Major Involvement (major + involvement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Glutathione S -transferase detoxification as a potential pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais

Daniel B. Fragoso
Abstract Insecticide resistance patterns among 16 Brazilian populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were recognized by surveying resistance to three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, and pirimiphos-methyl) and three pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin). Two population clusters were obtained: one with three populations (Bragança Paulista, Cristalina, and Nova Andradina) showing low frequency of cypermethrin resistance (13,36%) and negligible frequency of deltamethrin resistance (2,9%); and another with six populations (Campos dos Goytacazes, Ivinhema, Patos de Minas, Penápolis, Uberlândia, and Venda Nova) showing low to negligible levels of pyrethroid resistance (0,23%). The remaining seven populations, including a susceptible, and a DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant reference populations (Sete Lagoas and Jacarezinho, respectively), were significantly different from each other and from the two recognized clusters. In contrast with pyrethroid resistance, organophosphate resistance was negligible except for chlorpyrifos-methyl in two populations (Fátima do Sul and Penápolis). There was no correlation between geographic distance and the Mahalanobis distance estimated from the resistance pattern ordination of the populations by canonical variate analysis, suggesting local selection and/or broad dispersal of resistant populations by grain trade. The results of biochemical in vitro studies measuring the activity of detoxification enzymes (esterases and glutathion S -transferases) in conjunction with canonical correlation analysis suggest a major involvement of enhanced conjugation by glutathione S -transferases (> 2-fold increase) in pyrethroid resistance and, in the case of cypermethrin resistance, enhanced phosphotriesterase activity. [source]

Tibolone Exerts Its Protective Effect on Trabecular Bone Loss Through the Estrogen Receptor

A. G. H. Ederveen
Abstract Tibolone (Org OD14) has estrogenic, progestogenic, and/or androgenic activity depending on the tissue. In postmenopausal women, tibolone prevents bone loss without stimulating the endometrium. Tibolone is effective in preventing trabecular bone loss from the peripheral and axial skeleton of young and old ovariectomized (OVX) rats by reducing bone turnover, that is, bone resorption, like estrogens. We evaluated the contribution of the various hormonal activities to tibolone's bone-conserving effect. Three-month-old OVX rats received tibolone (125 ,g/rat or 500 ,g/rat, twice daily), alone or combined with an antiestrogen, antiandrogen, or antiprogestogen, and the effects on trabecular bone mass and bone turnover were evaluated. Sham-operated and control OVX groups were treated with vehicle. The remaining OVX groups received oral doses of tibolone twice daily, alone or with twice daily (a) antiestrogen ICI 164.384, (b) antiandrogen flutamide, or (c) antiprogestogen Org 31710. For comparison, the effects of 17,-estradiol and testosterone were examined also. After 4 weeks, trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the distal femur, plasma osteocalcin, and urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio (Dpyr/Cr) were measured. Tibolone or 17,-estradiol significantly blocked ovariectomy-induced loss of trabecular BMD and inhibited bone resorption and bone turnover as judged by reduced Dpyr/Cr ratio and osteocalcin, respectively. These effects of both compounds were counteracted by the antiestrogen. This suggests a major involvement of the estrogen receptor in the action of tibolone on bone metabolism. However, the antiandrogen and the antiprogestogen did not counteract the effects of tibolone, excluding a major role of the androgenic and progestogenic activities of tibolone in its action against trabecular bone loss. The results indicate that tibolone acts on bone almost entirely through activation of the estrogen receptor. [source]

In vitro Metabolism of Genistein and Tangeretin by Human and Murine Cytochrome P450s

Vibeke M. Breinholt
Analysis of the metabolic profile from incubations with genistein and human liver microsomes revealed the production of five different metabolites, of which three were obtained in sufficient amounts to allow a more detailed elucidation of the structure. One of these metabolites was identified as orobol, the 3,-hydroxylated metabolite of genistein. The remaining two metabolites were also hydroxylated metabolites as evidenced by LC/MS. Orobol was the only metabolite formed after incubation with CYP1A2. The two major product peaks after incubation of tangeretin with human microsomes were identical with 4,-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone and 5,6-dihydroxy-4,,7,8-trimethoxyflavone, previously identified in rat urine in our laboratory. By comparison with UV spectra and LC/MS fragmentation patterns of previously obtained standards, the remaining metabolites eluting after 14, 17 and 20 min. were found to be demethylated at the 4,,7-, 4,,6-positions or hydroxylated at the 3,- and demethylated at the 4,-positions, respectively. Metabolism of tangeretin by recombinant CYP1A2, 3A4, 2D6 and 2C9 resulted in metabolic profiles that qualitatively were identical to those observed in the human microsomes. Inclusion of the CYP1A2 inhibitor fluvoxamine in the incubation mixture with human liver microsomes resulted in potent inhibition of tangeretin and genistein metabolism. Other isozymes-selective CYP inhibitors had only minor effects on tangeretin or genistein metabolism. Overall the presented observations suggest major involvement of CYP1A2 in the hepatic metabolism of these two flavonoids. [source]

The effect of ,two hit' neonatal and young-adult stress on dopaminergic modulation of prepulse inhibition and dopamine receptor density

Kwok Ho Christopher Choy
Background and purpose:, A combination of early neurodevelopmental insult(s) and young-adult stress exposure may be involved in the development of schizophrenia. We studied prepulse inhibition (PPI) regulation in rats after an early stress, maternal deprivation, combined with a later stress, simulated by chronic corticosterone treatment, and also determined whether changes in brain dopamine receptor density were involved. Experimental approach:, Rats were subjected to either 24 h maternal deprivation on postnatal day 9, corticosterone treatment from 8 to 10 weeks of age, or both. At 12 weeks of age, the rats were injected with 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg·kg,1 of apomorphine or 0.5 or 2.5 mg·kg,1 of amphetamine and PPI was determined using automated startle boxes. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor levels were assessed in the nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus using receptor autoradiography. Key results:, Young-adult treatment with corticosterone resulted in attenuated disruption of PPI by apomorphine and amphetamine. In some rats, maternal deprivation resulted in reduced baseline PPI which added to the effect of corticosterone treatment. There was no down-regulation of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. Conclusions and implications:, These results confirm and extend our finding of an inhibitory interaction of developmental stress on dopaminergic regulation of PPI. No corresponding changes in dopamine receptor density were observed in brain regions with a major involvement in PPI regulation, suggesting long-lasting desensitization of dopamine receptor signalling or indirect changes in PPI regulation. [source]