Major Increase (major + increase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Amorphous orientation and its relationship to processing stages of blended polypropylene/polyethylene fibers

Amy M. Trottier
Abstract Changes in the molecular orientation, melting behavior, and percent crystallinity of the individual components in a fibrous blend of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that occur during the melt extrusion process were examined using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystalline orientation of each component was found using Wilchinsky's treatment of uniaxial orientation and described by the Hermans,Stein orientation parameter. The amorphous orientation was found by resolving the X-ray diffraction pattern in steps of the azimuthal angle into its iPP and HDPE crystalline and amorphous reflections. The utility of DSC and WAXD analyses to capture the effects of small differences in processing, and the use of these results as fingerprints of a particular manufacturing process were demonstrated. Major increases in the melting temperatures, percent crystallinities, and molecular orientations of the iPP and HDPE components occurred during the main stretching stage of the melt extrusion process. The annealing stage was found to have little to no effect on the melting behavior and molecular orientation of these components. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

Pain during depression and relationship to rejection sensitivity

A. Ehnvall
Objective:, Approximately 50% of patients with depression report symptoms of pain, yet the clinical and biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies, however, support the contention that depression, as well as pain distress and rejection distress, share the same neurobiological circuits. In this study, we aimed to examine the hypothesis that perception of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Method:, The present study analysed data from a study of 186 treatment-resistant depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for depression and had completed a self-report questionnaire regarding currently perceived pain and rejection sensitivity. Results:, A major increase in the experience of pain during depression was predicted by a major increase in rejection sensitivity during depression. Conclusion:, The experience of increased pain during depression is related to increased rejection sensitivity. Research to further elucidate this relationship is required. [source]

Lancashire, India, and shifting competitive advantage in cotton textiles, 1700,1850: the neglected role of factor prices1

In the early eighteenth century, wages in Britain were more than four times as high as in India, the world's major exporter of cotton textiles. This induced the adoption of more capital-intensive production methods in Britain and a faster rate of technological progress, so that competitive advantage had begun to shift in Britain's favour by the late eighteenth century. However, the completion of the process was delayed until after the Napoleonic Wars by increasing raw cotton costs, before supply adjusted to the major increase in demand for inputs. [source]

Temporal and spatial responses of British Columbia steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations to ocean climate shifts

The pattern of temporal change in recruitment of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) entering the ocean between 1963 and 1990 was geographically coherent in all regions of British Columbia. A major increase in recruitment was evident for smolts entering the ocean after 1977. Subsequently, an out-of-phase response occurred after 1990, indicating that the effect of a possible 1990 regime shift had both temporal and geographical structure. Steelhead entering northern regions had increasing recruitment, while steelhead entering southern BC coastal regions had sharply decreasing recruitment. The evidence clearly indicates that the overall recruitment response since 1977 was primarily shaped by changes in marine (not freshwater) survival. Similar sudden changes in adult recruitment also appear to be occurring for other species of Pacific salmon in BC and Oregon, such as coho (O. kisutch), which appear to occur suddenly and show considerable persistence. A possible explanation for the change is that ocean productivity declined in coastal regions of southern BC after 1990, reducing the marine growth of juvenile salmon. The Bakun upwelling index shows a pattern of geographical coherence along the west coast of North America that could in principle explain the observed pattern of changes in recruitment. However, no evidence for a temporal shift in this index occurring around 1977 and 1990 is apparent. The reason for the sudden and persistent decline in ocean survival is therefore uncertain. [source]

An Arctic and antarctic perspective on recent climate change

John Turner
Abstract We contrast recent climatic and environmental changes and their causes in the Arctic and the Antarctic. There are continuing increases in surface temperatures, losses of sea ice and tundra, and warming of permafrost over broad areas of the Arctic, while most of the major increase in Antarctic temperatures is on the Antarctic Peninsula associated with sea ice loss in the Bellingshausen,Amundsen Seas sector. While both natural atmospheric and oceanic variability, and changes in external forcing including increased greenhouse gas concentrations, must be considered in the quest for understanding such changes, the interactions and feedbacks between system components are particularly strong at high latitudes. For the 1950s to date in the Arctic and for 1957 to date in the Antarctic, positive trends in large-scale atmospheric circulation represented by the Arctic oscillation (AO) and Antarctic oscillations (AAO) and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern contribute to the long-term temperature trends. However, continuing Arctic trends during the last decade of near neutral AO will require alternate explanations. The trend in the AAO since 1950 is larger than expected from natural variability and may be associated with the decrease in stratospheric ozone over Antarctic. The persistence shown in many Arctic and Antarctic Peninsula components of climate and their influence through possible feedback supports continuation of current trends over the next decade. One can expect large spatial and temporal differences, however, from the relative contributions of intrinsic variability, external forcing, and internal feedback/amplifications. It is particularly important to resolve regional feedback processes in future projections based on modeling scenarios. Copyright 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

Trends in Social Security in East Africa: Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda

Ramadhani K. Dau
As elsewhere in the world and in Africa in particular, social security in the member countries of the East African Community (Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania, and Uganda) has long been provided through voluntary assistance under the traditional extended family system. Later, and more specifically after independence in the early 1960s, when the region had a major increase in the number of employees in the formal sector , both public and private , who were mainly located in urban centres, formal social security schemes started to gain recognition among employed workers. Thus over the years, the urban population became increasingly detached from rural communities where the traditional extended family system was most effective. In addition, their general standards of living rose to such levels that if they ceased to earn employment income for one reason or another their livelihood could not be sustained through the extended family system. The above social security development trends have resulted even today in societies examining and determining ways to improve social protection beyond the formal sector so as to ensure arrangements are put in place for a large part of the working population to be provided with social security insurance during their working life and after retirement. [source]

The Proof of the Pudding: The Effects of Increased Trade Transparency in the London Stock Exchange

John Board
The trade publication rules of the London Stock Exchange were changed on 1 January, 1996, to increase transparency. This paper investigates whether these changes affected market behaviour by examining data on 60 firms from the FTSE 100, FTSE Mid 250 and the FTSE Small Cap indices before and after this rule change. This study finds there has been a major increase in transparency, with no detrimental effects on the quality of the market. In particular, neither the volume nor the traded bid-ask spread has been adversely affected. [source]

HCV genotypes in Sicily: Is there any evidence of a shift?

Paola Pizzillo
Abstract The distribution of HCV strains in any area is characterized by a relative prevalence of one genotype, and a number of less prevalent types. In some Western countries a change from the prevalent HCV genotype 1 to genotypes 3 and 4 has been reported in the last decade. In order to assess possible variations of the distribution of HCV genotypes in Sicily, a southern region of Italy, a hospital-based cohort, collected prospectively, of 3,209 subjects with chronic HCV infection was surveyed, comparing the distribution of HCV genotypes during two consecutive periods, from 1997 to 2002 and from 2003 to 2007, according to age and gender. The results show that genotype 1b, which has been historically the most prevalent in Sicily, is still predominant, followed more distantly by genotypes 2 and 3a. However, a cohort effect for these genotypes was seen when comparing the two time periods. Genotype 1b decreased slowly over the last decade, due to the death of the people infected, leading to a proportional increase of the other genotypes. No evidence was found in support of a major increase in the prevalence of other genotypes, such as genotype 4, in relation to migration patterns. J. Med. Virol. 81:1040,1046, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

EGF and NGF injected into the brain of old mice enhance BDNF and ChAT in proliferating subventricular zone

Paola Tirassa
Abstract The response of cells localized in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) to growth factor stimulation has been largely described for development and adult life, whereas no information on their behavior during aging is available. To address the question of whether the cells in the SVZ of old mice respond to the intracerebroventricular administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), we studied the distribution of proliferating cells and the effects on ChAT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) synthesis in forebrain and SVZ. It was found that the conjoint administration of EGF + NGF produced a major increase in ChAT expression in both forebrain and SVZ. The ChAT mRNA levels and the number of ChAT positive cells localized in the ventricular border and in the parenchyma of SVZ area were also increased significantly in the mice receiving EGF + NGF. Enhanced numbers of SVZ cells expressing proliferative markers were also discovered in EGF + NGF treated mice and some of these cells expressed cholinergic markers, as demonstrated by double immunostaining. In addition, EGF and NGF treatments significantly upregulate BDNF protein and mRNA levels in this brain region. The present study demonstrates that cells localized in SVZ of aged mouse brain retain the capacity to respond to EGF and NGF and that after stimulation with these two growth factors, the synthesis of ChAT and BDNF also increases. The implication that cells of the SVZ remain a reservoir of cholinergic and BDNF-positive neurons in aged brain opens a new perspective for understanding the role of growth factors during neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Inbreeding and demographic transition in the Orozco Valley (Basque Country, Spain)

J.A. Pea
Inbreeding in the Orozco Valley (Basque Country, Spain) between the 18th and 20th centuries was investigated on the basis of ecclesiastical dispensations and surname lists. The variations over time are very similar to those observed elsewhere in Europe, with a major increase in the coefficient of inbreeding in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This is due mainly to an increase in marriages between first cousins. A highly marked decrease in inbreeding is observed during the 20th century. The secular trends described by the coefficient calculated on the basis of dispensations and by that calculated on isonymy are very similar. The nonrandom component of isonymy reveals a selective search for a related spouse during the period of maximum inbreeding. These results are associated with the process of demographic transition which affected European populations as a whole in the 19th century, resulting in a greater availability of kin among potential mates and thus enabling inbreeding to increase to levels far higher than those observed for earlier centuries. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14:713,720, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Endometrial cells as a predictor of uterine cancer

Adrian R. HEARD
Abstract Background:, With the recent cervix screening national guidelines recommending against reporting of benign endometrial cells, we examined South Australian data to see what impact this would have on detecting uterine cancers. Aims:, To test whether benign endometrial cells detected in cervical cytology testing confer an increased risk of uterine cancer, and to ascertain what percentage of uterine cancers will be missed in cervical screening programs if these cells are not reported. Methods:, The study was a retrospective cohort design of 1585 women with shed endometrial cells, each matched with three women without shed cells. All were linked with cancer registry data to check for uterine cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to check for any increase in cancer risk with shed endometrial cells. Using the calculated relative risks for uterine cancer diagnosis, we estimated the number of uterine cancers in South Australia associated with benign endometrial cells. Results:, The presence of benign endometrial cells in a cervical cytology test increases the risk of uterine cancer sixfold. However, screening women with benign cells would involve a major increase in pathology work for only an 18% increase in uterine cancers detected. Conclusions:, Until cytology systems have a higher sensitivity in detecting which benign endometrial cells are associated with uterine cancer, pathology laboratories are unlikely to be required to report these cells on tests. Inability to adjust for symptomatic status may have reduced the relevance of the results in this study. [source]

Aboriginal deaths in Western Australia: 1985,89 and 1990,94

Michael Gracey
Objective: To examine death data for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons in Western Australia (WA) in 1985,89 and 1990,94. Methods: Population estimates were provided by the Health Information Centre of the WA Health Department based on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Death data came from the WA Registrar-General's Office. Standard methods were used to obtain rates and levels of significance. Results: Main causes of deaths among Aboriginal males in 1990,94 were circulatory conditions, respiratory, injury and poisoning, neoplasms and endocrine diseases; in Aboriginal females they were circulatory, neoplasms, endocrine diseases, respiratory diseases, and injury and poisoning. From 1985,89 to 1990,94, the Aboriginal male all-cause age-standardised death rates fell 3% (ns) while the non-Aboriginal male rate fell 11% (p<0.05). The Aboriginal female all-cause death rate rose 11% (ns) while the non-Aboriginal rate fell 5% (p<0.05). The allcause death rate ratio (Aboriginahnon-Aboriginal) changed from 2.4 to 2.6 (males) and 2.5 to 2.9 (females). There was a major increase in deaths from endocrine diseases among Aborigines and non-Aborigines. This increase was proportionally much greater among Aborigines. In non-Aborigines there was a significant decrease in deaths from circulatory diseases (mainly ischaemic heart disease); this did not occur among Aborigines. Conclusions: Over the study period, Aboriginal health standards, as reflected by death rates, apparently worsened relative to non-Aboriginal standards. Implications: Better health promotion, disease prevention and disease care are required to help achieve acceptable health standards among Aboriginal peoples. [source]

Arterial remodelling in Fabry disease

P Boutouyrie
Aim: The enzymatic defect in Fabry disease results in the slow systemic deposition of uncleaved glycosphingolipids in the lysosomes of vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells, leading to ischaemic strokes, cardiomyopathy and renal failure. Whereas it is known that Fabry disease affects small blood vessels, little is known about its effects on peripheral large arteries. We therefore set out to compare parameters of arterial wall structure and function in a cohort of patients with Fabry disease and an age-matched control group. Methods: Large artery phenotype was non-invasively investigated in 21 hemizygous patients with Fabry disease and 24 age-matched male controls. Common carotid and radial artery diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT) and distensibility were determined with high-definition echotracking systems and aplanation tonometry. Results: Patients with Fabry disease had a significant twofold increase in radial artery IMT and distensibility, independent of body surface area, age and mean blood pressure. In both groups, older age at the time of examination was significantly associated with larger radial artery IMT. The relationship between age and radial IMT was 2.3-fold higher in patients with Fabry disease than in controls (p > 0.01). Carotid IMT was mildly but significantly increased in patients with Fabry disease (+18%), whereas distensibility was unchanged. Conclusion: This study presents evidence of a major increase in arterial wall thickness and distensibility, measurable at the site of a medium-sized artery, in a cohort of patients with classic Fabry disease. [source]

Relationship of topography to surface water chemistry with particular focus on nitrogen and organic carbon solutes within a forested watershed in Hokkaido, Japan

Akiko Ogawa
Abstract We studied the relationships between streamwater chemistry and the topography of subcatchments in the Dorokawa watershed in Hokkaido Island, northern Japan, to examine the use of topography as a predictor of streamwater chemistry in a watershed with relatively moderate terrain compared with other regions of Japan. Topographic characteristics of the Dorokawa watershed and its subcatchments were expressed as topographic index (TI) values, which ranged from 45 to 204 for individual grid cells (50 50 m2), but averaged from 64 to 74 for the 20 subcatchments. Streamwater samples for chemical analyses were collected four times between June and October 2002 from 20 locations in the watershed. The pH of water that passed through the watershed increased from ,50 to 70, with major increases in Na+ and Ca2+ and marked decreases in NO3, and SO. Distinctive spatial patterns were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and NO3, concentrations of streamwater across the watershed. Statistical analyses indicated significant linear relationships between the average TI values of subcatchments and DOC, DON, and NO3, concentrations. Furthermore, the proportion of DOC in streamwaters in the wet season increased with TI values relative to other nitrogen species, whereas NO3, concentrations decreased with TI. The gradients of soil wetness and the presence of wetlands explained many of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of DOC, DON, and NO3, concentrations in the surface waters of the Dorokawa watershed. Our results suggest that the TI is especially useful for predicting the spatial distribution of DOC, DON and NO3, in the surface waters of Hokkaido, where topographical relief is moderate and wetlands more common than in other regions of Japan. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Early detection of acute kidney injury: Emerging new biomarkers (Review Article)

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2008
SUMMARY: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has recently become the preferred term to describe the syndrome of acute renal failure (ARF) with ,failure' or ,ARF' restricted to patients who have AKI and need renal replacement therapy.1 This allows capture of the broader clinical spectrum of modest reductions in creatinine, which are themselves known to be associated with major increases in both short- and long-term mortality risk.2,5 It is hoped that this change in nomenclature will facilitate an expansion of our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and also facilitate definitions of AKI, which allow comparisons among clinical trials of patients with similar duration and severity of illness. This review will cover the need for early detection of AKI and the role of urinary and plasma biomarkers, including enzymuria. The primary message is that use of existing criteria to diagnose AKI, namely elevation of the serum creatinine with or without oliguria, results in identification that is too late to allow successful intervention. New biomarkers are essential to change the dire prognosis of this common condition. [source]


Abstract:, The fossil record documents two mutually exclusive macroevolutionary modes separated by the transitional Ediacaran Period. Despite the early appearance of crown eukaryotes and an at least partially oxygenated atmosphere, the pre-Ediacaran biosphere was populated almost exclusively by microscopic organisms exhibiting low diversity, no biogeographical partitioning and profound morphological/evolutionary stasis. By contrast, the post-Ediacaran biosphere is characterized by large diverse organisms, bioprovinciality and conspicuously dynamic macroevolution. The difference can be understood in terms of the unique escalatory coevolution accompanying the early Ediacaran introduction of eumetazoans, followed by their early Cambrian (Tommotian) expansion into the pelagic realm. Eumetazoans reinvented the rules of macroecology through their invention of multitrophic food webs, large body size, life-history trade-offs, ecological succession, biogeography, major increases in standing biomass, eukaryote-dominated phytoplankton and the potential for mass extinction. Both the pre-Ediacaran and the post-Ediacaran biospheres were inherently stable, but the former derived from the simplicity of superabundant microbes exposed to essentially static, physical environments, whereas the latter is based on eumetazoan-induced diversity and dynamic, biological environments. The c. 100-myr Ediacaran transition (extending to the base of the Tommotian) can be defined on evolutionary criteria, and might usefully be incorporated into the Phanerozoic. [source]

The European Commission on Factors Influencing Labor Migration

Article first published online: 27 JAN 200
A controversial issue in discussions on enlargement of the European Union beyond its existing membership of 15 countries is the migration flows that admission of new members could generate. Given major differences in income and wage levels between the EU states and the candidates for membership, casual theorizing suggests that the potential for massive international migration is very high. The fact that such migration has thus far been of modest size by most plausible criteria is attributed to the restrictive policies of the potential destination countries, policies that reflect national interests, in particular protection of labor markets, as perceived by voting majorities. With accession to membership in the EU this factor is removed: a cardinal principle of the Union, established by treaty, is the free movement of persons, including persons seeking gainful employment. The factors governing migratory movements between member states then come to resemble those that shape internal migration. This should facilitate analysis and forecasting. A clear sorting-out of the relevant forces affecting such "internal" migration remains of course an essential precondition for success in that task. An "Information note," entitled The Free Movement of Workers in the Context of Enlargement, issued by the European Commission, the EU's Executive Body, on 6 March 2001, presents extensive discussion of relevant information, opinion, and policy options concerning its topic. (The document is available at An Annex to the document. Factors Influencing Labour Movement, is a lucid enumeration of the factors migration theory considers operative in determining the migration of workers and, by extension, of people at large, that is likely to ensue upon EU enlargement. This annex is reproduced below. As is evident from the catalog of factors and their likely complex interactions, making quantitative forecasts of future migration flows, envisaged primarily as originating from countries to be newly admitted to the EU and destined for the countries of the current EU15, is exceedingly difficult. This is reflected in disparities among the existing studies that have made such forecasts. Yet there appears to be a fair degree of agreement that major increases in migration are unlikely, suggesting that the overall effect on the EU15 labor market should be limited. Typical forecasts (detailed in the Information note cited above) anticipate that in the initial year after admission, taken to be 2003, total migration from the eight prime candidate countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: the "CC8") might amount to around 200,000 persons, roughly one-third of which would be labor migration. According to these forecasts, the annual flow will gradually diminish in subsequent years. After 10 to 15 years the stock of CC8 migrants in the EU15 might be on the order of 1.8 to 2.7 million. The longer-run migration potential from the candidate countries would be on the order of 1 percent of the present EU population, currently some 375 million. (The combined current population of the CC8 is 74 million.) Such predictions are in line with the relatively minor migratory movements that followed earlier admissions to the EU of countries with then markedly lower per capita incomes, such as Spain and Portugal. The geographic impact of migration ensuing from enlargement would, however, be highly uneven, with Germany and Austria absorbing a disproportionately large share. Accordingly, and reflecting a prevailing expectation in these two countries that enlargement would have some short-run disruptive effects on labor markets, some of the policy options discussed envisage a period of transition following enlargement,perhaps five to seven years,during which migration would remain subject to agreed-upon restrictions. [source]