Male-male Competition (male-male + competition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Female Choice, Female Reluctance to Mate and Sexual Selection on Body Size in the Dung Fly Sepsis cynipsea

ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2000
Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
We investigated the mechanisms of sexual selection in the common dung fly Sepsis cynipsea and how these affect selection on body size at the population level. Because of the presumed costs associated with mating, we predicted that there would be a decrease in the general reluctance of females to mate with any particular male at higher male densities at the mating site, a fresh cow pat, resulting in indirect female choice and a decrease in the strength of sexual selection. In contrast, classical direct female choice and male-male competition should result in increased selection intensities because more opportunities for choice and competition exist at higher densities. Female reluctance to mate and female assessment of males are expressed in prominent female behaviour to repel mates in several insect species, including S. cynipsea. Laboratory pair-wise choice experiments showed that large males were more likely to obtain copulations, which also ensued more promptly, suggesting female assessment of male quality (direct female choice). There was a basic influence of male activity but little further effect of male scramble competition on the outcome of mating. Another laboratory experiment showed a decrease in female shaking duration per male, associated with an asymptote in the shaking duration per female, as male density and harassment increased, but did not show the increase in mating frequency predicted by the female reluctance hypothesis. A study estimating sexual selection differentials in the field showed that directional selection for larger males was present overall and was negatively related to seasonally mediated variation in male density. Our study suggests that direct female choice in combination with indirect female choice (due to an interaction of female reluctance to mate and male persistence) is most consistent with the behavioural and selection patterns observed in S. cynipsea, but male effects cannot be definitively excluded. [source]


DOES LARGE BODY SIZE IN MALES EVOLVE TO FACILITATE FORCIBLE INSEMINATION?

EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2005
A STUDY ON GARTER SNAKES
Abstract A trend for larger males to obtain a disproportionately high number of matings, as occurs in many animal populations, typically is attributed either to female choice or success in male-male rivalry; an alternative mechanism, that larger males are better able to coercively inseminate females, has received much less attention. For example, previous studies on garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at communal dens in Manitoba have shown that the mating benefit to larger body size in males is due to size-dependent advantages in male-male rivalry. However, this previous work ignored the possibility that larger males may obtain more matings because of male-female interactions. In staged trials within outdoor arenas, larger body size enhanced male mating success regardless of whether a rival male was present. The mechanism involved was coercion rather than female choice, because mating occurred most often (and soonest) in females that were least able to resist courtship-induced hypoxic stress. Males do physically displace rivals from optimal positions in the mating ball, and larger males are better able to resist such displacement. Nonetheless, larger body size enhances male mating success even in the absence of such malemale interactions. Thus, even in mating systems where males compete physically and where larger body size confers a significant advantage in male-male competition, the actual selective force for larger body size in males may relate to forcible insemination of unreceptive females. Experimental studies are needed to determine whether the same situation occurs in other organisms in which body-size advantages have been attributed to male-male rather than male-female interactions. [source]


Geographic variation in the function of ornaments in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas

JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Peter O. Dunn
We used controlled aviary experiments to study the role of male ornaments in male-male competition and female choice in the common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, a sexually dichromatic warbler. Previous aviary studies in Wisconsin, USA, indicated that males with larger black facial masks were dominant over males with smaller masks and preferred by females in mate choice experiments. In this study, we replicated those experiments in a population in New York, USA, where male mating success was related more consistently to the size of the yellow bib (throat, breast, and belly) than to the size of the mask. Similar to the study in Wisconsin, we found that males with larger masks were more likely to be dominant in New York, however, we found that males with larger bibs were preferred by females in New York, and there was no significant preference for males with larger masks. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carotenoid-based ornaments are selected by female choice and melanin-based ornaments are selected by male-male competition. However, the pattern of female choice appears to vary between New York and Wisconsin. This geographic difference could be related to a variety of environmental factors (habitat, carotenoid and parasite abundance) that affect the costs and benefits of choosing males with particular ornaments in each location. [source]


The enemy: a twenty-first century archetypal study

PSYCHOTHERAPY AND POLITICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010
Maxine Sheets-Johnstone
Abstract This paper delineates the biologically based archetype of the enemy, showing how it derives ideationally and affectively from the archetype of the stranger, the latter an evolutionary given within the lives of animate creatures. In doing so, it both extends Jung's classic exposition of archetypes and sustains their relationship to instincts. It shows how globalization magnifies the archetype of the enemy; how, in a living sense, stranger and archetype are taxonomically distinct; and how, just as the enemy is the cultural elaboration of the biologically based archetype of the stranger, so war is the cultural elaboration of male-male competition. In elucidating these aspects of the enemy, it makes explicit reference to Darwin's lengthy descriptive writings about male-male competition across invertebrate and vertebrate species. Key implications and ramifications are discussed on the basis of both Jung's and Darwin's insights into what is commonly known as ,the mind/body problem.' Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]