Major Incidents (major + incident)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

What risk should public accept from chemical process facilities?

Ernst Meyer
Abstract Major incidents in chemical process plants such as Bhopal have raised the questions of facility, safety, and security by stakeholders and interest groups. How will the facility be perceived as safe given the possible consequences? No one denies that there have been improvements in process safety since Bhopal and many safety regulations have come into effect. The public may still question whether it is safe to live or work near a chemical plant today. This paper discusses the risk that the public should accept under governmental leadership and guidance. Also discussed is how the chemical process industry should ensure risk acceptance criteria compliance and maintenance of compliance throughout the lifetime of a facility. Safety may be enforced by compliance with a pre-defined set of risk acceptance criteria. These criteria may be absolute and tangible, but in some cases are more abstract. Different practices are seen among different countries, states, and regions as well as between different industry segments. This paper discusses the meaning of risk acceptance criteria and how exposed people and regulatory bodies should relate to the criteria. 2007 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2007 [source]

The Derryhirk Inn incident: The psychological sequelae

Oscar E. Daly
Abstract A major incident occurred in a Northern Ireland bar in March 1997. One hundred and fifty customers were held at gunpoint. No one sustained any serious physical injury. Six months after the incident 68 individuals were assessed by means of a semistructured interview. Higher than expected levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were found. The severity of the incident, but not perceived life threat, was associated with the development of PTSD. The results of this preliminary study show that even in the absence of physical injury, significant psychopathology can occur. [source]

Incident Command Skills in the Management of an Oil Industry Drilling Incident: a Case Study

M.T. Crichton
The successful management of a complex, hazardous event in many domains demands a high level of incident command skills. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, these skills were required by members of an Incident Management Team (IMT) established to respond the failure of a drilling riser in the Gulf of Mexico. When an incident occurs, members of an industrial IMT form an interdisciplinary, interdependent, but ad-hoc team. As actual experience of dealing with major incidents of this nature is relatively rare, IMT members have to rely on emergency exercises in training, along with existing domain-specific knowledge. Following a serious incident on an offshore drilling rig, semi-structured interviews with the on-shore strategic and tactical level IMT members (n=7) were conducted. These interviews have resulted in the identification and definition of incident command skills for members of an industrial IMT, namely decision making, situation awareness, communication, leadership, and teamwork, all of which can be affected by stress, as well as organisational factors that influenced the outcome of the incident. Limitations in current incident management training were identified, namely the need for specific incident command skills training. A framework is suggested around which specific incident command skills training can be structured. Key learnings from this case study are also presented which can provide guidance for the training and preparation of industrial incident management teams. [source]

Control and legacy as functions of perceived criticality in major incidents

Jonathan Crego
Abstract This paper outlines a model that captures the experiences of 28 Senior Officers who have managed some of the most significant police incidents in the UK in the past 5 years. The process for capturing the model rests on ,pragmatic psychology' (Fishman, 1999; Alison, West & Goodwill, 2003), a paradigm that recognizes practitioners' experiences as a central component of research and policy development. We utilized a set of connected electronic notebooks to enable each critical incident manager to log their experiences and views of the case that they managed. As each individual logs this information, it is simultaneously distributed to all participants. Thus, information is rapidly shared, stimulating further thought and discussion. Following the initial knowledge-sharing phase, participants reorder the material into themed categories that can then be scored against specific criteria (in this case ,impact' and ,ease'). This session revealed that senior officers consider a combination of two co-occurring issues as most significant in defining the ,criticality' of the incident: (i) how direct an impact the facet has on the enquiry at hand; and (ii) whether that issue will influence how the service will be judged (by the community, the victims and the media). These issues were perceived as the most complex and difficult to deal with. We argue that this perception is a joint function of perceived lack of control alongside the belief that judgment and blame regarding the incident will ultimately reside with them as managers. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]