Major Orthopaedic Surgery (major + orthopaedic_surgery)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cost minimization analysis to compare activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) and recombinant factor VIIa for haemophilia patients with inhibitors undergoing major orthopaedic surgeries

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2009
Summary., Benefits of bypassing agents for maintaining haemostasis in major surgeries have been described in the literature; however, their use has a substantial economic impact. This study assessed the cost of FEIBA, an activated prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) when used in inhibitor patients undergoing major surgeries. After reviewing published literature, a cost minimization model was developed describing dosing regimens recommended and used during major surgeries for FEIBA (pre-operative: 75,100 U kg,1; postoperative: 75,100 U kg,1 q 8,12 h days 1,5 and 75,100 U kg,1 q 12 h days 6,14) and rFVIIa (pre-operative: 90 ,g kg,1; intra-operative: 90 ,g kg,1 q 2 h; postoperative: 90 ,g kg,1 q 2,4 h days 1,5 and 90 ,g kg,1 q 6 h days 6,14). Using a 75 kg patient and US prices, total drug cost was calculated for three scenarios: use of FEIBA or rFVIIa alone and a third case combining rFVIIa pre- and intra-operative and FEIBA throughout a 14-day postoperative period. Dosage amounts of modelled bypassing agents were similar to cases in the literature. Using FEIBA instead of rFVIIa would decrease total drug cost by >50% and save over $400 000 per surgery. Sequential use of both bypassing agents would increase total drug cost by 9% when compared with FEIBA alone, but would remain >40% lower than rFVIIa alone. Univariate sensitivity analyses confirmed robustness of results. As large amounts of bypassing agents are necessary for patients with inhibitors to undergo major surgeries, cost is a major consideration. Use of FEIBA alone or in combination with rFVIIa has emerged as a cost-saving approach. [source]

Current perspectives on the treatment of venous thromboembolism: need for effective, safe and convenient new antithrombotic drugs

D.F. O'Shaughnessy
Summary Treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has evolved significantly over the last decade. Low-molecular-weight heparins have largely replaced unfractionated heparin in the treatment of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) but the majority of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) continue to be treated with unfractionated heparin. Fondaparinux is the first synthetic selective inhibitor of factor Xa. It has recently been proved to be more effective than, and as safe as, a low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of VTE after major orthopaedic surgery. The two large randomised MATISSE trials demonstrated that fondaparinux was at least as effective and as safe as previous reference heparin therapies in the treatment of VTE. Fondaparinux should further simplify the treatment of this frequent disease since a single once-daily fixed dosage regimen may effectively and safely treat both DVT and PE, an important point especially considering the frequent though clinically silent concomitance of these two thrombotic events. [source]

Postoperative serum attenuates LPS-induced release of TNF-, in orthopaedic surgery

Olav Reikerås
Abstract Studies with ex vivo stimulation of whole blood samples from injured patients have revealed a diminished production capacity for a broad range of secretory products, including inflammatory cytokines. Recent interest has focused on the release of mediators in serum that depress the cell-mediated immune response following trauma. The involvement of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been assumed because it is a potent endogenous immunosuppressor. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibitory substances circulating in the patient's serum after a major musculoskeletal trauma might impair leukocyte function by evaluating the effect of such serum on cytokine release in a whole blood model. Six females and three males undergoing elective total hip replacement were included in the study. Ex vivo LPS-induced TNF-, and IL-10 were measured in whole blood sampled preoperatively and added serum taken before, at the end of operation, and at postoperative days 1 and 6 with saline as negative control. LPS induced significant releases of TNF-, and IL-10 in whole blood. Addition of preoperative, postoperative, and day-1 postoperative serum did not alter the LPS-induced release of TNF-, as compared to saline. In the presence of serum from postoperative day 6, however, the expression of TNF-, was significantly reduced as compared to saline and preoperative serum (p,=,0.021 and 0.008, respectively). Neither of the serum samples altered the release of IL-10. PGE2 was significantly (p,=,0.008) increased in serum at postoperative day 6 as compared to preoperative levels. In conclusion, these data show that at day 6 after major orthopaedic surgery, the patient serum contained activity that inhibited ex vivo LPS-induced TNF-, release. The potent TNF-, inhibitory activity found at day 6 after injury correlated with increased levels of PGE2 and indicates cell-mediated hyporesponsiveness to a second stimulus. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25:1395,1400, 2007 [source]

Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis after major orthopaedic surgery: the VENUS study

Summary.,Background:,Venography is currently used to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in dose-finding and confirmatory trials of new antithrombotic agents. Centrally adjudicated, complete compression ultrasound (CCUS) could be a non-invasive alternative to venography. Objectives:,A substudy of two, similarly designed, phase IIb trials of a novel, oral anticoagulant for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after elective hip or knee arthroplasty was undertaken to validate CCUS against venography. Patients/Methods:,Patients received study drugs until mandatory, bilateral venography was performed 7 ± 2 days after surgery. CCUS was performed within 24 h after venography by sonographers blinded to the venography result. Sonographers were trained and certified for the standardized examination and documentation procedure. Venograms and sonograms were adjudicated centrally at different sites by two independent readers; discrepancies between readers were resolved by consensus. Results:,A total of 1104 matching pairs of evaluable venograms and sonograms were obtained from the participants of the two trials (n = 1435): 19% of venograms and 20% of sonograms were not evaluable. The observed frequency of any DVT was 18.9% with venography and 11.5% with CCUS. Sensitivity of CCUS compared with venography was 31.1% for any DVT (95% confidence interval 23.4, 38.9), 21.0% (2.7, 39.4) for proximal DVT, and 30.8% (23.1, 38.6) for distal DVT. The figures for specificity were 93.0% (91.0, 95.1), 98.7% (98.0, 99.5), and 93.3% (91.5, 95.3), respectively. Conclusions:,Based on these results, centrally adjudicated CCUS will be unable to replace venography for DVT screening early after major orthopaedic surgery in studies evaluating anticoagulant drugs. [source]

A pilot study of the effect of the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator on urinary retention after knee replacement surgery

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2003
A. Butwick
Summary Postoperative urinary retention remains an important problem after major orthopaedic surgery and can increase morbidity. External vibration applied to the suprapubic region has improved bladder emptying and urinary symptoms in patients with neurogenic bladders. Forty-three patients undergoing elective major knee surgery were randomly assigned to receive either a Queen's Square bladder stimulator or placebo device for 24 h postoperatively. No statistically significant differences in rates of urinary retention could be demonstrated in the bladder stimulator group compared to the placebo group (41% and 33%, respectively). There were no differences between the two groups when analysed for prostatic symptoms, type and effectiveness of analgesia and fluid balance. We conclude that, while the Queen's Square external bladder stimulator may be effective in treating chronic urinary retention associated with a neurogenic bladder, it does not appear to be effective in preventing postoperative urinary retention. [source]

The effect of dexamethasone upon patient-controlled analgesia-related nausea and vomiting

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 7 2002
Y. Lee
Summary Ninety female patients were enrolled in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to compare the anti-emetic effect of intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg with saline control in preventing patient-controlled analgesia-related nausea and vomiting following major orthopaedic surgery. The prophylactic administration of dexamethasone 8 mg significantly reduced the overall incidence of patient-controlled analgesia-related nausea and vomiting (p < 0.001) and the need for rescue anti-emetics (p < 0.01). Furthermore, patients who received dexamethasone showed a higher incidence of complete responses (no vomiting or need for rescue anti-emetic for a 24-h postoperative period) than those who received saline (p < 0.05). We conclude that dexamethasone 8 mg may be valuable for preventing patient-controlled analgesia-related nausea and vomiting in women undergoing major orthopaedic surgery. [source]

Letter 2: meta-analysis of trials comparing ximelagatran with low molecular weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopaedic surgery (Br J Surg 2005; 92: 1335-1344)

M. J. D. Tangelder
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Letter 3: Meta-analysis of trials comparing ximelagatran with low molecular weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after major orthopaedic surgery (Br J Surg 2005; 92: 1335-1344)

G. Agnelli
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction following major orthopaedic surgery

M. G. A. Norwood
Abstract Objective, Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) has been linked with multiple aetiologies including orthopaedic surgery. However, the actual incidence and natural progression are not well described in these patients. We aim to assess the incidence of ACPO in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic procedures, and to examine for potential exacerbating factors. Patients and methods, All patients from the orthopaedic directorate that had abdominal imaging in the five years from August 1998 to August 2003 were identified from radiology archives. A manual search of the patients' notes was conducted with data recorded on the patients' history, operative details and their postoperative course including their haematological and biochemical results. Details regarding their ACPO were documented with respect to the onset of symptoms, how the diagnosis was achieved, what treatment was instigated and how the condition progressed. A control group of age and sex matched patients was included for comparison. Results, Thirty-five patients with ACPO were identified. The operations included 21 hip replacements, 10 knee replacements and 4 spinal operations. The incidence of ACPO was 1.3%, 0.65% and 1.19%, respectively. In comparison to control patients, patients with ACPO had a lower postoperative serum sodium (P = 0.001), a higher serum urea (P = 0.021) and remained in hospital longer (P < 0.001). Conclusion, ACPO is uncommon in orthopaedic patients, however, its occurrence results in prolonged hospital stay. Attention to patients' postoperative fluid balance and biochemical status may reduce the incidence. [source]