Major Ions (major + ion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nitrate behaviour in the groundwater of a headwater wetland, Chiba, Japan

Changyuan Tang
Abstract A wetland is an important part of the headwater in the discharge area of a basin. It controls not only groundwater discharge such as seepage or springs, but also the migration of chemical matter from the basin. In order to make clear how and where natural attenuation processes happen in wetlands, a typical headwater in Chiba, Japan, was chosen for an investigation of the behaviour of nitrate in groundwater. From the viewpoint of hydro-geomorphology, the wetland in the study site can be divided into three zones: the shallow water-table zone, the seepage zone, and the spring zone along the downstream direction. There were six piezometer groups; each group contained four piezometers, individually set at depths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 m. Major ions and ,15N of groundwater from piezometers, wells and springs were analysed. It was found that nitrate in groundwater mainly came from the fertilizers used in the upstream recharge area of the study site. When the groundwater moved up across the wetland, nitrate concentration in the groundwater decreased rapidly in the shallow water-table zone due to denitrification. Nitrate-free water can be found at the seepage zone. However, the behaviour of nitrate in the spring water was different from that in the seepage zone, since both dilution and denitrification processes were involved in the decrease of nitrate concentration in groundwater. In particular, the dilution process mainly controlled the decline of nitrate at the location where the nitrate-free groundwater flowing horizontally from the seepage zone mixed with the high-nitrate groundwater flowing upward before emerging as a spring. It was also found that denitrification only occurs suddenly in a narrow zone or a thin layer of the order of a few metres. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

linear free energy relationships;

The substituent effect on the reactivity of the CN bond of molecular ions of 4-substituted N -(2-furylmethyl)anilines toward two dissociation pathways was studied. With this aim, six of these compounds were analyzed by mass spectrometry using electron ionization with energies between 7.8 and 69.9 eV. Also, the UB3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and UHF/6-31G (d, p) levels of theory were used to calculate the critical energies (reaction enthalpies at 0 K) of the processes that lead to the complementary ions [C5H5O]+ and [M , C5H5O]+, assuming structures that result from the heterolytic and homolytic CN bond cleavages of the molecular ions, respectively. A kinetic approach proposed in the 1960s was applied to the mass spectral data to obtain the relative rate coefficients for both dissociation channels from ratios of the peak intensities of these ions. Linear relationships were obtained between the logarithms of the relative rate coefficients and the calculated critical energies and other thermochemical properties, whose slopes showed to be conditioned by the energy provided to the compounds within the ion source. Moreover, it was found that the dissociation that leads to [C5H5O]+ is a process strongly dependent upon the electron withdrawing or donating properties of the substituent, favored by those factors that destabilize the molecular ion. On the contrary, the dissociation that leads to [M , C5H5O]+ is indifferent to the polar electronic effects of the substituent. The abundance of both products was governed by the rule of Stevenson,Audier, according to which the major ion is the one of less negative electronic affinity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated salt-affected soil samples at 25°C and at least up to 14 dS m,1

F. Visconti
Calcite and gypsum are salts of major ions characterized by poor solubility compared with other salts that may precipitate in soils. Knowledge of calcite and gypsum solubility products in water-saturated soil samples substantially contributes to a better assessment of processes involved in soil salinity. The new SALSOLCHEMIS code for chemical equilibrium assessment was parameterized with published analytical data for aqueous synthetic calcite and gypsum-saturated solutions. Once parameterized, SALSOLCHEMIS was applied to calculations of the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate in 133 water-saturated soil samples from an irrigated salt-affected agricultural area in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate. During parameterization, sufficiently constant values for the ionic activity products of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate were obtained only when the following were used in SALSOLCHEMIS: (i) the equations of Sposito & Traina for the free ion activity coefficient calculation, (ii) the assumption of the non-existence of the Ca (HCO 3)+ and CaCO3o ion pairs and (iii) a paradigm of total ion activity coefficients. The value of 4.62 can be assumed to be a reliable gypsum solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous and soil solutions, while a value of 8.43 can only be assumed as a reliable calcite solubility product (pKs) in simple aqueous solutions. The saturated pastes and saturation extracts were found to be calcite over-saturated, with the former significantly being less so (p IAP = 8.29) than the latter (p IAP = 8.22). The calcite over-saturation of saturated pastes increased with the soil organic matter content. Nevertheless, the inhibition of calcite precipitation is caused by the soluble organic matter from a dissolved organic carbon threshold value that lies between 7 and 12 mm. The hypothesis of thermodynamic equilibrium is more adequate for the saturated pastes than for the saturation extracts. [source]

Distribution of benthic diatoms in U.S. rivers in relation to conductivity and ionic composition

Marina Potapova
Summary 1We quantified the relationships between diatom relative abundance and water conductivity and ionic composition, using a dataset of 3239 benthic diatom samples collected from 1109 river sites throughout the U.S.A. [U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program dataset]. This dataset provided a unique opportunity to explore the autecology of freshwater diatoms over a broad range of environmental conditions. 2Conductivity ranged from 10 to 14 500 ,S cm,1, but most of the rivers had moderate conductivity (interquartile range 180,618 ,S cm,1). Calcium and bicarbonate were the dominant ions. Ionic composition, however, varied greatly because of the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. 3Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and Monte Carlo permutation tests showed that conductivity and abundances of major ions (HCO + CO, Cl,, SO, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) all explained a statistically significant amount of the variation in assemblage composition of benthic diatoms. Concentrations of HCO + CO and Ca2+ were the most significant sources of environmental variance. 4The CCA showed that the gradient of ionic composition explaining most variation in diatom assemblage structure ranged from waters dominated by Ca2+ and HCO + CO to waters with higher proportions of Na+, K+, and Cl,. The CCA also revealed that the distributions of some diatoms correlated strongly with proportions of individual cations and anions, and with the ratio of monovalent to divalent cations. 5We present species indicator values (optima) for conductivity, major ions and proportions of those ions. We also identify diatom taxa characteristic of specific major-ion chemistries. These species optima may be useful in future interpretations of diatom ecology and as indicator values in water-quality assessment. [source]

A geomorphic template for the analysis of lake districts applied to the Northern Highland Lake District, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

JoaN. L. Riera
1. We tested the degree to which a lake's landscape position constrains the expression of limnological features and imposes a characteristic spatial pattern in a glacial lake district, the Northern Highland Lake District in north-central Wisconsin. 2. We defined lake order as a metric to analyze the effect of landscape position on limnological features. Lake order, analogous to stream order, is based solely on geographical information and is simple to measure. 3. We examined the strength of the relationship between lake order and a set of 25 variables, which included measures of lake morphometry, water optical properties, major ions, nutrients, biology, and human settlement patterns. 4. Lake order explained a significant fraction of the variance of 21 of the 25 variables tested with ANOVA. The fraction of variance explained varied from 12% (maximum depth) to 56% (calcium concentration). The variables most strongly related to lake order were: measures of lake size and shape, concentrations of major ions (except sulfate) and silica, biological variables (chlorophyll concentration, crayfish abundance, and fish species richness), and human-use variables (density of cottages and resorts). Lake depth, water optical properties, and nutrient concentrations (other than silica) were poorly associated with lake order. 5. Potential explanations for a relationship with lake order differed among variables. In some cases, we could hypothesize a direct link. For example, major ion concentration is a function of groundwater input, which is directly related to lake order. We see these as a direct influence of the geomorphic template left by the retreat of the glacier that led to the formation of this lake district. 6. In other cases, a set of indirect links was hypothesized. For example, the effect of lake order on lake size, water chemistry, and lake connectivity may ultimately explain the relation between lake order and fish species richness. We interpret these relationships as the result of constraints imposed by the geomorphic template on lake development over the last 12 000 years. 7. By identifying relationships between lake characteristics and a measure of landscape position, and by identifying geomorphologic constraints on lake features and lake evolution, our analysis explains an important aspect of the spatial organization of a lake district. [source]

Distribution of Chemical Constituents in Superimposed Ice from Austre Brøggerbreen, Spitsbergen

H. Motoyama
10 m and 2.3 m ice cores were obtained on Austre Brøggerbreen, Spitsbergen in Svalbard (78°53,N, 11°56,E, 450 m a.s.l.) in September 1994 and in March 1995, respectively. Stratigraphy, bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity, and major ions were obtained from the core samples. The chemical effect of meltwater percolation through snow/ice is examined. Good correlation between Cl, and Na+ was obtained. The ratio of Cl, to Na+ was 1.14 which was nearly the same value as in bulk sea water. However, the variation of Cl,/Na+ shows that higher ratio occured in the bubble-free ice. Furthermore the Cl, ions remain in higher concentration than SO 4 2, or Na+ ions. [source]

Effects of Land Use on Ground Water Quality in the Anoka Sand Plain Aquifer of Minnesota

GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2003
Michael D. Trojan
We began a study, in 1996, to compare ground water quality under irrigated and nonirrigated agriculture, sewered and nonsewered residential developments, industrial, and nondeveloped land uses. Twenty-three monitoring wells were completed in the upper meter of an unconfined sand aquifer. Between 1997 and 2000, sampling occurred quarterly for major ions, trace inorganic chemicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), herbicides, and herbicide degradates. On single occasions, we collected samples for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), perchlorate, and coliform bacteria. We observed significant differences in water chemistry beneath different land uses. Concentrations of several trace inorganic chemicals were greatest under sewered urban areas. VOC detection frequencies were 100% in commercial areas, 52% in sewered residential areas, and <10% for other land uses. Median nitrate concentrations were greatest under irrigated agriculture (15,350 ,g/L) and nonsewered residential areas (6080 ,g/L). Herbicides and degradates of acetanilide and triazine herbicides were detected in 86% of samples from irrigated agricultural areas, 68% of samples from nonirrigated areas, and <10% of samples from other land uses. Degradates accounted for 96% of the reported herbicide mass. We did not observe seasonal differences in water chemistry, but observed trends in water chemistry when land use changes occurred. Our results show land use is the dominant factor affecting shallow ground water quality. Trend monitoring programs should focus on areas where land use is changing, while resource managers and planners must consider potential impacts of land use changes on ground water quality. [source]

Arsenic in Glacial Drift Aquifers and the Implication for Drinking Water,Lower Illinois River Basin

GROUND WATER, Issue 3 2001
Kelly L. Warner
The lower Illinois River Basin (LIRB) covers 47,000 km2 of central and western Illinois. In the LIRB, 90% of the ground water supplies are from the deep and shallow glacial drift aquifers. The deep glacial drift aquifer (DGDA) is below 152 m altitude, a sand and gravel deposit that fills the Mahomet Buried Bedrock Valley, and overlain by more than 30.5 m of clayey till. The LIRB is part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment program, which has an objective to describe the status and trends of surface and ground water quality. In the DGDA, 55% of the wells used for public drinking-water supply and 43% of the wells used for domestic drinking water supply have arsenic concentrations above 10 ,g/L (a new U.S. EPA drinking water standard). Arsenic concentrations greater than 25 ,g/L in ground water are mostly in the form of arsenite (AsIII). The proportion of arsenate (AsV) to arsenite does not change along the flowpath of the DGDA. Because of the limited number of arsenic species analyses, no clear relations between species and other trace elements, major ions, or physical parameters could be established. Arsenic and barium concentrations increase from east to west in the DGDA and are positively correlated. Chloride and arsenic are positively correlated and provide evidence that arsenic may be derived locally from underlying bedrock. Solid phase geochemical analysis of the till, sand and gravel, and bedrock show the highest presence of arsenic in the underlying organic-rich carbonate bedrock. The black shale or coal within the organic-rich carbonate bedrock is a potential source of arsenic. Most high arsenic concentrations found in the DGDA are west and downgradient of the bedrock structural features. Geologic structures in the bedrock are potential pathways for recharge to the DGDA from surrounding bedrock. [source]

Effects of urbanization on stream water quality in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA,

Norman E. Peters
Abstract A long-term stream water quality monitoring network was established in the city of Atlanta, Georgia during 2003 to assess baseline water quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted ,12 times annually at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3·7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) stations having continuous measures of stream stage/discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water quality and sediment-related constituents. Field parameters and concentrations of major ions, metals, nutrient species and coliform bacteria among stations were evaluated and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. Most constituent concentrations are much higher than nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. Routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows and RT water quality monitoring provided sufficient information about urban stream water quality variability to evaluate causes of water quality differences among streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most samples exceeded Georgia's water quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s) and dissolution and transport during rainstorms of CaCl2, a deicing salt applied to roads during winter storms. One stream was affected by dissolution and transport of ammonium alum [NH4Al(SO4)2] from an alum-manufacturing plant; streamwater has low pH (<5), low alkalinity and high metals concentrations. Several trace metals exceed acute and chronic water quality standards and high concentrations are attributed to washoff from impervious surfaces. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Groundwater quality in the semi-arid region of the Chahardouly basin, West Iran

A. Taheri Tizro
Abstract Chahardouly basin is located in the western part of Iran and is characterized by semi-arid climatic conditions and scarcity in water resources. The main aquifer systems are developed within alluvial deposits. The availability of groundwater is rather erratic owing to the occurrence of hard rock formation and a saline zone in some parts of the area. The aquifer systems of the area show signs of depletion, which have taken place in recent years due to a decline in water levels. Groundwater samples collected from shallow and deep wells were analysed to examine the quality characteristics of groundwater. The major ion chemistry of groundwater is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3,, while higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater are associated with high concentrations of all major ions. An increase in salinity is recorded in the down-gradient part of the basin. The occurrence of saline groundwater, as witnessed by the high electrical conductivity (EC), may be attributed to the long residence time of water and the dissolution of minerals, as well as evaporation of rainfall and irrigation return flow. Based on SAR values and sodium content (%Na), salinity appears to be responsible for the poor groundwater quality, rendering most of the samples not suitable for irrigation use. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Isotope distribution of dissolved carbonate species in southeastern coastal aquifers of Sicily (Italy)

M. A. Schiavo
Abstract Concentrations of major ions and the ,13C composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater and submarine groundwater discharges in the area between Siracusa and Ragusa provinces, southeastern Sicily, representing coastal carbonate aquifers, are presented and discussed. Most of groundwater analysed belongs to calcium bicarbonate type, in agreement with the geological nature of carbonate host rocks. Carbonate groundwater acquires, besides the dissolution of carbonate minerals, dissolved carbon (and the relative isotopic composition) from the atmosphere and from soil biological activity. In fact, ,13C values and total dissolved inorganic carbon contents show that both these sources contribute to carbon dissolved species in the waters studied. Finally, mixing with seawater in the second main factor of groundwater mineralization Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mobility of major ions and nutrients in the unsaturated zone during paddy cultivation: a field study and solute transport modelling approach

N. Rajmohan
Abstract Study of the movement of water and solute within soil profiles is important for a number of reasons. Accumulation of prominent contaminants from agricultural chemicals in the unsaturated zone over the years is a major concern in many parts of the world. As a result, the unsaturated zone has been a subject of great research interest during the past decade. Hence, an intensive field study was conducted in a part of Palar and Cheyyar river basins to understand the variation of major ions and nutrients in the soil zone during paddy cultivation. The chloride and nitrate data were used to model the movement of these chemicals in the unsaturated zone using the HYDRUS-2D model. The field study shows that fertilizer application and irrigation return flow increases the major ions and nutrients concentration in the unsaturated zone. Further, the nutrient concentrations are regulated by plant uptake, fertilizer application and infiltration rate. Additionally, denitrification and soil mineralization processes also regulate the nitrogen concentration in the unsaturated zone. The solute transport modelling study concluded that the simulated results match reasonably with the observed trends. Simulated concentrations of chloride and nitrate for a 5-year period indicate that the concentrations of these ions fluctuate in a cyclic manner (from 60 to 68 mg l,1 and from 3·4 to 3·5 mg l,1 respectively in groundwater) with no upward and downward trend. The influence of excessive fertilizer application on groundwater was also modelled. The model predicts an increase of about 17 mg l,1 of chloride and 2·3 mg l,1 of nitrogen in the groundwater of this area when the application of fertilizers is doubled. The model indicates that the present level of use of agrochemicals is no threat to the groundwater quality. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

,The National Stream Quality Accounting Network: a flux-based approach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

Richard P. Hooper
Abstract Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: the Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A comparison of EDI with solvent-free MALDI and LDI for the analysis of organic pigments

Ichiro Kudaka
Abstract To evaluate the applicability of EDI to material analysis as a new ionization method, a comparison of EDI with solvent-free matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption ionization (LDI) was made for the analysis of organic pigments, e.g. Pigment Yellow 93, Pigment Yellow 180, and Pigment Green 36, as test samples, which are poorly soluble in standard solvents. In EDI, the samples were prepared in two ways: deposition of suspended samples in appropriate solvents and dried on the substrate, and the direct deposition of the powder samples on the substrate. No matrices were used. Both sample preparation methods gave similar mass spectra. Equally strong signals of [M + H]+ and [M , H], ions were observed with some fragment ions for azo pigments in the respective positive or negative mode of operation. For the powder sample of the phthalocyanine pigment PG36, M+, and [M + H]+ in the positive mode and M,, in the negative mode of operation were observed as major ions. Positive-mode, solvent-free MALDI gave M+, [M + H]+ and [M + Na]+ and negative mode gave [M , H], depending on the sample preparation. As solvent-free MALDI, EDI was also found to be an easy-to-operate, versatile method for the samples as received. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Complexation of CH3Hg+ with chloride, sulfate and carbonate in NaClO4: construction of thermodynamic models

J. Sanz
Abstract The complexation of CH3Hg+ with major ions present in sea and estuary waters (Cl,, SO42, and CO32,) was studied potentiometrically in an NaClO4 medium in the ionic strength range 0.1,3.0,mol,dm,3 at 25,°C. The potentiometric data, treated with non-linear least squares computer programs, led us to establish the formation of the species CH3HgCl in equilibrium with chloride, CH3Hg(SO4), species with sulfate and no complex with carbonate. The stoichiometric stability constants obtained at the different ionic strengths were correlated by means of the modified Bromley methodology (MBM) to determine the corresponding thermodynamic constants and interaction parameters. This study is the second of a series designed to simulate, using the MBM thermodynamic model, the behaviour of methylmercury in different conditions of sea and estuary waters. In the first study of the series, the hydrolysis equilibria of methylmercury in NaClO4 ionic media were established. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stocking strategies for production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in amended freshwater in inland ponds

Bartholomew W Green
Abstract The performance of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) under various stocking strategies was evaluated in earthen ponds filled with freshwater amended with major ions. Six 0.1-ha earthen ponds located in Pine Bluff, AR, USA, were filled with freshwater in 2003 and 2004, and potassium magnesium sulphate added to provide 50 mg K+ L,1 and stock salt added to provide 0.5 g L,1 salinity. In 2003, three ponds either were stocked with PL15 shrimp (39 PL m,2) for 125 days of grow out or with PL25 shrimp for 55 days (23 PL m,2) followed by a 65-day (28 PL m,2) grow-out period. In 2004, ponds were stocked with 7, 13 or 30 PL15 m,2 for 134 days of grow out. Salinity averaged 0.7 g L,1 during both years, and concentration of SO4,2, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ was higher, and Na+ and Cl, was lower in amended pond water than in seawater at 0.7 g L,1 salinity. Potassium concentration in amended water was 52,61% of the target concentration. Shrimp yields ranged from 3449 kg ha,1 in 2003 to 4966 kg ha,1 in 2004 in ponds stocked with 30,39 PL15 m,2 for a 125,134-day culture period. At harvest, mean individual weight ranged from 17.1 to 19.3 g shrimp,1. In ponds stocked with PL25 shrimp, yields averaged 988 and 2462 kg ha,1 for the 1st and 2nd grow-out periods respectively. Gross shrimp yield in 2004 increased linearly from 1379,4966 kg ha,1 with increased stocking rate. These experiments demonstrated that L. vannamei can be grown successfully in freshwater supplemented with major ions to a final salinity of 0.7 g L,1. [source]

Fractional contribution of major ions to the membrane potential of Drosophila melanogaster oocytes

Susan M. Munley
Abstract In ovarian follicles of Drosophila melanogaster, ion substitution experiments revealed that K+ is the greatest contributor (68%) in setting oocyte steady-state potential (Em), while Mg2+ and a metabolic component account for the rest. Because of the intense use made of Drosophila ovarian follicles in many lines of research, it is important to know how changes in the surrounding medium, particularly in major diffusible ions, may affect the physiology of the cells. The contributions made to the Drosophila oocyte membrane potential (Em) by [Na+]o, [K+]o, [Mg2+]o, [Ca2+]o, [Cl,]o, and pH (protons) were determined by substitutions made to the composition of the incubation medium. Only K+ and Mg2+ were found to participate in setting the level of Em. In follicles subjected to changes in external pH from the normal 7.3 to either pH 6 or pH 8, Em changed rapidly by about 6,mV, but within 8,min had returned to the original Em. Approximately half of all follicles exposed to reduced [Cl,]o showed no change in Em, and these all had input resistances of 330,k, or greater. The remaining follicles had smaller input resistances, and these first depolarized by about 5,mV. Over several minutes, their input resistances increased and they repolarized to a value more electronegative than their value prior to reduction in [Cl,]o. Together, K+ and Mg2+ accounted for up to 87% of measured steady-state potential. Treatment with sodium azide, ammonium vanadate, or chilling revealed a metabolically driven component that could account for the remaining 13%. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]