the year (late spring and autumn) when the soil surface is sealed. In such conditions, most rainfall input is converted into runoff, regardless of its intensity. Results from artificial rainfall experiments, conducted 3 and 7 years after seeding, confirm the low infiltration capacity of overburden when sealed. The hydrological response shows great seasonal variability on the overburden slope in accordance with soil surface changes over the year. Rainfall volume and intensities (I30, I60) explain runoff at the interrill scale on the topsoil slope, where rainfall experiments demonstrated a typical Hortonian infiltration curve. However, no correlation was found at the microcatchment level, probably because of the loss of functionality of the only rill as ecological succession proceeded. The runoff generation mechanism on the topsoil slope is more homogeneous throughout the year. Runoff connectivity, defined as the ratio between runoff rates recorded at the rill network scale and those recorded at the interrill area scale in every rainfall event, was also greater on the rilled overburden slope, and in the most developed rill network. The dense rill networks of the overburden slope guarantee very effective runoff drainage, regardless of rainfall magnitude. Rills drain overland flow from interrill-sealed areas, reducing the opportunity of reinfiltration in areas not affected by siltation. Runoff generation and routing on topsoil slopes are controlled by grass cover and soil moisture content, whereas on overburden slopes rill network density and soil moisture content are the main controlling factors. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of the water/cement ratio on concrete behavior under extreme loading

Xuan Hong Vu
Abstract This study focuses on identifying concrete behavior under severe triaxial loadings (near field detonation or ballistic impacts). In order to reproduce high stress levels with well-controlled loading paths, static tests have been carried out on concrete samples by mean of a very high-capacity triaxial press (stress levels on the order of 1,GPa). It is a longstanding fact that the water/cement ratio (W/C), upon entering the concrete composition, is a major parameter affecting the porosity and strength of the cement matrix of hardened concrete. The objective of this article is to quantify the effect of this ratio on concrete behavior under conditions of high confinement. From the composition of a reference ,ordinary' concrete (i.e. W/C=0.6), two other concretes have been produced with W/C ratios equal to 0.4 and 0.8, respectively. This article presents experimental results and their analysis regarding the effect of water/cement ratio (W/C) on concrete behavior under high confinement. It shows that when placed under high confinement, concrete behaves like a granular stacking composed of concrete without any influence from the level of cement matrix strength. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Influence of advanced injection timing on the performance and emissions of CI engine fueled with ethanol-blended diesel fuel

Cenk Sayin
Abstract Ethanol has been considered as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. On the other hand, injection timing is a major parameter that sensitively affects the engine performance and emissions. Therefore, in this study, the influence of advanced injection timing on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated when using ethanol-blended diesel fuel from 0 to 15% with an increment of 5%. The original injection timing of the engine is 27° crank angle (CA) before top dead center (BTDC). The tests were conducted at three different injection timings (27, 30 and 33° CA BTDC) for 30 Nm constant load at 1800 rpm. The experimental results showed that brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC), brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), NOx and CO2 emissions increased as brake-thermal efficiency (BTE), smoke, CO and HC emissions decreased with increasing amount of ethanol in the fuel mixture. Comparing the results with those of original injection timing, NOx emissions increased and smoke, HC and CO emissions decreased for all test fuels at the advanced injection timings. For BSEC, BSFC and BTE, advanced injection timings gave negative results for all test conditions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Aircraft observations of cloud droplet number concentration: Implications for climate studies

I. Gultepe
Abstract Droplet number concentration (Nd) is a major parameter affecting cloud physical processes and cloud optical characteristics. In most climate models, Nd is usually assumed to be constant or a function of the droplet and aerosol number concentration (Na). Three types of cloud systems over Canada, namely Arctic clouds, maritime boundary-layer clouds, and winter storms, were studied to obtain values of Nd as a function of temperature (T). The probability density function of Nd was also calculated to show the variability of this parameter. The results show that Nd reaches a maximum at about 10 °C (200 cm,3) and then decreases gradually to a minimum (,1,3 cm,3) at about ,35°C. A comparison of relationships between Nd and Na indicates that estimates of Nd from Na can have an uncertainty of about 30,50 cm,3, resulting in up to a 42% uncertainty in cloud short-wave radiative forcing. This study concludes that the typical fixed values of Nd, which are ,100 cm,3 and ,200 cm,3 for maritime and continental clouds, respectively, and the present relationships of Nd to Na, could result in a large uncertainty in the heat and moisture budgets of the earth's atmosphere. It is suggested that the use of relationships between Nd and T can improve climate simulations. © Crown copyright, 2004. Royal Meteorological Society [source]

3422: Sources of straylight in the human eye

Purpose Besides refractive aberrations, ocular light scattering is a major parameter affecting image quality on the retina in healthy eyes. Several pathologies in the anterior segment such as corneal scarring and cataract cause significant increase of straylight in the eye. In this study, we link morphologic changes addressed to corneal scarring to a scattering function. Methods Excised rabbit corneas with different grades of scarring following photorefractive keratectomy were optically evaluated for their forward light scattering distribution and consecutively prepared for histology. An absolute parameter for forward scattering was calculated based on the readings in the optical device. We compared this parameter to the relative thickness of the scar tissue observed in the histological data. Results The histological data showed a wide variation of thickness a scar tissue layer in the anterior stroma. The scattering ratio measured using the optical device measuring forward light scattering correlated strongly with the relative thickness of the scar tissue layer with (0.63, Pearson's coefficient), as well as a standard haze exam (measuring backscattered light) (0.51, Pearson's coefficient). The light scattering distribution is narrowly forward peaked (FWHM 30 arcmin), suggesting this light scattering is caused by large particles such as myofibroblasts, oedema or irregular scar tissue in the ablated zone. Conclusion Corneal light scattering associated with the increased amount of haze after excimer laser ablation has a narrowly forward distribution that can be attributed to the subepithelial structures observed in treated corneas. This is in contrast to the origin of scatterers linked to cataract, as small protein aggregates and multilamellar bodies that are scattering over wider angles. [source]

Contact Angle Analysis During the Electro-oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers Formed by n -Octadecyltrichlorosilane

Nicole Herzer
Abstract The electrochemical oxidation process of self-assembled monolayers formed by n -octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) molecules on silicon wafers has been studied in a droplet of water by means of in situ water contact angle measurements. The application of different bias voltages between the substrate and a counter electrode placed into the droplet resulted in changes of the chemical nature of the monolayer, which yielded a significant alteration of the surfaces properties. Due to the changes of the wetting properties of the monolayer during the electro-oxidation process a change in the contact angles of the water droplet is concomitantly observed. This allows the in situ monitoring of the electro-oxidation process for large modified areas of several millimeters in diameter. The chosen approach represents an easy way to screen the major parameters that influence the oxidation process. Afterwards, the oxidized regions are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations to obtain more information about the electro-oxidation process. The observations are correlated to experimental results obtained for oxidations performed on a smaller dimension range in the water meniscus of a conductive, biased AFM tip. A good correlation of the results in the different dimension ranges could be found. [source]

Energy efficiency improvement strategies for a diesel engine in low-temperature combustion

Ming Zheng
Abstract The lowered combustion temperature in diesel engines is capable of reducing nitrogen oxides and soot simultaneously, which can be implemented by the heavy use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) type of combustion. However, the fuel efficiency of the low-temperature combustion (LTC) cycles is commonly compromised by the high levels of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. More seriously, the scheduling of fuel delivery in HCCI engines has lesser leverage on the exact timing of auto-ignition that may even occur before the compression stroke is completed, which may cause excessive efficiency reduction and combustion roughness. New LTC control strategies have been explored experimentally to achieve ultralow emissions under independently controlled EGR, intake boost, exhaust backpressure, and multi-event fuel-injection events. Empirical comparisons have been made between the fuel efficiencies of LTC and conventional diesel cycles. Preliminary adaptive control strategies based on cylinder pressure characteristics have been implemented to enable and stabilize the LTC when heavy EGR is applied. The impact of heat-release phasing, duration, shaping, and splitting on the thermal efficiency has also been analyzed with engine cycle simulations. This research intends to identify the major parameters that affect diesel LTC engine thermal efficiency. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Theoretical and experimental analysis of plastic response of isotropic circular plates subjected to underwater explosion loading

J. Z. Ashani
Abstract Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion (UndEx) loading has been always an interesting field of study for ship designers and metal forming specialists. Understanding the deformation and rupture mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in successful designing of a reliable structure under this kind of loading. In this paper, first the major parameters of the UndEx phenomenon (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, dimensionless damage parameter ,, etc.) are discussed and determined by means of available experimental relations mostly offered by R. Cole. After that, the maximum deflection of a fully clamped circular plate has been calculated using a theoretical procedure assuming two different conditions: (1) neglecting the effect of strain rate, (2) considering the strain rate sensitivity of the material. Some experiments have been conducted on 5010 aluminum circular plates, using C4 as explosive. In order to simulate reality, a fixture was designed so that the plates are loaded in air-backed condition. Plates were fixed on top of the fixture, so the fully clamped condition which was assumed as the boundary condition was achieved. The test specimens were measured, not only their maximum deflection but also their thickness at different radii were determined. The results are compared to experimental-based predictions offered by Nurick and Rajendran who has conducted similar experiments. The results show reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions, especially when strain rate effects are considered. In addition, two new material constants (D, q) for this special aluminum alloy are introduced. Theoretische und experimentelle Analyse der plastischen Umformung isotroper kreisförmiger Platten bei Unterwasser-Explosionsbelastung Die Analyse der dynamischen Reaktion einer Struktur bei einer Explosionsbelastung unter dem Wasser ist für die Konstrukteure von Schiffen und Umformspezialisten eine interessante Forschungsaufgabe. Das Verständnis der Umformung und der Bruchmechanismen einfacher Strukturen spielt eine wichtige Rolle im erfolgreichen Konstruieren einer festen Struktur gegen diese Belastungsart. In diesem Beitrag werden erstens die Hauptparameter der Explosionserscheinung unter Wasser (maximaler Druck, Impulse per Flächeneinheit, dimensionsloser zerstörender Parameter usw.) dargestellt und zweitens durch die vorhandenen Methoden, die überwiegend von R. Cole vorliegen, berechnet. Danach ist die maximale Durchbiegung einer ganz gespannten kreisförmigen Platte durch eine analytische Methode in zwei Formen bestimmt worden: (1) Vernachlässigung der Dehnungsgeschwindigkeit, (2) Berücksichtigung der Dehnungsgeschwindigkeitsempfindlichkeit des Werkstoffes. Einige Untersuchungen wurden an kreisförmigen Platten aus Aluminium 5010 mittels Sprengstoff C4 durchgeführt. Zur Praxissimulation wurde die Spannvorrichtung so konstruiert, so dass die Platten Luft-gepuffert belastet wurden. Die Platten wurden oben auf der Spannvorrichtung vollständig eingespannt, um Grenzbedingungen zu erhalten. Bei den Proben wurde nicht nur die maximale Durchbiegung sondern auch die Dicke in verschiedenen Radien ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit den experimentellen Abschätzungen von Nurick und Rajendran, die ähnliche Versuche durchgeführt haben, verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine gute Übereinstimmung mit den theoretischen Abschätzungen, insbesondere bei Betrachtung der Dehngeschwindigkeit. Zusätzlich wurden für diese spezielle Aluminiumlegierung zwei neue Materialkonstanten (D, q) eingeführt. [source]

Effective mass of InN estimated by Raman scattering

Jung Gon Kim
Abstract We have estimated the longitudinal effective mass (m,) of electron in n-type InN films by Raman scattering. The samples were grown by MOVPE (metal organic vapor phase epitaxy) with free carrier concentration of n =6.7×1018 -9.9×1018 cm -3 according to Hall measurement. A weak Raman signal observed at ,430 cm -1 at room temperature was sharpened and shifted to higher frequency toward the A1(TO)-phonon mode at 447 cm -1 with increasing n. This mode was assigned to the lower branch (L - ) of the longitudinal-optic-phonon-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode. The line shape was carefully analyzed by a semi-classical line-shape fitting analysis assuming deformation potential and electro-optic coupling mechanisms for the light scattering process. A line-shape fitting analysis was conducted by adjusting three major parameters; electron density, effective mass and plasmon damping rate. The analysis well reproduced values of electron density and mobility deduced by Hall measurement. Electron effective mass of m,*/m0 = 0.05 (±0.01) was also obtained as the best-fit parameter. The result agrees well with previous data obtained by other optical methods. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]