Major Muscle (major + muscle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Major Muscle

  • pectoralis major muscle
  • psoas major muscle

  • Selected Abstracts

    Fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle with regard to the level of its origin

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 6 2009
    Juraj Arbanas
    Abstract The aim of our study was to explore the fibre type composition of the human psoas major muscle at different levels of its origin, from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra, and to compare the muscle fibre size and distribution of different fibre types between levels with respect to its complex postural and dynamic function. Muscle samples were collected from 15 young males (younger than 35 years). Serial transverse sections (5 ,m) of the samples were cut by cryomicrotome. Type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres were typed using myosin heavy chain identification. The serial sections were analysed using a light microscope with a magnitude of 100×. The differences between measurements were evaluated using a repeated-measures anova and Scheffé test for post-hoc analysis. Our study showed that the human psoas major muscle was composed of type I, IIA and IIX muscle fibres. It had a predominance of type IIA muscle fibres, whereas type I muscle fibres had the largest cross-sectional area. Type IIX muscle fibres were present as a far smaller percentage and had the smallest cross-sectional area. Moreover, the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle was different between levels of its origin starting from the first lumbar to the fourth lumbar vertebra. We conclude that the fibre type composition of the psoas major muscle indicated its dynamic and postural functions, which supports the fact that it is the main flexor of the hip joint (dynamic function) and stabilizer of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac and hip joints (postural function). The cranial part of the psoas major muscle has a primarily postural role, whereas the caudal part of the muscle has a dynamic role. [source]

    Magnetization transfer ratio as a predictor of malignancy in breast lesions: Preliminary results

    Ruth Helena Morais Bonini
    Abstract MRI is an important tool for investigating breast cancer. Although recognized as the method of choice for screening high-risk patients, and for other indications the role of MRI for lesion characterization remains controversial. Recently some authors have advocated the use of morphologic and postcontrast features for this purpose. Quantitative breast MRI techniques have not been applied extensively in breast diseases. Magnetization transfer (MT) is a quantitative MR technique commonly used to investigate neurological diseases. In breast diseases the use of MT has been limited to improving visualization of areas of enhancement in postcontrast images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of MT in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. Fifty-two lesions, BIRADS 4 and 5, from 49 patients, were prospectively evaluated using the MT ratio (MTR). Patients were divided into two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The MTR of fat, pectoralis major muscle, fibroglandular tissue, and breast lesions were calculated. A statistically significant difference was found between MTR from benign and malignant lesions (P < 0.001). Preliminary results suggest that MT can be used to evaluate breast lesions. Further studies are necessary to better define the utility and applicability of this technique. Magn Reson Med 59:1030,1034, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Cosmetic Approach for Pectoral Pacemaker Implantation in Young Girls

    Pectoral placement of pacemaker generators, combined with use of a redundant intravascular lead portion, reduces the need for endocardial lead advancement during growth in children. While the use of small generators and submuscular pockets has contributed to cosmetic acceptability, the conventional subclavicular incision may occasionally form a keloid scar that is unacceptable in young girls. A modified implantation technique was used in five girls (age 2.6,13.3 years) during implantation of VDD (n = 2), VVIR (n = 2), and DDDR (n = 1) pacemakers. A 5-cm incision was made in the axilla along the line of the pec-toralis major and dissection was continued below the muscle to create a pocket for the generator. Subclavian vein puncture was performed from the axillary incision and beneath the pectoralis major muscle using standard or extra long needles with a needle guard. Peel away sheaths were used for lead positioning. The generator was placed in the submuscular pocket and the wound closed with absorbable sutures. At follow-up, pacemaker function was excellent and neither the scars nor pacemakers were visible from the front. In conclusion, the axillary incision with direct subclavian vein puncture from below the pectoralis major muscle offers the advantages of pectoral pacemaker implantation through a single cosmetic incision. [source]

    Maximizing Breast Projection with Combined Free Nipple Graft Reduction Mammaplasty and Back-folded Dermaglandular Inferior Pedicle

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 3 2007
    Metin Gorgu MD
    Abstract:, Standard technique for free nipple reduction mammoplasty was described by Thorek in 1922 (1). In contrast to its effectiveness, late postoperative results included insufficient projection of the breast and the nipple,areola region. We describe a modification of this well recognized technique in order to increase central mound projection and improve nipple,areola projection by suturing the dermaglandular flap to the pectoralis major muscle by back-folding the pedicle. Twenty macromastia patients were subjected to free-nipple-graft reduction mammoplasty in combination with inferior pedicled dermaglandular reduction mammaplasty of a total of 40 breasts with this technique between years 2000 and 2004. Preoperative planning for inferior pedicled dermaglandular flap was made using the "Wise" pattern for large breasts. The variation of the technique comes from using the back-folded deepithelialized inferior pedicled dermaglandular flap for increasing the breast mound projection by fixating the demaglandular flap with absorbable sutures to the underlying pectoralis major muscle fascia and the costal cartilage pericondrium. By applying this technique, increased projection during the early preoperative and late postoperative periods are achieved, compared with patients who only underwent free-nipple- graft reduction mammoplasty. [source]

    Analysis of Specific Absorption Rate and Current Density in Biological Tissues Surrounding Energy Transmission Transformer for an Artificial Heart: Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based Human Body Model

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 1 2010
    Naoya Higaki
    Abstract The transcutaneous energy transmission system used for artificial hearts is a transmission system that uses electromagnetic induction. Use of the TETS improves quality of life and reduces the risk of infection caused by percutaneous connections. This article reports the changes in the electromagnetic effects of TETS that influence a human body when the locations of the air-core coils of the transcutaneous transformer are changed. The specific absorption rate and current density in a model consisting of a human trunk that included 24 different organs are analyzed using an electromagnetic simulator. The air-core coils are located on the pectoralis major muscle near the collarbone in model 1, whereas they are located on the axillary region of the serratus anterior musle, which overlies the rib in model 2. The maximum current densities in models 1 and 2 are 5.2 A/m2 and 6.1 A/m2, respectively. The current density observed in model 2 slightly exceeds the limiting value prescribed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). When the volumes of biological tissues whose current densities exceed the limiting value of current density for general public exposure are compared, the volume in model 2 (156.1 cm3) is found to be larger than that in model 1 (93.7 cm3). Hence, it is speculated that the presence of the ribs caused an increase in the current density. Therefore, it is concluded that model 1 satisfies the ICNIRP standards. [source]

    Granulomatous mycosis fungoides with extensive chest wall involvement

    Jamie Von Nida
    SUMMARY A 40-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of a mass overlying her right pectoralis major muscle. Histopathology of the lesion revealed a florid granulomatous infiltrate including an atypical lymphocytic component with marked epidermotropism consistent with granulomatous mycosis fungoides. Staging investigations demonstrated the tumour to be localized to the right chest. Consequently, the patient was treated with radiotherapy (50 Gy) to the lesion with good clinical effect. However, she soon developed a clinically palpable lesion on the left chest outside the radiotherapy field. Positron emission tomography scanning demonstrated an extensive left-sided chest wall tumour and also residual tumour on the right. This left-sided lesion failed to respond to systemic chemotherapy. Further radiotherapy (50 Gy) has recently been administered to the left chest lesion; the response is being monitored. While granulomatous inflammation has been previously described in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, it is rare and is often associated with a delay in the diagnosis and difficulty with clinical staging. The clinical presentation can be extremely variable and consequently, diagnosis rests with histological features, immunohistochemical studies and gene rearrangement analysis. [source]

    The iliolumbar artery,Anatomic considerations and details on the common iliac artery trifurcation

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2010
    M.C. Rusu
    Abstract The iliolumbar artery (ILA) of Haller is the largest nutrient pedicle of the ilium and its detailed knowledge is important for various surgical procedures that approach the lumbosacral junction, the L4/L5 disk space, the sacroiliac joint, the iliac and psoas muscles, or the lumbar spine. Also the ILA is relevant for various techniques of embolization. We aimed to evaluate the anatomic and topographic features of the ILA, by dissection on 30 human adult pelvic halves and on 50 angiograms. ILA was a constant presence and it emerged at Level A (from the common iliac artery (CIA), 8.75%), Level B (from the CIA bifurcation, 2.5%), Level C (from the internal iliac artery (IIA), 52.5%), Level D (from the IIA bifurcation, 3.75%), and Level E (from the posterior trunk of the IIA, 32.5%). Level B of origin of the ILA corresponds to a trifurcated CIA (morphology previously unreported), while Level D corresponds to a trifurcated IIA. A higher origin of the ILA corresponds to a more transversal course of it. A descending lumbar branch that leaves the iliac arterial system independently to enter the psoas major muscle, as seen in 48% of cases, may be misdiagnosed as ILA. Surgical interventions in the lumbar, sacral, and pelvic regions must take into account the variable origins of the ILA from the iliac system that can modify the expected topographical relations and may lead to undesired hemorrhagic accidents. Clin. Anat. 23:93,100, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The interpectoral fascia flap

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 6 2008
    Gertrude M. Beer
    Abstract Despite the great number of pedicled and free flaps that are available for defect and contour repair, the number of fascia flaps with an axial blood supply are sparse. Such flaps with their gliding function are mandatory, whenever coverage with very thin, well-vascularized tissue is necessary. To the currently established fascia flaps, (the temporoparietal fascia flap, the radial forearm fascia flap, the lateral arm fascia flap, and the serratus anterior fascia flap), we want to add a new fascia flap, the interpectoral fascia flap. We dissected the interpectoral fascia flap from 20 cadavers. In each of the 40 hemichests, the trunk of the thoracoacromial vessels was selectively injected with red polyurethane and the tissue containing the pectoral branches was separated from the overlying pectoralis major muscle and converted into an independent fascia flap. The maximum flap length was 13.5 cm and the maximum breadth was 10.3 cm. The length of the vascular pedicle before entering the flap was 3.9 cm ± 1.4 cm with a range of 1.5,6.8 cm. Concerning the arc of rotation, all 40 flaps reached the posterior axillary fold, and 29 flaps (73%) reached the mandibular border. This new fascia flap has applications as pedicled and as free flap. The pedicled flap is used in the neck region, in the axillary region and as gliding tissue between the nipple-areola complex and the pectoralis major muscle. The usage of the fascia flap as a free flap has similar characteristics as the other fascia flaps. Clin. Anat. 21:465,470, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Anatomy and quantitation of the subscapular nerves

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 6 2007
    R. Shane Tubbs
    Abstract Information regarding branches of the brachial plexus can be of utility to the surgeon for neurotization procedures following injury. Sixty-two adult cadaveric upper extremities were dissected and the subscapular nerves identified and measured. The upper subscapular nerve originated from the posterior cord in 97% of the cases and in 3% of the cases directly from the axillary nerve. The upper subscapular nerve originated as a single nerve in 90.3% of the cases, as two independent nerve trunks in 8% of the cases and as three independent nerve trunks in 1.6% of the cases. The thoracodorsal nerve originated from the posterior cord in 98.5% of the cases and in 1.5% of the cases directly from the proximal segment of the radial nerve. The thoracodorsal nerve always originated as a single nerve from the brachial plexus. The lower subscapular nerve originated from the posterior cord in 79% of the cases and in 21% of the cases directly from the proximal segment of the axillary nerve. The lower subscapular nerve originated as a single nerve in 93.6% of the cases and as two independent nerve trunks in 6.4% of the cases. The mean length of the lower subscapular nerve from its origin until it provided its branch into the subscapularis muscle was 3.5 cm and the mean distance from this branch until its termination into the teres major muscle was 6 cm. The mean diameter of this nerve was 1.9 mm. The mean length of the upper subscapular nerve from its origin to its termination into the subscapularis muscle was 5cm and the mean diameter of the nerve was 2.3 mm. The mean length of the thoracodorsal nerve from its origin to its termination into the latissimus dorsi muscle was 13.7 cm. The mean diameter of this nerve was 2.6 mm. Our hopes are that these data will prove useful to the surgeon in surgical planning for potential neurotization procedures of the brachial plexus. Clin. Anat. 20:656,659, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Avulsion of ascending lumbar and iliolumbar veins in anterior spinal surgery: An anatomical study

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 5 2007
    G. Sivakumar
    Abstract To expose the disc between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae in anterior spinal surgery, left to right retraction of inferior vena cava and aorta is required. This manoeuvre can be complicated by venous haemorrhage that, in most cases, is due to avulsion of the left ascending lumbar vein (ALV) or the left iliolumbar vein (ILV). We dissected 23 embalmed cadavers to assess the factors that contribute to the risk of tearing these two veins during retraction. We describe a triangular region that should help surgeons in identifying the ALV and ILV. This triangle is defined by the lateral border of the common iliac vein, the medial border of the psoas major muscle, and the superior end-plate of the L5 vertebral body. We observed that 3 cm between the termination of the left ALV, or a common stem with the ILV, and the termination of the common iliac vein is the critical distance, less than which the risk of venous avulsion is highest. Although the sample considered is small, our study seems to suggest that male patients tend to have a higher risk of venous avulsion than female patients. Clin. Anat. 20:553,555, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An unusual innervation of pectoralis minor and major muscles from a branch of the intercostobrachial nerve

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2006
    Marios Loukas
    Abstract Variations of the branching pattern of the intercostobrachial nerve have been known to complicate dissection during mastectomy and other procedures involving the axilla. We present a unilateral case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female, in which the intercostobrachial nerve gives rise to an additional medial pectoral branch, which partially innervates the pectoralis minor muscle, as well as the abdominal head of pectoralis major muscle. Clinical consequences of such a variation may include motor losses, in addition to the commonly reported sensory losses, resulting from accidental or intentional dissection of the intercostobranchial nerve. Clin. Anat. 19:347,349, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Altered course of the right testicular artery

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 1 2004
    M. Bülent Özdemir
    Abstract An unusual course of the right testicular artery was observed during routine dissection of the posterior abdominal wall of a 60-year-old male cadaver. It arose from the abdominal aorta, inferior and posterior to the origin of the right renal artery, and passed posterior to the inferior vena cava and right renal vein; it then arched anterior to the inferior pole of the right kidney and descended anterior to the psoas major muscle, crossing anterior to the genitofemoral nerve, ureter and the proximal part of the external iliac artery. Finally, it passed to the deep inguinal ring and through the inguinal canal to enter the spermatic cord with the other constituents. The left testicular artery arose from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm higher than the right testicular artery and followed a normal course. The embryologic basis and clinical importance of this case are discussed. Clin. Anat. 17:67,69, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Species-Specific Effects of Sarcoplasmic Extracts on Lipid Oxidation in vitro

    R. Ramanathan
    ABSTRACT:, The degree to which lipid and myoglobin (Mb) oxidation processes interact in meat can be species-specific. We investigated the effects of beef and pork sarcoplasmic extracts containing different Mb concentrations on lipid oxidation in a liposome system. Sarcoplasm was extracted from beef and pork longissimus dorsi and psoas major muscles. Beef sarcoplasm was diluted with 0.1 M phosphate buffer to obtain a Mb concentration equivalent to that in pork sarcoplasm. Conversely, equine heart Mb was added to pork sarcoplasm to match the myoglobin concentration of beef sarcoplasm. This resulted in beef and pork sarcoplasms, each with 2 different Mb concentrations for the longissimus (0.02 mM and 0.07 mM) and psoas (0.05 and 0.12 mM). Sarcoplasm (or phosphate buffer control) was incorporated within a phosphatidylcholine liposome preparation and incubated at 25°C. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of incubation. Regardless of species, greater Mb concentration within the sarcoplasm increased lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). Across muscles, pork sarcoplasm had lower TBARS values than beef sarcoplasm (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that pork sarcoplasm has a lesser effect on lipid oxidation than beef sarcoplasm for a common Mb concentration. However, increased myoglobin concentration within sarcoplasm promotes lipid oxidation regardless of species. [source]

    Major muscle systems in the larval caenogastropod, Ilyanassa obsoleta, display different patterns of development

    JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    Carol C.E. Evans
    Abstract This study describes the anatomical and developmental aspects of muscular development from the early embryo to competent larval stage in the gastropod Ilyanassa obsoleta. Staining of F-actin revealed differential spatial and temporal patterns of several muscles. In particular, two major muscles, the larval retractor and pedal retractor muscles originate independently and display distinct developmental patterns similar to observations in other gastropod species. Additionally, together with the larval retractor muscle, the accessory larval muscle developed in the embryo at the trochophore stage. Therefore, both these muscles develop prior to ontogenetic torsion. The pedal retractor muscle marked the most abundant growth in the mid veliger stage. Also during the middle stage, the metapodial retractor muscle and opercular retractor muscle grew concurrently with development of the foot. We show evidence that juvenile muscles, such as the buccal mass muscle and siphon muscle develop initially during the late veliger stage. Collectively, these findings substantiate that larval myogenesis involves a complex sequence of events that appear evolutionary conserved within the gastropods, and set the stage for future studies using this model species to address issues concerning the evolution and eventual fates of larval musculature in molluscs. J. Morphol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Upper limb musculoskeletal stress markers among middle Holocene foragers of Siberia's Cis-Baikal region

    Angela R. Lieverse
    Abstract This evaluation of musculoskeletal stress markers (MSMs) in the Cis-Baikal focuses on upper limb activity reconstruction among the region's middle Holocene foragers, particularly as it pertains to adaptation and cultural change. The five cemetery populations investigated represent two discrete groups separated by an 800,1,000 year hiatus: the Early Neolithic (8000,7000/6800 cal. BP) Kitoi culture and the Late Neolithic/Bronze Age (6000/5800,4000 cal. BP) Isakovo-Serovo-Glaskovo (ISG) cultural complex. Twenty-four upper limb MSMs are investigated not only to gain a better understanding of activity throughout the middle Holocene, but also to independently assess the relative distinctiveness of Kitoi and ISG adaptive regimes. Results reveal higher heterogeneity in overall activity levels among Early Neolithic populations,with Kitoi males exhibiting more pronounced upper limb MSMs than both contemporary females and ISG males,but relative constancy during the Late Neolithic/Bronze Age, regardless of sex or possible status. On the other hand, activity patterns seem to have varied more during the latter period, with the supinator being ranked high among the ISG, but not the Kitoi, and forearm flexors and extensors being ranked generally low only among ISG females. Upper limb rank patterning does not distinguish Early Neolithic males, suggesting that their higher MSM scores reflect differences in the degree (intensity and/or duration), rather than the type, of activity employed. Finally, for both Kitoi and ISG peoples, activity patterns,especially the consistently high-ranked costoclavicular ligament and deltoid and pectoralis major muscles,appear to be consistent with watercraft use. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An anatomical study of the muscles that attach to the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 8 2009
    Kosuke Matsunaga
    Abstract The masticatory muscles are generally described as the muscles that originate from the cranium and insert on the mandible. Some of the masticatory muscles also insert into the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint. Although there are numerous reports of studies on the attachment of the fibers to the disc, most reports discuss only one muscle. We have shown that the masticatory muscles are not simply a group of clearly independent muscles, but that these muscles contain various transitional muscle bundles among the major muscles. From this point of view, we carried out minute dissection of the collective muscles and muscle bundles surrounding the temporomandibular joint. We dissected 40 head halves of 20 Japanese cadavers (10 males, 10 females: average 79.6 yr). After complete removal of the bony elements, the structures surrounding the temporomandibular joint were investigated en-block. In all specimens, the superior surface of the upper head of lateral pterygoid and the midmedial muscle bundle were attached to the disc. In some specimens, the discotemporal bundle, zygomaticomandibularis, and masseter were attached to the anterior surface of the disc. The total vector of these muscles pulls the disc anteriorly. In contrast, the vector of the muscles to the condylar processes of the mandible pulls the mandible medially. From these observations, it seems that the fibers, which attach to the disc act to steady the disc against the masticatory movement. Clin. Anat. 22:932,940, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An unusual innervation of pectoralis minor and major muscles from a branch of the intercostobrachial nerve

    CLINICAL ANATOMY, Issue 4 2006
    Marios Loukas
    Abstract Variations of the branching pattern of the intercostobrachial nerve have been known to complicate dissection during mastectomy and other procedures involving the axilla. We present a unilateral case of a 73-year-old Caucasian female, in which the intercostobrachial nerve gives rise to an additional medial pectoral branch, which partially innervates the pectoralis minor muscle, as well as the abdominal head of pectoralis major muscle. Clinical consequences of such a variation may include motor losses, in addition to the commonly reported sensory losses, resulting from accidental or intentional dissection of the intercostobranchial nerve. Clin. Anat. 19:347,349, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]