Maintenance Respiration (maintenance + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

PERSPECTIVE: Rethinking the value of high wood density

Markku Larjavaara
Summary 1.,Current thinking holds that wood density mediates a tradeoff between strength and economy of construction, with higher wood density providing higher strength but at higher cost. 2.,Yet the further away wood fibres are from the central axis of the trunk, the more they increase the strength of the trunk; thus, a fat trunk of low-density wood can achieve greater strength at lower construction cost than a thin trunk of high-density wood. 3.,What then are the countervailing advantages of high wood density? 4.,We hypothesize that high wood density is associated with lower maintenance costs due to lower trunk surface area, as surface area correlates with maintenance respiration. 5.,This advantage would be particularly important to long-lived trees and could in part explain why they tend to have high wood density. 6.,High wood density has also been associated with lower risk of trunk breakage, xylem implosion and pathogen invasion, but we argue that these relationships are not causal and instead reflect correlated selection on other traits of value to long-lived trees. 7.,This revaluation of the costs and benefits of high wood density has important implications for understanding tree life-history evolution, functional diversity, forest carbon stocks and the impacts of global change. [source]

Growth and maintenance respiration for individual plants in hierarchically structured canopies of Medicago sativa and Helianthus annuus: the contribution of current and old assimilates

Markus Ltscher
Summary ,,Respiratory costs of Medicago sativa and Helianthus annuus individuals growing in hierarchically structured stands in a controlled environment were analysed with regard to the daily rate of carbon (C) assimilation. ,,Net assimilation of new C (An, g C d,1) and respiration rates of new (Rnew, g C d,1) and old C (Rold, g C d,1) were assessed by 13CO2 labelling and gas exchange measurements. ,,Specific respiration rate of old C (rold, g C g,1 C d,1) decreased exponentially with increasing shoot biomass, but was not affected by the instantaneous relative growth rate (,wi). The growth coefficient g (Rnew: An) was c. 0.32. In the most severely shaded subordinate plants, g was < 0.2, but low g stimulated rold. The contribution of Rnew to total respiraton (fR, new) and the carbon use efficiency CUE (1 , R/(An +Rnew)) were c. 0.68 and 0.62 for ,wi > 0.1, respectively. For ,wi < 0.1, fR, new and CUE decreased with decreasing ,wi in both dominant and subordinate plants. ,,The results suggest that Rold was closely related to maintenance, whereas Rnew was primarily involved in growth. [source]

Respiratory Q10 of marigold (Tagetes patula) in response to long-term temperature differences and its relationship to growth and maintenance respiration

Marc W. Van Iersel
Acclimation of respiration to temperature is not well understood. To determine whether whole plant respiration responses to long-term temperature treatments can be described using the Q10 concept, the CO2 exchange rate of marigolds (Tagetes patula L. ,Queen Sophia'), grown at 20C or 30C, was measured for 62 days. When plants of the same age were compared, plants grown at 20C consistently had a higher specific respiration (Rspc) than plants grown at 30C (long-term Q10= 0.71,0.97). This was due to a combination of greater dry mass at 30C and a decrease in Rspc with increasing mass. When plants of the same dry mass were compared, the long-term Q10 was 1.35,1.55; i.e. Rspc was higher at 30C than at 20C. Whole plant respiration could be accurately described by dividing respiration into growth and maintenance components. The maintenance respiration coefficient was higher at 30C than at 20C, while the growth respiration coefficient was lower at 30C, partly because of temperature-dependent changes in plant composition. These results suggest difficulties with interpreting temperature effects on whole plant respiration, because conclusions depend greatly on whether plants of the same age or mass are compared. These difficulties can be minimized by describing whole plant respiration on the basis of growth and maintenance components. [source]

Carbon use efficiency depends on growth respiration, maintenance respiration, and relative growth rate.

A case study with lettuce
ABSTRACT Carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between the amount of carbon incorporated into dry matter to the amount of carbon fixed in gross photosynthesis) is an important parameter in estimating growth rate from photosynthesis data or models. It previously has been found to be relatively constant among species and under different environmental conditions. Here it is shown that CUE can be expressed as a function of the relative growth rate (rGR) and the growth (gr) and maintenance respiration coefficients (mr): 1/CUE = 1 + gr + mr/rGR. Net daily carbon gain (Cdg), rGR, and CUE were estimated from whole-plant gas exchange measurements on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) ranging from 24 to 66 d old. Carbon use efficiency decreased from 0.6 to 0.2 with increasing dry mass, but there was no correlation between CUE and Cdg. The decrease in CUE with increasing dry mass was correlated with a simultaneous decrease in rGR. From the above equation, gr and mr were estimated to be 0.48 mol mol,1 and 0.039 g glucose g,1 dry matter d,1, respectively. Based on the gr estimate, the theoretical upper limit for CUE of these plants was 0.68. The importance of maintenance respiration in the carbon balance of the plants increased with increasing plant size. Maintenance accounted for 25% of total respiration in small plants and 90% in large plants. [source]

Cell wall biochemistry and biomechanics of harvested white asparagus shoots as affected by temperature

W.B. Herppich
Abstract The effects of temperature on the dynamics of changes in shoot mechanical properties, cell wall components, relevant soluble sugars and respiration activity of harvested white asparagus spears were investigated during a 7-day storage period. All functional cell wall components of asparagus spears increased closely temperature dependent. The content of soluble glucose declined with a similar temporal dynamics and to a comparable degree, indicating a major carbon flow of this storage sugar into cell walls (60,70%). Irrespective of temperature, the contents of stored soluble fructose and sucrose remained more or less constant. Lower temperatures reduced cell wall development but do not significantly affect the relative carbon flow from storage sugars into cell walls or maintenance respiration. Compared with cell walls, maintenance respiration is by far the smaller carbon sink in stored asparagus spears. Temperature differentially affects the absolute amount and the relative contribution of the different cell wall components and the temporal dynamics of changes in structural carbohydrate and lignin content. At higher temperatures, secondary cell wall thickening resulted mainly from a large increase in cellulose content. The pronounced increase in the fractions of cellulose and especially lignin may stress the important role of lignin in cell wall strengthening. While the fraction of cell wall proteins decreased, those of hemicellulose and the pectic components were not influenced. [source]