Major Indicator (major + indicator)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Residential Provision for Adult Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Ireland

Fiona Mulvany
Background, The type of accommodation provided for persons with an intellectual disability is a major indicator of the social policy for this client group. This is likely to vary within and across countries; hence the importance of undertaking national and international comparisons. Estimations of future need are also required to assist service planning. Method, A database of all persons in receipt of intellectual disability services has been operating in the Republic of Ireland since 1995. In Northern Ireland, regional databases were used to provide similar information. Results, Around 10 000 people live in some form of residential provision: 56% in special settings, 35% in ordinary housing and 9% in hospitals. Most residents were classed as having ,severe' disabilities and were aged over 35 years. There were marked differences in the amount and type of provision provided in the two parts of the island. This was also mirrored in differences across health service areas within each country. The demand for future places was greater in Northern Ireland. Conclusions, A planning target of 3.5 places per 1000 adult population is proposed although substantial investments in services is required to achieve this. Longitudinal surveys are an important way of monitoring the impact of new policy initiatives. [source]

Watershed characteristics, land use and fabric: The application of remote sensing and geographical information systems

Mohamad Khawlie
Abstract Integrated watershed assessment, especially relying on remote sensing (RS), is a newly established procedure in developing countries. It is proving to be a major component in river-basin environmental management. The recurrence of environmental problems in the Akkar El Kabir River watershed, as well as the lack of proper data on sources and sinks of pollutants, and the extent of human interference, led to the current study. Advanced geoinformation tools, such as RS and geographical information systems (GIS), prove to be a valuable asset in securing data on the fabric of the Akkar watershed in relation to its natural setting and anthropic interference. This is particularly true in the current study as the river constitutes the boundary between Lebanon and Syria. Remote sensing captures the watershed characteristics and land use on both sides without constraints. The natural fabric includes geology, drainage, hydrogeology, forest and soil. The anthropic fabric includes settlements, utilities, roads, agriculture and land use. If it were not for geoinformation techniques, the task of securing such data would be difficult. Also, these techniques show the impact of malpractices from excessive human interference that result in degradation of land and water quality. Changes in the watershed, such as environmental deterioration, are observed as water pollution, soil erosion, forest decline and socioeconomic imbalance. Obviously, this is the outcome of malpractices in a multisectorial system. A major challenge for RS and GIS is to quantify, model and predict, if possible, the extent of these changes. Remote sensing inherently captures the impact of interaction between nature and human beings. Detection of change is a major indicator that RS can contribute to the evaluation of the state of the environment. The application of it on this watershed reveals that significant changes have occurred over the last 10,15 years, most of which are anthropic. [source]

Rapid (partial) prescreening of cervical smears: the quality control method of choice?

Rapid rescreening of all negative and inadequate smears is the quality control method of choice in the UK. The sensitivity of primary screening of laboratory and individual screeners are major indicators of screening quality and are dependent on the number of false negative smears found by rapid screening for their calculation. High sensitivity may indicate good quality primary screening or poor quality rapid review. Quantifiably high quality rapid rescreening is essential if these sensitivity figures are to be meaningful. A 12-month study was undertaken in routine practice using the prescreening mode to ascertain the sensitivity of rapid (partial) screening in our department . The final results of smears were compared with those of rapid prescreening. The calculated sensitivity ranged from 92,54% for high-grade abnormalities and 75,33% for all grades, revealing a wide range of performance between individual prescreeners. Rapid prescreening can identify individuals best suited to rapid screening in routine practice. By using these prescreeners only, the sensitivity of cervical screening could be raised. Rapid (partial) prescreening should be considered as the quality control method of choice. [source]

Assessment of Emotions: Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and Curiosity

Charles D. Spielberger
Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity are major indicators of psychological distress and well-being that require careful assessment. Measuring these psychological vital signs is of critical importance in diagnosis, and can facilitate treatment by directly linking intense emotions to the events that give rise to them. The historical background regarding theory and research on anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity is briefly reviewed, and the nature and assessment of these emotional states and personality traits are examined. The construction and development of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the State-Trait Anger EXpression Inventory (STAXI-2), and the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) to assess anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity, and the major components of these emotional states and personality traits, are described in detail. Findings demonstrating the diverse utility and efficacy of these measures are also reported, along with guidelines for their interpretation and utilisation in research and clinical practice. Research with the STAI, STAXI and STPI over the last 40 years has contributed to understanding vitally important measurement concepts that are especially applicable to the assessment of emotions. These concepts included the state,trait distinction, item intensity specificity, and the importance of items that describe the presence or absence of emotions. [source]