Major Nutrients (major + nutrient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nutritional changes among premenopausal women undertaking a soya based dietary intervention study in Hawaii

S. Acharya
Abstract Background We conducted a 2-year nutritional intervention among premenopausal women. The goal was to incorporate two daily servings of soya into the regular diet. This report describes the dietary modifications and assesses their nutritional adequacy with regard to major nutrients. Methods In this analysis of 100 intervention and 106 control subjects, women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline; throughout the study, they participated in at least three unannounced 24-h recalls. Results At randomization, both groups were similar in age and body weight, reported low soya intake, and did not differ by intake of major nutrients and foods. According to the 24-h recalls, women in the intervention group consumed nearly two servings of soya per day, while the control women remained at 0.2 servings. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group consumed fewer dairy products, primarily milk, but also less meat, nuts and seeds. As a result of the dietary modification, the intervention women consumed less-saturated fat and cholesterol and more protein, dietary fibre, calcium and vitamins than the control group. Conclusion These results suggest that women in the intervention group improved the overall quality of their diet by adding two servings of soya per day. [source]

Investigations on the digestibility and metabolizability of the major nutrients and energy of maize leaves and barnyard grass in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Abstract In the uplands of northern Vietnam, culture of grass carp contributes significantly to income and household food security of Black Thai farmers. Maize is one of the most important upland crops and barnyard grass is the most important weed in the paddy rice fields. Thus, these are frequently used by small-scale fish farmers as fish feed. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted simultaneously in a recirculation and in a respirometric system to determine the digestibility and metabolizability of the nutrients of maize leaves and barnyard grass, to assess their crude protein, lipid and energy conversion and to estimate the energy allocation in grass carp. The following diets were used: diet ,A' (reference diet) containing 39% crude protein with 19.8 MJ kg,1 gross energy; diets ,B', ,C' and ,D', which contained the same amount of the reference diet as the control diet, supplemented with a known amount of dried barnyard grass, dried maize leaves or fresh maize leaves, respectively. Five fish were assigned to each treatment in each experimental unit. Reference and test diets were fed to fish and faecal samples were collected and the oxygen consumption was measured in order to set up an energy budget of the fish over the whole experimental period. The weekly development of the body weight was recorded. The body weight gain of the fish fed diet D was significantly higher than that of the group fed diet A, which also in turn was significantly higher than that of fish fed diet B or C. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and gross energy for the different experimental diets in fish kept in the aquaria were, for diets A, B, C and D respectively, 94.1%, 60.9%, 70.5% and 84.7% for protein, 91.3%, 60.7%, 76.8% and 71.8% for lipid; 95.9%, 44.5%, 60.6% and 69.1% for gross energy. The partial ADC of plant leaf ingredients were determined and barnyard grass and dried maize leaves were found to be not only poorly digestible but having negative impact on the digestibility of the reference diet, while fresh maize leaves were well digested. The results of the present study indicated that fresh maize leaves have a good potential to be used as supplement in diets for grass carp. [source]

Modeling and optimization of hairy root growth in fed-batch process

Francis Mairet
Abstract This article proposes a feeding strategy based on a kinetic model to enhance hairy roots growth. A new approach for modeling hairy root growth is used, considering that there is no nutrient limitation thanks to an appropriate feeding, and the intracellular pools are supposed to be always saturated. Thus, the model describes the specific growth rate from extracellular concentration of the major nutrients and nutrient uptakes depend on biomass growth. An optimized feeding strategy was determined thanks to the model to maintain the major nutrient levels at their optimum assuming optimal initial concentrations. The optimal feed rate is computed in open loop using kinetic model prediction or in closed loop using conductivity measurements to estimate biomass growth. Datura innoxia was chosen as the model culture system. Shake flask cultures were used to calibrate the model. Finally, cultures in bioreactor were performed to validate the model and the control laws. © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

Bedside analysis of human milk for adjustable nutrition strategy

Aiko Menjo
Abstract Aim: Mother's milk is optimum for preterm infants, but human milk fortifier is required at times, because some nutrients are sometimes insufficient for infant growth. It is important to measure the nutrients in breast milk at bedside so that the amount of nutrients that need to be supplemented can be determined. A human milk analyser (HMA, Miris®) is currently available. We examined if the macronutrient values measured by human milk analyser are comparable with those measured by conventional methods. We also sought to discover whether we could dilute the milk sample used for the human milk analyser measurement if the amount of milk available for testing was insufficient. Subjects and Methods: First, the results of protein, fat and lactose content in breast milk samples obtained using the human milk analyser and conventional methods were compared. Second, we measured diluted samples and compared the values with nondiluted samples. Results: When comparing the human milk analyser and conventional methods, all three nutrients exhibited a significantly positive correlation (p < 0.001); lactose content was reliable on the condition that it is 6,7 g/dL. The lactose content measured by the HPLC method was obtained by 3.05 × human milk analyser value , 13.4. When comparing diluted and nondiluted samples, fat and protein had expected values after dilution whereas lactose did not. Conclusion: The human milk analyser can inform us about the amount of major nutrients in breast milk: fat, protein and lactose. However, when human milk is diluted, the lactose content measured by the human milk analyser is overestimated. [source]

Fetal nutrition: A review

Irene Cetin
Abstract Knowledge of fetal nutrient supply has greatly increased in the last decade due to the availability of fetal blood samples obtained under relatively steady-state conditions. These studies, together with studies utilizing stable isotope methodologies, have clarified some aspects of the supply of the major nutrients for the fetus such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. At the same time, the relevance of intrauterine growth has been recognized not only for the well-being of the neonate and child, but also for later health in adulthood. The major determinants of fetal nutrient availability are maternal nutrition and metabolism together with placental function and metabolism. The regulation of the rate of intrauterine growth is the result of complex interactions between genetic inheritance, endocrine environment and availability of nutrients to the fetus. [source]