Major Mental Disorders (major + mental_disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The use of population based registers in psychiatric research

P. AllebeckArticle first published online: 6 OCT 200
Objective:, Much of the knowledge we now take for granted regarding major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, suicide and other disorders, would not exist without the use of population based registers. The use of population based registers in psychiatric epidemiology have enabled analyses of associations that otherwise would not have been possible to address. Method:, The use of registers in psychiatric research is described, exemplified, and discussed. Results:, Methodological and validity aspects depend to a large part on the type of register being considered. A classification is proposed of different types of registers, each one implying specific methodological issues. These can be addressed according to the dimensions coverage, attrition, representativity and validity. Specific methodological consideration has still to be taken in relation to each specific research question. Thus, special validity studies usually need to be performed when embarking on studies using population based registers. Conclusion:, With increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders worldwide, knowledge of the epidemiology of these disorders are of increasing interest. The Nordic countries have a strong history in this field of research, of great interest to the rest of the world. Universities and research funding agencies should recognize this valuable source of research capacity, and support fruitful continuation of a strong tradition. [source]

The association of alcohol dependence with general practice attendance

Abstract Introduction and Aims. This study was designed to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence and general practitioner (GP) service attendance in Australia. Design and Methods. Data were analysed from the 1997 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. In this survey, a representative sample of the Australian population was interviewed to ascertain past 12 month psychiatric diagnoses for all major mental disorders as well as the use of primary and other health services (n = 10 641, 79% response rate). Results. People with alcohol dependence comorbid with other psychiatric disorders have higher rates of service usage than those without such disorders. Discussion and Conclusions. Alcohol dependence comorbid with mental disorders has a significant impact on GP service in Australia. High rates of service use by individuals with such comorbidities were a considerable burden for GP services.[Proudfoot H, Teesson M. The association of alcohol dependence with general practice attendance. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

The relationship between history of violent and criminal behavior and recognition of facial expression of emotions in men with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

Elisabeth M. Weiss
Abstract Social psychological research underscores the relation between aggression and emotion. Specifically, regulating negative affect requires the ability to appraise restraint-producing cues, such as facial signs of anger, fear and other emotions. Individuals diagnosed with major mental disorders are more likely to have engaged in violent behavior than mentally healthy members of the same communities. We examined whether violent and criminal behavior in men with schizophrenia is related to emotion recognition abilities. Forty-one men with schizophrenia underwent a computerized emotion discrimination test presenting mild and extreme intensities of happy, sad, angry, fearful and neutral faces, balanced for gender and ethnicity. History of violence was assessed by the Life History of Aggression Scale and official records of arrests. Psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Criminal behavior was associated with poor emotion recognition, especially for fearful and angry facial expressions. History of aggression was also associated with more severe positive symptoms and less severe negative symptoms. These findings suggest that misinterpretation of social cues such as angry and fearful expression may lead to a failure in socialization and adaptive behavior in response to emotional situation, which may result in a higher number of criminal arrests. Aggr. Behav. 32:1,8, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Psychiatric disorders in advanced cancer

CANCER, Issue 8 2007
Michael Miovic MD
Abstract BACKGROUND. Emotional distress and psychiatric disorders are common among patients with advanced cancer. Oncologists play an important role in screening for these conditions, providing first-line treatment and referring patients for further evaluation and treatment when indicated. METHODS. The literature on psycho-oncology was reviewed, focusing on the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of psychiatric disorders (adjustment disorders, major depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress, personality disorders, substance abuse, and major mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) in patients with advanced cancer. Communication skills and the role of the oncologist in dealing with end-of-life issues were also reviewed. Relevant data were summarized from the most recent systematic reviews, epidemiological studies, and intervention trials. Clinical recommendations are provided. RESULTS. About 50% of patients with advanced cancer meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder, the most common being adjustment disorders (11%,35%) and major depression (5%,26%). Both psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are effective for anxiety and depression, although existing studies have methodological limitations. Collaboration with mental health specialists is recommended for patients with personality disorders, major mental illness, and substance abuse problems. Effective communication involves active listening, exploring emotion and meaning, addressing prognosis, and discussing end-of-life issues when relevant. CONCLUSIONS. Treating psychiatric conditions improves quality of life in patients with advanced cancer. Oncologists play a key role in screening for psychiatric disorders, initiating first-line treatments for depression and anxiety, and communicating with patients and caregivers about prognosis and end-of-life issues. Cancer 2007. 2007 American Cancer Society. [source]