Major Modifications (major + modifications)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Skeletal development of the Mexican spadefoot, Spea multiplicata (Anura: Pelobatidae)

Barbara Banbury
Abstract The larval chondrocranium of Spea multiplicata is described, as is the development and adult morphology of the skeleton. There are major modifications to the larval chondrocranium throughout development, including the presence of embryonic trabeculae in young tadpoles and significant reorganization of cartilaginous structures at metamorphosis. The first bone to ossify is the parasphenoid (Stage 35), followed by the presacral neural arches, ilium, and femur (Stage 36). By Stage 39, most of the postcranial elements have begun to ossify. Metamorphic climax is accomplished over three Gosner stages (39,41) and involves major modifications to the chondrocranium, as well as the appearance of three cranial elements (septomaxilla, nasal, and premaxilla). After metamorphosis, the exoccipital, vomer, dentary, angulosplenial, squamosal, pterygoid, sphenethmoid, ischium, and hyoid begin to ossify. The stapes, mentomeckelian, operculum, carpals, and tarsals do not appear until juvenile and adult stages. The development of the hyoid and cartilaginous condensations of the carpals and tarsals are described. In addition, phenotypic plasticity within the genus and the absence of a palatine (= neopalatine) bone are discussed. J. Morphol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

O -acetylation of sialic acids in N -glycans of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) serum is altered by handling stress

Xin Liu
Abstract O -acetylation is one of the major modifications of sialic acids that significantly alters biological properties of the parent molecule. These O -acetylated forms are components of the cellular membrane and can affect physiological and pathological responses. Understanding the role of N -glycans in physiology is of increasing relevance to cellular biologists in various disciplines who study glycoproteomics yet lack information regarding the function of the attached glycans. It is well known that stress may decrease immune function in fish; however, there are only few suitable biomarkers available to monitor the physiological responses under the stress conditions. This study is the first report on the effect of stress on the profile of O -acetylation of sialic acids in fish serum. In order to preserve the relevant structural characteristics as much as possible, native N -glycans were directly analyzed using CE-MS. We have characterized the N -glycans in serum of salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to long-term handling stress (15,s out of the water, daily for 4,wk) and compared with the results obtained from sera of control fish. The results indicated that major N -glycans in salmon serum contained mono-acetylated sialic acids (83%), and that the O -acetylation pattern of sialic acids could be altered by long-term stress. [source]

Support of Daily ECG Procedures in a Cardiology Department via the Integration of an Existing Clinical Database and a Commercial ECG Management System

Franco Chiarugi Dott.
Background: In the context of HYGEIAnet, the regional health telematics network of Crete, a clinical cardiology database (CARDIS) has been installed in several hospitals. The large number of resting ECGs recorded daily made it a priority to have computerized support for the entire ECG procedure. Methods: Starting in late 2000, ICS-FORTH and Mortara Instrument, Inc., collaborated to integrate the Mortara E-Scribe/NT ECG management system with CAROIS in order to support daily ECG procedures. CARDIS was extended to allow automatic ordering of daily ECGs via E-Scribe/NT. The ECG order list is downloaded to the electrocardiographs and executed, the recorded ECGs are transmitted to E-Scribe/NT, where confirmed ECG records are linked back to CARDIS. A thorough testing period was used to identify and correct problems. An ECG viewer/printer was extended to read ECG files in E-Scribe/NT format. Results: The integration of E-Scribe/NT and CARDIS, enabling automatic scheduling of ECG orders and immediate availability of confirmed ECGs records for viewing and printing in the clinical database, took approximately 4 man months. The performance of the system is highly satisfactory and it is now ready for deployment in the hospital. Conclusions: Integration of a commercially available ECG management system with an existing clinical database can provide a rapid, practical solution that requires no major modifications to either software component. The success of this project makes us optimistic about extending CARDIS to support additional examination-procedures such as digital coronary angiography and ultrasound examinations. A.N.E. 2002;7(3):263,270 [source]

How Thailand has modified the section on mental disorders in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10),

Pichet Udomratn MD
Abstract Introduction: In 2000, the Thai Ministry of Public Health appointed a taskforce to revise the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Relate Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) to make it more suitable for use in Thailand: the ICD-10 Thai Modification (ICD-10 TM). Methods: The Royal College of Psychiatrists of Thailand appointed psychiatrists from various hospitals to form a working group on this matter. The ICD-10 Australian Modification was used as an example and the ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research was used as a reference book. Results: The fourth and fifth characters added are the major modifications of the ICD-10 TM for the typing of an emotionally unstable personality disorder and treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, we could not add any specific codes for patients dependent on amphetamine-type stimulant drugs. Discussion: The ICD-10 TM has now been widely used throughout the country since 2003, with informal feedback suggesting that it is useful. Further research needs to be conducted into its impact on clinical care in Thailand. [source]