Major Milestone (major + milestone)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of Fuel-Cell-Based Passenger Cars

FUEL CELLS, Issue 3 2004
T. Grube
Abstract Highly efficient energy conversion systems with fuel cells for vehicles, as well as for stationary and portable applications, are currently being discussed all over the world. Fuel cell technology is expected to help reduce primary energy demand and emissions of limited and climate-relevant pollutants. The high flexibility of fuel cell systems with respect to energy carriers opens up possibilities of modifying the energy sector in the long term. Introducing new fuels based on low-carbon, or in the long term carbon-free, energy carriers can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as well as locally and regionally active atmospheric pollutants. The use of hydrogen as feed gas for fuel cells on the basis of it being a non-fossil, renewable energy, leads to special benefits with respect to conserving resources and climate protection, but at present still represents a medium- to long-term prospect. A major milestone on the road to market success for all energy conversion systems with fuel cells is the reduction of costs. The definition of the ,appropriate" fuel represents a serious obstacle to the market introduction of fuel-cell-powered vehicles. Presenting data from a well-to-wheel analysis of various vehicle fuel systems at FZJ this article aims to discuss the potential benefits of future vehicle concepts with fuel cells in terms of primary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Results from a comparison of international studies on this subject will be used to identify relevant assumptions that lead to different answers in the evaluation process. [source]

Political and social drivers for access to the countryside: the need for research on birds and recreational disturbance

IBIS, Issue 2007
The introduction of a statutory right of access to open country and registered common land in England and Wales in 2005 was a major milestone in a campaign traceable to the 19th century, with views strongly polarized between social classes and political parties, and between land owners and campaigners. More recently, access has also been recognized as a factor contributing to quality-of-life, public health, social diversity and rural economic issues. The mapping of access land revealed that 55% of it is also designated Site of Special Scientific Interest, where wildlife is legally conserved. This has generated a need to assess the implications of access in each case, and take measures to ensure nationally and internationally important features are protected, drawing on sound scientific principles. Early research, although competently undertaken, often failed to address population-scale effects significant at the designated-site level, enabling disputes and polarized ,beliefs' to be articulated. Hence, in addition to drawing up formal and transparent procedures for evaluating impacts and resolving difficulties, funds were released and a major programme initiated, commissioning applied research of direct relevance to the implementation of the legislation. This has pushed forward the boundaries of knowledge in a field which is both difficult and expensive to study. By gradually replacing ,belief' with evidence, this represents a case study in resolving environmental disputes. [source]

The orderly use of experience: Pragmatism and the development of hospital industry self-regulation

Joseph V. Rees
Abstract This article focuses on the origins and the development of American hospital industry self-regulation. Drawing on extensive archival research, this article suggests that the American College of Surgeon's Hospital Standardization Program was closely linked to the American pragmatist tradition. So understood, the Program represents a major milestone in the history of American regulation, perhaps the first self-regulatory system steeped in pragmatist principles of social ordering, a Progressive-era model of governance that long ago foreshadowed some of today's most significant regulatory innovations. [source]

The complete genome sequence of a dog: a perspective

BIOESSAYS, Issue 6 2006
Soohyun Lee
A complete, high-quality reference sequence of a dog genome was recently produced by a team of researchers led by the Broad Institute, achieving another major milestone in deciphering the genomic landscape of mammalian organisms. The genome sequence provides an indispensable resource for comparative analysis and novel insights into dog and human evolution and history. Together with the survey sequence of a poodle previously published in 2003, the two dog genome sequences allowed identification of more than 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms within and between dog breeds, which can be used in evolutionary analysis, behavioral studies and disease gene mapping.1 © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. BioEssays 28: 569,573, 2006. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

G-protein-coupled receptor structures were not built in a day

Tracy M. Blois
Abstract Among the most exciting recent developments in structural biology is the structure determination of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which comprise the largest class of membrane proteins in mammalian cells and have enormous importance for disease and drug development. The GPCR structures are perhaps the most visible examples of a nascent revolution in membrane protein structure determination. Like other major milestones in science, however, such as the sequencing of the human genome, these achievements were built on a hidden foundation of technological developments. Here, we describe some of the methods that are fueling the membrane protein structure revolution and have enabled the determination of the current GPCR structures, along with new techniques that may lead to future structures. [source]

Renin: from ,pro' to promoter

BIOESSAYS, Issue 5 2003
Brian J. Morris
Renin is the rate-limiting enzyme in a cascade that leads to production of angiotensin II, which is perhaps our most important regulator of salt and water balance and blood pressure. In this personal perspective, I describe how I entered the renin field 33 years ago by discovering that proteases increased the level of renin activity in biological fluids, so revealing the existence of a ,pro' form of the molecule. This led me on a journey that encapsulated all of the major milestones in molecular discovery for renin. These included (1) the elucidation of the steps in renin biosynthesis, (2) the cloning of renin cDNA and its gene, (3) demonstration of the structure of the renin protein, (4) using the renin gene in the first genetic studies in hypertension, (5) finding the mechanism by which the major controller, cyclic AMP, regulates the promoter, (6) showing that a strong enhancer and its weak promoter control this physiologically regulatable gene in accord with the variegation (on/off switching) model, and (7) being the first to identify molecules involved in posttranscriptional control. The renin molecule, its gene and molecular control are now very well understood, but more fine details on the topic of renin continue to emerge to delight ,reninologists' and others. BioEssays 25:520,527, 2003. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The development of the ITI® DENTAL IMPLANT SYSTEM

Part 1: A review of the literature
In a short trip through more than twenty years, the development of the ITI® DENTAL IMPLANT SYSTEM is described. The systematic unfolding and continuous advancement of the system, permanently supported and accompanied by scientific work in clinical and general practice, is outlined in short paragraphs. Some major milestones are emphasized and characterized. [source]