Maize Weevil (maize + weevil)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Glutathione S -transferase detoxification as a potential pyrethroid resistance mechanism in the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais

Daniel B. Fragoso
Abstract Insecticide resistance patterns among 16 Brazilian populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were recognized by surveying resistance to three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos-methyl, malathion, and pirimiphos-methyl) and three pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin). Two population clusters were obtained: one with three populations (Bragança Paulista, Cristalina, and Nova Andradina) showing low frequency of cypermethrin resistance (13,36%) and negligible frequency of deltamethrin resistance (2,9%); and another with six populations (Campos dos Goytacazes, Ivinhema, Patos de Minas, Penápolis, Uberlândia, and Venda Nova) showing low to negligible levels of pyrethroid resistance (0,23%). The remaining seven populations, including a susceptible, and a DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant reference populations (Sete Lagoas and Jacarezinho, respectively), were significantly different from each other and from the two recognized clusters. In contrast with pyrethroid resistance, organophosphate resistance was negligible except for chlorpyrifos-methyl in two populations (Fátima do Sul and Penápolis). There was no correlation between geographic distance and the Mahalanobis distance estimated from the resistance pattern ordination of the populations by canonical variate analysis, suggesting local selection and/or broad dispersal of resistant populations by grain trade. The results of biochemical in vitro studies measuring the activity of detoxification enzymes (esterases and glutathion S -transferases) in conjunction with canonical correlation analysis suggest a major involvement of enhanced conjugation by glutathione S -transferases (> 2-fold increase) in pyrethroid resistance and, in the case of cypermethrin resistance, enhanced phosphotriesterase activity. [source]

Susceptibility of various developmental stages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Col., Curculionidae) to methyl iodide in brown rice

S. I. Faruki
Abstract:, The efficacy of methyl iodide (MI) as a fumigant against all developmental stages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. was investigated. Tests were conducted with concentrations of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.4, 2.7 and 3.0 mg/l, for a 6-h exposure period. Values of LC50, LC95 and LC99 of MI for immatures and adult stages were determined. The present laboratory tests showed that MI was toxic to various life stages of S. zeamais at relatively short exposure periods. At the LC50 and LC95 levels, the most susceptible stage was the egg stage followed by larvae, pupae and adults (1-day mortality). The egg was found to be most susceptible to MI, requiring 0.81 and 2.16 mg/l for 50 and 99% mortality, respectively, while the adult was most tolerant, requiring 2.30 and 3.02 mg/l for 50 and 99% mortality, respectively, based on 1-day mortality count. Pupae were less susceptible to MI than egg and larvae, requiring 1.47 and 3.19 mg/l for 50 and 99% mortality, respectively. Based on the present toxicity tests, MI has the potential for use as a fumigant to control all developmental stages of the maize weevil, S. zeamais. [source]

Fumigation toxicity of volatile natural and synthetic cyanohydrins to stored-product pests and activity as soil fumigants

Dong-Sik Park
Abstract Insecticidal fumigation toxicity of natural and synthetic cyanohydrins was evaluated with four stored-product pests: the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L, the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) and the house fly, Musca domestica L. The fumigation LC50 values were calculated by probit analysis. For house flies, all but one of the cyanohydrins tested were more potent than 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone®). Three were as efficacious as chloropicrin. For the lesser grain borer, all cyanohydrins tested were more insecticidal than dichloropropene, and all but one were more potent than chloropicrin. Four were as insecticidal as dichlorvos. The acetate of 1-cyano-1-hydroxy-2-propene (CHP-ace) was also tested in soil for antifungal and antibacterial activity, and inhibition of weed seed germination. CHP-ace reduced the total soil bacterial and fungal counts significantly, and was effective in inhibiting the germination of weed seeds in soil, indicating a broad spectrum of activity as a soil fumigant. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]