Major Limiting Factor (major + limiting_factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of the Left Ventricular Function with Tissue Tracking and Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Pediatric Malignancy Survivors after Anthracycline Therapy

it Karakurt M.D.
Although the anthracyclines have gained widespread use in the treatment of childhood hematological malignancies and solid tumors, cardiotoxicity is the major limiting factor in the use of anthracyclines. The aim of this study was to assess the mitral annular displacement by tissue tracking in pediatric malignancy survivors who had been treated with anthracycline groups chemotheraphy and compare with the tissue Doppler and conventional two dimensional measurements and Doppler indices. In this study, 32 pediatric malignancy survivors and 22 healthy children were assessed with 2D, colour-coded echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output, cardiac index and diastolic functions were measured. All subjects were assessed with tissue Doppler echocardiography, mitral annular displacements, and also with tissue tracking method. We detected that peak velocity of the early rapid filling on tissue Doppler (E,) was lower (p < 0.05) and the ratio of early peak velocity of rapid filling on pulse Doppler to tissue Doppler (E/E,) values were statistically higher in patient group than control group (p < 0.05). Myocardial performance index values were also higher in patient group than the control group (p < 0.01). It appears that MPI is a useful echocardiograghic method than tissue tracking of mitral annular displacement in patients with pediatric cancer survivors who had subclinical diastolic dysfunction. [source]

Bioclimatic perspectives in the distribution of Quercus ithaburensis Decne. subspecies in Turkey and in the Levant

Jean-Marc Dufour-Dror
Abstract Aim, To define the bioclimatic tolerance ranges of the two Tabor oak subspecies. Prior to this definition, and considering the confusion in the literature regarding the Tabor oak subspecies geography, a reassessment of their present distribution is proposed. Location, Turkey and the Levant. Methods, The bioclimatic tolerance range of each subspecies was characterized by four parameters: (1) the humidity category (Q2), (2) the winter variant (m) , the two basic variables used in Emberger's method for the definition of Mediterranean bioclimates, (3) the length of the dry season (LDS) and (4) its severity, expressed by the dry season water deficit (DSWD). The reference to the last two variables in the definition of bioclimatic tolerance ranges of Mediterranean species has so far never been considered. The concept of bioclimatic niche, based on the reference to these four parameters, is proposed and discussed. Results, The reassessment of the Tabor oak subspecies distribution shows that their extents of occurrence do not overlap and are significantly distant. The comparison between the characteristics of each subspecies bioclimatic niche has highlighted three major differences: (1) The bioclimatic niche of the subspecies macrolepis is characterized by a great heterogeneity as it includes up to 10 distinct bioclimate types, whereas only four types have been found in the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies ithaburensis. (2) A 10 C gap has been found between the winter variants of both bioclimatic niches. (3) The third major difference relates to the dry season characteristics: the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies ithaburensis is characterized by an LDS 40,75% longer than it is in the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies macrolepis. Moreover, and surprisingly, although the most arid humidity categories are found in the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies macrolepis, the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies ithaburensis is characterized by a significantly more severe dry season as the DSWD is 36,180% greater than in the bioclimatic niche of the subspecies macrolepis. It is suggested that the duration and the severity of the dry season is a major limiting factor in the spatial distribution of the subspecies macrolepis. Main conclusions, The reference to the duration (LDS) and severity (DSWS) of the dry season is essential when defining the bioclimatic niche of Mediterranean species. [source]

Transarterial Coil Embolization of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Small Dogs with 0.025-Inch Vascular Occlusion Coils: 10 Cases

Daniel F. Hogan
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in the dog and generally leads to severe clinical signs, including left-sided congestive heart failure. Historically, definitive treatment consisted of surgical ligation; however, the use of vascular occlusion devices by minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity in veterinary medicine during the past decade. Adequate vascular access is a major limiting factor for these minimally invasive techniques, precluding their use in very small dogs. The clinical management of PDA with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils in a minimally invasive transarterial technique in 10 dogs is described. The dogs were small (1.38 0.22 kg), were generally young (6.70 5.74 months), and had small minimal ductal diameters (1.72 0.81 mm from angiography). Vascular access was achieved, and coil deployment was attempted in all dogs with a 3F catheter uncontrolled release system. Successful occlusion, defined as no angiographic residual flow, was accomplished in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Successful occlusion was not achieved in 2 dogs (20%), and both dogs experienced embolization of coils into the pulmonary arterial tree. One of these dogs died during the procedure, whereas the other dog underwent a successful surgical correction. We conclude that transarterial PDA occlusion in very small dogs is possible with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils by means of a 3F catheter system and that it represents a viable alternative to surgical ligation. The risk of pulmonary arterial embolization is higher with this uncontrolled release system, but this risk may decrease with experience. [source]

Insights into the cellular mechanisms of desiccation tolerance among angiosperm resurrection plant species

ABSTRACT Water is a major limiting factor in growth and reproduction in plants. The ability of tissues to survive desiccation is commonly found in seeds or pollen but rarely present in vegetative tissues. Resurrection plants are remarkable as they can tolerate almost complete water loss from their vegetative tissues such as leaves and roots. Metabolism is shut down as they dehydrate and the plants become apparently lifeless. Upon rehydration these plants recover full metabolic competence and ,resurrect'. In order to cope with desiccation, resurrection plants have to overcome a number of stresses as water is lost from the cells, among them oxidative stress, destabilization or loss of membrane integrity and mechanical stress. This review will mainly focus on the effect of dehydration in angiosperm resurrection plants and some of the strategies developed by these plants to tolerate desiccation. Resurrection plants are important experimental models and understanding the physiological and molecular aspects of their desiccation tolerance is of great interest for developing drought-tolerant crop species adapted to semi-arid areas. [source]

Methods for prenatal assessment of fetal cardiac function

Tim Van Mieghem
Abstract Fetal cardiac function is increasingly recognized as a marker of disease severity and prognosis in selected fetal conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in experimental (animal) fetal cardiology but the lack of a noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) to trigger image acquisition remains a major limiting factor precluding its application in humans. Fetal medicine specialists are therefore limited to ultrasound to evaluate human fetal cardiac function. In this review, we aim to provide a complete overview of the different ultrasound techniques that can be used for fetal cardiac function assessment and we discuss their (theoretical) strengths and shortcomings. Conventional methods include M-mode assessment of ventricular contractility and Doppler assessment of the precordial veins and cardiac output (CO). More recent techniques such as the measurement of the myocardial performance index (MPI), myocardial motion analysis with tissue Doppler, speckle tracking and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound techniques are also discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Egg and larval quality, and egg fatty acid composition of Eurasian perch breeders (Perca fluviatilis) fed different dietary DHA/EPA/AA ratios

Emilie Henrotte
Abstract In Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), the variability in spawning quality is a major limiting factor for successful production, especially when breeders are fed with an artificial diet. The influence of the dietary DHA/EPA/AA ratio on the egg and larval quality and on the fatty acid and lipid class composition of eggs has been investigated in perch broodstock. Two experimental diets (16% lipids) with two different DHA/EPA/AA ratios, D1 (3/2/2) and D2 (23/9/1), were compared with a natural diet consisting of cultured carp juveniles, CC (10/10/1) and with a commercial diet for salmonids, CDS (14/16/1). Percentages of fertilization and hatching were comparable between fish fed D1, D2 and CC, with the highest hatching rate observed for D1 (63.5 3.8%). These diets supported better values than the CDS. Larval survival and TL50 observed after osmotic stress were higher for the D1 group, followed by larvae produced by fish fed D2 and CC. Larvae from fish fed D1, D2 and CC were significantly more robust than larvae from the CDS group. Differences were observed regarding the fatty acid (FA) profile in the eggs, which was related to the dietary FA composition. The results indicate that a ratio of 3/2/2 seemed to be effective for obtaining eggs and larvae of good quality. [source]

Zinc improves gene transfer mediated by DNA/cationic polymer complexes

Chantal Pichon
Abstract Background The weak efficiency of plasmid transfer into the cytosol remains one of the major limiting factors to achieve an efficient transfection with DNA/cationic polymer complexes. We found that divalent metal Zn2+ can improve the polyfection efficiency, especially with DNA/histidylated polylysine (His-pLK) complexes. Methods and results The supplementation of the transfection medium with 250 M ZnCl2 increased the polyfection of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells with a plasmid encoding EGFP complexed with pLK, polyethyleneimine and His-pLK. Zn2+ is more efficient on DNA/His-pLK complexes: the number of EGFP-positive cells increased from 1% to more than 40%. This phenomenon is selective to Zn2+ because no effect was obtained with other divalent cations. The effect of zinc varies from cell to cell. The binding of Zn2+ to histidyl residues might increase zinc endosomal concentration favoring membrane fusion. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies clearly indicate that with His-pLK, the plasmid is better delivered in the cytosol as well as in the cell nucleus in zinc-treated cells. An investigation conducted with the histidine-rich peptide H5WYG showed that zinc inhibits membrane permeabilization but promotes membrane fusion as evidenced by resonance energy transfer. Conclusions Data reported here imply that the addition of zinc ions in the transfection medium can trigger an increase of the fusion of endosomes containing polyplexes which is more effective in the presence of histidine-rich molecules. Consequently, the amount of plasmid in the cytosol available to reach the nucleus is increased leading to an improvement of polyfection. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

L.M. Chu
Abstract. Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium, and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash; all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons. [source]