Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Differential age-related changes in motor unit properties between elbow flexors and extensors

B. H. Dalton
Abstract Aim:, Healthy adult ageing of the human neuromuscular system is comprised of changes that include atrophy, weakness and slowed movements with reduced spinal motor neurone output expressed by lower motor unit discharge rates (MUDRs). The latter observation has been obtained mostly from hand and lower limb muscles. The purpose was to determine the extent to which elbow flexor and extensor contractile properties, and MUDRs in six old (83 ± 4 years) and six young (24 ± 1 years) men were affected by age, and whether any adaptations were similar for both muscle groups. Methods:, Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation, twitch contractile properties, force,frequency relationship and MUDRs from sub-maximal to maximal intensities were assessed in the elbow flexors and extensors. Results:, Both flexor and extensor MVCs were significantly (P < 0.05) less (,42% and ,46% respectively) in the old than in the young. Contractile speeds and the force,frequency relationship did not show any age-related differences (P > 0.05). For the elbow flexors contraction duration was ,139 ms and for the extensors it was ,127 ms for both age groups (P > 0.05). The mean MUDRs from 25% MVC to maximum were lower (,10% to ,36%) in the old than in the young (P < 0.01). These age-related differences were larger for biceps (Cohen's d = 8.25) than triceps (Cohen's d = 4.79) brachii. Conclusion:, Thus, at least for proximal upper limb muscles, mean maximal MUDR reductions with healthy adult ageing are muscle specific and not strongly related to contractile speed. [source]

Resistance training increases in vivo quadriceps femoris muscle specific tension in young men

R. M. Erskine
Abstract Aim:, The present study investigated whether in vivo human quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle specific tension changed following strength training by systematically determining QF maximal force and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA). Methods:, Seventeen untrained men (20 ± 2 years) performed high-intensity leg-extension training three times a week for 9 weeks. Maximum tendon force (Ft) was calculated from maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, corrected for agonist and antagonist muscle activation, and moment arm length (dPT) before and after training. QF PCSA was calculated as the sum of the four component muscle volumes, each divided by its fascicle length. Dividing Ft by the sum of the component muscle PCSAs, each multiplied by the cosine of the respective fascicle pennation angle, provided QF specific tension. Results:, MVC torque and QF activation increased by 31% (P < 0.01) and 3% (P < 0.05), respectively, but there was no change in antagonist co-activation or dPT. Subsequently, Ft increased by 27% (P < 0.01). QF volume increased by 6% but fascicle length did not change in any of the component muscles, leading to a 6% increase in QF PCSA (P < 0.05). Fascicle pennation angle increased by 5% (P < 0.01) but only in the vastus lateralis muscle. Consequently, QF specific tension increased by 20% (P < 0.01). Conclusion:, An increase in human muscle specific tension appears to be a real consequence of resistance training rather than being an artefact of measuring errors but the underlying cause of this phenomenon remains to be determined. [source]

Low-volume muscle endurance training prevents decrease in muscle oxidative and endurance function during 21-day forearm immobilization

T. Homma
Abstract Aim:, To examine the effects of low-volume muscle endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, endurance and strength of the forearm muscle during 21-day forearm immobilization (IMM-21d). Methods:, The non-dominant arm (n = 15) was immobilized for 21 days with a cast and assigned to an immobilization-only group (Imm-group; n = 7) or an immobilization with training group (Imm+Tr-group; n = 8). Training comprised dynamic handgrip exercise at 30% of pre-intervention maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 1 Hz until exhaustion, twice a week during the immobilization period. The duration of each exercise session was 51.7 ± 3.4 s (mean ± SE). Muscle oxidative capacity was evaluated by the time constant for phosphocreatine recovery (,offPCr) after a submaximal handgrip exercise using 31phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An endurance test was performed at 30% of pre-intervention MVC, at 1 Hz, until exhaustion. Results:,,offPCr was significantly prolonged in the Imm-group after 21 days (42.0 ± 2.8 and 64.2 ± 5.1 s, pre- and post-intervention respectively; P < 0.01) but did not change for the Imm+Tr-group (50.3 ± 3.0 and 48.8 ± 5.0 s, ns). Endurance decreased significantly for the Imm-group (55.1 ± 5.1 and 44.7 ± 4.6 s, P < 0.05) but did not change for the Imm+Tr-group (47.9 ± 3.0 and 51.7 ± 4.0 s, ns). MVC decreased similarly in both groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions:, Twice-weekly muscle endurance training sessions, each lasting approx. 50 s, effectively prevented a decrease in muscle oxidative capacity and endurance; however, there was no effect on MVC decline with IMM-21d. [source]

The effect of strength training on the force of twitches evoked by corticospinal stimulation in humans

T. J. Carroll
Abstract Aim:, Although there is considerable evidence that strength training causes adaptations in the central nervous system, many details remain unclear. Here we studied neuromuscular responses to strength training of the wrist by recording electromyographic and twitch responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cervicomedullary stimulation of the corticospinal tract. Methods:, Seventeen participants performed 4 weeks (12 sessions) of strength training for the radial deviator (RD) muscles of the wrist (n = 8) or control training without external load (n = 9). TMS recruitment curves were constructed from stimuli at five to eight intensities ranging between 15% below resting motor threshold and maximal stimulator output, both at rest and during isometric wrist extension (EXT) and RD at 10% and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Responses to weak TMS and cervicomedullary stimulation (set to produce a response of 10% maximal M wave amplitude during 10% MVC EXT contraction) were also compared at contraction strengths ranging from 10% to 75% MVC. Results:, Isometric strength increased following strength training (10.7% for the RD MVC, 8.8% for the EXT MVC), but not control training. Strength training also significantly increased the amplitude of TMS- and cervicomedullary-evoked twitches during low-force contractions. Increases in the force-generating capacity of the wrist extensor muscles are unlikely to account for this finding because training did not affect the amplitude of twitches elicited by supra-maximal nerve stimulation. Conclusion:, The data suggest that strength training induces adaptations that increase the net gain of corticospinal-motor neuronal projections to the trained muscles. [source]

Vastus lateralis surface and single motor unit electromyography during shortening, lengthening and isometric contractions corrected for mode-dependent differences in force-generating capacity

T. M. Altenburg
Abstract Aim:, Knee extensor neuromuscular activity, rectified surface electromyography (rsEMG) and single motor unit EMG was investigated during isometric (60° knee angle), shortening and lengthening contractions (50,70°, 10° s,1) corrected for force,velocity-related differences in force-generating capacity. However, during dynamic contractions additional factors such as shortening-induced force losses and lengthening-induced force gains may also affect force capacity and thereby neuromuscular activity. Therefore, even after correction for force,velocity-related differences in force capacity we expected neuromuscular activity to be higher and lower during shortening and lengthening, respectively, compared to isometric contractions. Methods:, rsEMG of the three superficial muscle heads was obtained in a first session [10 and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and additionally EMG of (46) vastus lateralis motor units was recorded during a second session (4,76% MVC). Using superimposed electrical stimulation, force-generating capacity for shortening and lengthening contractions was found to be 0.96 and 1.16 times isometric (Iso) force capacity respectively. Therefore, neuromuscular activity during submaximal shortening and lengthening was compared with isometric contractions of respectively 1.04Iso (=1/0.96) and 0.86Iso (=1/1.16). rsEMG and discharge rates were normalized to isometric values. Results:, rsEMG behaviour was similar (P > 0.05) during both sessions. Shortening rsEMG (1.30 ± 0.11) and discharge rate (1.22 ± 0.13) were higher (P < 0.05) than 1.04Iso values (1.05 ± 0.05 and 1.03 ± 0.04 respectively), but lengthening rsEMG (1.05 ± 0.12) and discharge rate (0.90 ± 0.08) were not lower (P > 0.05) than 0.86Iso values (0.76 ± 0.04 and 0.91 ± 0.07 respectively). Conclusion:, When force,velocity-related differences in force capacity were taken into account, neuromuscular activity was not lower during lengthening but was still higher during shortening compared with isometric contractions. [source]

Effects of transient muscle contractions and stretching on the tendon structures in vivo

ABSTRACT This study compared the effects of static stretching (ST) and repeated muscle contractions (CON) on the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures in vivo. Eight male subjects performed ST (passively flexed to 35 of dorsiflexion) for 5 min and 50 repetitions of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 3 s each with 3 s relaxation. Before and after each task, the elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) was directly measured by ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to MVC, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between the estimated muscle force (Fm) and tendon elongation (L) during the ascending phase was applied to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness of the tendon structures. The percentage of the area within the Fm,L loop to the area beneath the curve during the ascending phase was calculated as an index representing hysteresis. The ST protocol significantly decreased the stiffness (,8%) and hysteresis (29%)., respectively. In contrast, the CON protocol significantly decreased the stiffness, but not the hysteresis. These results suggested that the stretching and repeated contractions would make the tendon structures more complaint, and further decreased the hysteresis of the tendon structures. [source]

BIOMARKER: Phosphatidylethanol as a sensitive and specific biomarker,comparison with gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, mean corpuscular volume and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin

Susanne Hartmann
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a direct ethanol metabolite, is detectable in blood for more than 2 weeks after sustained ethanol intake. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of PEth [comparing sensitivity, specificity and the area under the curve (AUC)] as compared with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), calculating the results from sober patients against those from alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal. Fifty-six alcohol-dependent patients (ICD-10 F 10.25) in detoxification, age 43 years, GGT 81 U/l, MCV 96.4 fl, %CDT 4.2, 1400 g ethanol intake in the last 7 days (median), were included in the study. Over the time of 1 year, 52 samples from 35 sober forensic psychiatric addicted in-patients [age 34 years, GGT 16 U/l, MCV 91 fl, CDT 0.5 (median)] in a closed ward were drawn and used for comparison . PEth was measured in heparinized whole blood with a high-performance liquid chromatography method. GGT, MCV and %CDT were measured using routine methods. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was carried out, with ,current drinking status' (sober/drinking) as the state variable and PEth, MCV, GGT and CDT as test variables. The resulting AUC was 0.974 (P < 0.0001, confidence interval 0.932,1.016) for PEth. At a cut-off of 0.36 µmol/l, the sensitivity was 94.5% and specificity 100%. The AUC for CDT, GGT and MCV were 0.931, 0.894 and 0.883, respectively. A significant Spearman's rank correlation was found between PEth and GGT (r = 0.739), CDT (r = 0.643), MVC (r = 0.639) and grams of ethanol consumed in the last 7 days (r = 0.802). Our data suggest that PEth has potential to be a sensitive and specific biomarker, having been found in previous studies to indicate longer lasting intake of higher amounts of alcohol. [source]

Forearm vascular responses to combined muscle metaboreceptor activation in the upper and lower limbs in humans

Ken Tokizawa
Our previous studies showed that venous occlusion or passive stretch of the lower limb, assuming a mechanical stimulus, attenuates the vasoconstriction in the non-exercised forearm during postexercise muscle ischaemia (PEMI) of the upper limb. In this study, we investigated whether a metabolic stimulus to the lower limb induces a similar response. Eight subjects performed a 2 min static handgrip exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 3 min PEMI of the upper limb, concomitant with or without 2 min static ankle dorsiflexion at 30% MVC followed by 2 min PEMI of the lower limb. During PEMI of the upper limb alone, forearm blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) in the non-exercised arm decreased significantly, whereas during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs, the decreases in FBF and FVC produced by PEMI of the upper limb was attenuated. Forearm blood flow and FVC were significantly greater during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs than during PEMI of the upper limb alone. When PEMI of the lower limb was released after combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs (only PEMI of the upper limb was maintained continuously), the attenuated decreases in FBF and FVC observed during combined PEMI of the upper and lower limbs was not observed. Thus, forearm vascular responses differ when muscle metaboreceptors are activated in the upper limb and when there is combined activation of muscle metaboreceptors in both the upper and lower limbs. [source]

Surface Action Potential and Contractile Properties of the Human Triceps Surae Muscle: Effect of ,Dry' Water Immersion

Yuri A. Koryak
The effects of 7 days of ,dry' water immersion were investigated in six subjects. Changes in the contraction properties were studied in the triceps surae muscle. After immersion, the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was reduced by 18.9% (P < 0.01), and the electrically evoked (150 impulses s,1) maximal tension during tetanic contraction (Po) was reduced by 8.2% (P > 0.05). The difference between Po and MVC expressed as a percentage of Po and referred to as force deficiency was also calculated. The force deficiency increased by 44.1% (P < 0.001) after immersion. The decrease in Po was associated with increased maximal rates of tension development (7.2%) and relaxation. The twitch time-to-peak was not significantly changed, and half-relaxation and total contraction time were decreased by 5.3% and 2.8%, respectively, but the twitch tension (Pt) was not significantly changed and the Pt/Po ratio was decreased by 8.7%. The 60 s intermittent contractions (50 impulses s,1) decreased tetanic force to 57% (P < 0.05) of initial values, but force reduction was not significantly different in the two fatigue-inducing tests: fatigue index (the mean loss of force of the last five contractions, expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the first five contractions) was 36.2 ± 5.4% vs. 38.6 ± 2.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). While identical force reduction was present in the two fatigue-inducing tests, it would appear that concomitant electrical failure was considerably different. Comparison of the electrical and mechanical alterations recorded during voluntary contractions, and in contractions evoked by electrical stimulation of the motor nerve, suggests that immersion not only modifies the peripheral processes associated with contraction, but also changes central and/or neural command of the contraction. At peripheral sites, it is proposed that the intracellular processes of contraction play a role in the contractile impairment recorded during immersion. [source]

Contractile Properties, Fatigue and Recovery are not Influenced by Short-Term Creatine Supplementation in Human Muscle

J. M. Jakobi
There have been several studies on the effect of short-term creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance, but none have investigated both voluntary and stimulated muscle contractions in the same experiment. Fourteen moderately active young men (19-28 years) were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to either a creatine (Cr) or placebo (P) group. The subjects supplemented their regular diet 4 times a day for 5 days with either 5 g Cr + 5 g maltodextrin (Cr group), or 5 g maltodextrin (P group). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle activation, as assessed using the modified twitch interpolation technique, electrically stimulated contractile properties, electromyography (EMG), endurance time and recovery from fatigue were measured in the elbow flexors. The fatigue protocol involved both voluntary and stimulated contractions. Following supplementation there was a significant weight gain in the Cr group (1.0 kg), whereas the P group did not change. For each group, pre-supplementation measures were not significantly different from post-supplementation for MVC, twitch and tetanic tensions at rest, time to peak tension, half-relaxation time and contraction duration. Prior to Cr supplementation time to fatigue was 10 ± 4 min (mean ± S.E.M.) for both groups, and following supplementation there was a non-significant increase of 1 min in each group. MVC force, muscle activation, EMG, stimulated tensions and durations were similar for the Cr and P groups over the course of the fatigue protocol and did not change after supplementation. Furthermore, recovery of MVC, stimulated tensions and contractile speeds did not differ as a result of Cr supplementation. These results indicate that short-term Cr supplementation does not influence isometric elbow flexion force, muscle activation, stimulated contractile properties, or delay time to fatigue or improve recovery. [source]

A Comparison of Data Sources for Motor Vehicle Crash Characteristic Accuracy

Robert J. Grant MD
Abstract. Objective: To determine the accuracy of police reports (PRs), ambulance reports (ARs), and emergency department records (EDRs) in describing motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics when compared with an investigation performed by an experienced crash investigator trained in impact biomechanics. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study. Ninety-one patients transported by ambulance to a university emergency department (ED) directly from the scene of an MVC from August 1997 to April 1998 were enrolled. Potential patients were identified from the ED log and consent was obtained to investigate the crash vehicle. Data describing MVC characteristics were abstracted from the PR, AR, and medical record. Variables of interest included restraint use (RU), air bag deployment (AD), and type of impact (TI). Agreements between the variables and the independent crash investigation were compared using kappa. Interrater reliability was determined using kappa by comparing a random sample of 20 abstracted reports for each data source with the originally abstracted data. Results: Agreement using kappa between the crash investigation and each data source was 0.588 (95% CI = 0.508 to 0.667) for the PR, 0.330 (95% CI = 0.252 to 0.407) for the AR, and 0.492 (95% CI = 0.413 to 0.572) for the EDR. Variable agreement was 0.239 (95% CI = 0.164 to 0.314) for RU, 0.350 (95% CI = 0.268 to 0.432) for AD, and 0.631 (95%= 0.563 to 0.698) for TI. Interrater reliability was excellent (kappa > 0.8) for all data sources. Conclusions: The strength of the agreement between the independent crash investigation and the data sources that were measured by kappa was fair to moderate, indicating inaccuracies. This presents ramifications for researchers and necessitates consideration of the validity and accuracy of crash characteristics contained in these data sources. [source]

Involvement of adrenomedullin induced by hypoxia in angiogenesis in human renal cell carcinoma

Yoshitsugu Fujita
Abstract Background: Adrenomedullin (AM) has pluripotent activities and is involved in the regulation of vasomotor tone, cell differentiation and embryogenesis. However, the expression and pathophysiological role of AM has not been determined in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Twenty-six RCC specimens and three cultured human RCC cell lines (A498, SN12C and KPK-13) were analyzed. Expression of AM was determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The correlation between AM expression and microvessel count (MVC) in RCC specimens was examined to determine if AM plays a role in tumor angiogenesis. The correlation between the expression of AM and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was also investigated. Lastly, the effect of hypoxia upon the mRNA expression of AM, VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) by RCC cell lines was determined. Results: Immunohistochemistry indicated that AM and VEGF were primarily localized in the cytosol of RCC cells. AM and VEGF mRNA were detected in all RCC specimens and cultured RCC cell lines analyzed by RT-PCR. There was a positive correlation between AM mRNA expression and MVC (r = 0.516, P = 0.0062), and between VEGF mRNA expression and MVC (r = 0.485, P = 0.0111). We also observed a positive correlation between AM mRNA expression and VEGF mRNA expression (r = 0.552, P = 0.0029). Hypoxia significantly induced AM and VEGF mRNA expression, although the increase of the AM mRNA level (10.6,26.7 fold) was markedly greater than that of the VEGF mRNA level (1.5,1.9 fold). Conclusion: These results suggest that hypoxia-induced AM plays a part in tumor angiogenesis in conjunction with VEGF and facilitates human RCC growth under hypoxic conditions. [source]

Can High-Risk Older Drivers Be Identified Through Performance-Based Measures in a Department of Motor Vehicles Setting?

Karlene K. Ball PhD
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between performance-based risk factors and subsequent at-fault motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in a cohort of older drivers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) field sites in Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 4,173 older drivers invited to participate in the study, 2,114 individuals aged 55 to 96 agreed to do so. These analyses focus on 1,910 individuals recruited through MVA field sites. MEASUREMENTS: Gross Impairment Screening Battery, which included Rapid Pace Walk, Head/Neck Rotation, Foot Tap, Arm Reach, Cued Recall, Symbol Scan, Visual Closure subtest of the Motor Free Visual Perception Test (MVPT), Delayed Recall, and Trail Making Test with an Abbreviated Part A and standard Part B; Useful Field of View (UFOV®) subtest 2; a Mobility Questionnaire; and MVC occurrence. RESULTS: In drivers aged 55 and older with intact vision (20/70 far visual acuity and 140° visual field), age, sex, history of falls, and poorer cognitive performance, as measured using Trails B, MVPT, and UFOV subtest 2, were predictive of future at-fault MVC involvement. After adjusting for annual mileage, participants aged 78 and older were 2.11 as more likely to be involved in an at-fault MVC, those who made four or more errors on the MVPT were 2.10 times as likely to crash, those who took 147 seconds or longer to complete Trails B were 2.01 times as likely to crash, and those who took 353 ms or longer on subtest 2 of the UFOV were 2.02 times as likely to incur an at-fault MVC. Older adults, men, and individuals with a history of falls were more likely to be involved in subsequent at-fault MVCs. CONCLUSION: Performance-based cognitive measures are predictive of future at-fault MVCs in older adults. Cognitive performance, in particular, is a salient predictor of subsequent crash involvement in older adults. High-risk older drivers can be identified through brief, performance-based measures administered in a MVA setting. [source]

Application of SIC (simple interval calculation) for object status classification and outlier detection,comparison with regression approach

Oxana Ye.
Abstract We introduce a novel approach termed simple interval calculation (SIC) for classification of object status in linear multivariate calibration (MVC) and other data analytical contexts. SIC is a method that directly constructs an interval estimator for the predicted response. SIC is based on the single assumption that all errors involved in MVC are limited. We present the theory of the SIC method and explain its realization by linear programming techniques. The primary SIC consequence is a radically new object classification that can be interpreted using a two-dimensional object status plot (OSP), ,SIC residual vs SIC leverage'. These two new measures of prediction quality are introduced in the traditional chemometric MVC context. Simple straight demarcations divide the OSP into areas which quantitatively discriminate all objects involved in modeling and prediction into four different types: boundary samples, which are the significant objects (for generating the entire data structure) within the training subset; insiders, which are samples that comply with the model; outsiders, which are samples that have large prediction errors; and finally outliers, which are those samples that cannot be predicted at all with respect to a given model. We also present detailed comparisons of the new SIC approach with traditional chemometric methods applied for MVC, classification and outlier detection. These comparisons employ four real-world data sets, selected for their particular complexities, which serve as showcases of SIC application on intricate training and test set data structures. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Relation between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in caucasian adult women: a cross-sectional study

Summary, The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cervical posture on lateral skull radiographs and surface electromyographic recordings (sEMG) of head and neck muscles. The sample comprised 40 Caucasian adult females, average age 26·8 (20,48); lateral skull radiographs were obtained in natural head position (mirror position). sEMG activity was bilaterally investigated for the following muscles: masseter, anterior temporalis, digastric, posterior cervical, sternocleidomastoid and upper and lower trapezius. All muscles were monitored at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC). A Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed significant correlations (P < 0·01) between cranio-cervical angulations and sEMG activity of masseter, digastric, lower trapezius, during MVC and anterior temporalis at rest. Significant correlations (P < 0·01) were also found between cervical lordosis angle and sEMG activity of masseter (during MVC) and lower trapezius (at rest). In view of transversal method, no conclusion was possible about the mechanism concerning these results. Future longitudinal studies should be directed to understand the extent of environmental and genotype influences by masticatory muscle activity on cervical posture. [source]

The influence of age and dental status on elevator and depressor muscle activity

summary, The objective of this study was to determine whether the muscle activity at various mandibular positions is affected by age and dental status. Thirty edentulous subjects (E), 20 young dentate individuals (G1) and 20 older dentate individuals (G2) participated in this study. Surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the anterior temporal (T), masseter (M) and depressor muscles (D). Muscle activity was recorded during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), maximal opening (Omax) and in six different mandibular positions. One way anova and the Bonferroni tests were used to determine the differences between groups. Significant differences between the three tested groups were found at MVC and Omax for all examined muscles (P < 0·001). The differences in muscle activity in dentate subjects of different age were found in protrusion for depressor muscles (P < 0·05) and in lateral excursive positions for the working side temporal (P < 0·05) and non-working side masseter and depressor muscle (P < 0·05). There was a significant effect regarding the presence of natural teeth or complete dentures in protrusion and maximal protrusion for all muscles (P < 0·05) and in lateral excursive positions for non-working side temporal (P < 0·05) and working side masseter muscle (P < 0·05). Muscle activity at various mandibular positions depends greatly on the presence of the prosthetic appliance, as edentulous subjects had to use higher muscle activity levels (percentages of maximal EMG value) than age matched dentate subjects in order to perform same mandibular movement. Different elevator muscles were preferentially activated in the edentulous subjects when compared with dentate group in lateral excursive positions of the mandible. The pattern of relative muscle activity was not changed because of ageing. [source]

Differential activity patterns in the masseter muscle under simulated clenching and grinding forces

summary, The aim of this study was to investigate (i) whether the masseter muscle shows differential activation under experimental conditions which simulate force generation during clenching and grinding activities; and (ii) whether there are (a) preferentially active muscle regions or (b) force directions which show enhanced muscle activation. To answer these questions, the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right masseter muscle was recorded with five intramuscular electrodes placed in two deep muscle areas and in three surface regions. Intraoral force transfer and force measurement were achieved by a central bearing pin device equipped with three strain gauges (SG). The activity distribution in the muscle was recorded in four different mandibular positions (central, left, right, anterior). In each position, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was exerted in vertical, posterior, anterior, medial and lateral directions. The investigated muscle regions showed different amount of EMG activity. The relative intensity of the activation, with respect to other regions, changed depending on the task. In other words, the muscle regions demonstrated heterogeneous changes of the EMG pattern for the various motor tasks. The resultant force vectors demonstrated similar amounts in all horizontal bite directions. Protrusive force directions revealed the highest relative activation of the masseter muscle. The posterior deep muscle region seemed to be the most active compartment during the different motor tasks. The results indicate a heterogeneous activation of the masseter muscle under test conditions simulating force generation during clenching and grinding. Protrusively directed bite forces were accompanied by the highest activation in the muscle, with the posterior deep region as the most active area. [source]

Validation of diagnostic criteria for sleep bruxism

Several diagnostic criteria for bruxism can be taken from the literature; however, most of them have never been validated. This study examined whether predictor variables taken from physical examinations and questionnaires were related to the actual bruxism levels. Fifty dental students agreed to participate in this study and eight examination variables and seven questionnaire variables were collected from them. The subjects measured their nocturnal EMG activity from the right masseter muscle for six consecutive nights in their home by means of a portable EMG device. Off-line analysis was performed on data from second to sixth nights. By using a custom made software, all EMG activity elevations above a minimum threshold of 50% of each subject's individually established maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) level were quantified with regard to the duration and number of elevations and then three outcome variables, which were event number per hour (number/h), event duration per hour (duration h,1), and duration per event (duration/event), were calculated. A multiple stepwise regression (MSR) analysis was conducted to assess the 15 predictor variables and the three outcome variables. These MSR analyses revealed that the joint sound score remained in the regression equation as a predictor (n=50, P < 0·05) of the likelihood that a subject would exhibit longer bruxism events (duration h,1and number h,1). It must be noted that the self-awareness and tooth attrition status were found not to be strong predictors and even for the above variable where significant association was found, the likelihood ratio between the variable and predicted outcomes was not robust. [source]

A clinical diagnosis of diurnal (non-sleep) bruxism in denture wearers

K. Piquero
The purpose of this study was to establish a clinical method for diagnosing diurnal bruxism in denture wearers by recording masseter and anterior temporal electromygraph (EMG) activity. Seven suspected bruxists and five normal patients who wore complete dentures and/or distal extension base removable partial dentures were selected for participation. EMG activity in both the masseter and the anterior temporal muscles was recorded bilaterally during silent reading (10 min), maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), tapping in centric occlusion, lateral movements, chewing and swallowing. No significant differences of EMG activity were found between the groups during tapping, lateral movement, chewing and swallowing (P>0·05). However, during 10 min of silent reading, a significant difference was found between the groups when comparing masseter muscle activity (P<0·05). A threshold of 10% of MVC of at least 3-s duration was used to define an individual bruxism event. When the muscle activity recorded during silent reading was further analysed using these criteria, the control group displayed no bruxing activity while the suspected bruxist group displayed a mean frequency of six bruxism events (range 2,10). It was concluded that: (a) masseter muscle activity recorded during 10 min of silent reading showed significant difference between the groups; (b) the criteria selected in this study for the detection of sleep bruxism can also be used to assess diurnal bruxism; and (c) it is possible to diagnose diurnal bruxism in denture wearers by measuring the masseter EMG activity during 10 min of silent reading. [source]

Deep brain stimulation and medication for parkinsonian tremor during secondary tasks

Molly M. Sturman PhD
Abstract This study examined the efficacy of subthalamic nucleus (STN), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and medication for resting tremor during performance of secondary tasks. Hand tremor was recorded using accelerometry and electromyography (EMG) from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and ten matched control subjects. The PD subjects were examined off treatment, on STN DBS, on medication, and on STN DBS plus medication. In the first experiment, tremor was recorded in a quiet condition and during a cognitive task designed to enhance tremor. In the second experiment, tremor was recorded in a quiet condition and during isometric finger flexion (motor task) with the contralateral limb at 5% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) that was designed to suppress tremor. Results showed that: (1) STN DBS and medication reduced tremor during a cognitive task that exacerbated tremor, (2) STN DBS normalized tremor frequency in both the quiet and cognitive task conditions, whereas tremor amplitude was only normalized in the quiet condition, (3) a secondary motor task reduced tremor in a similar manner to STN DBS. These findings demonstrate that STN DBS still suppresses tremor in the presence of a cognitive task. Furthermore, a secondary motor task of the opposite limb suppresses tremor to levels comparable to STN DBS. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Motor unit recruitment and bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram during a sustained contraction

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2008
Zachary A. Riley MS
Abstract Bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during a sustained contraction have been interpreted as corresponding to the transient recruitment of motor units, but this association has never been confirmed. The current study compared the timing of trains of action potentials discharged by single motor units during a sustained contraction with the bursts of activity detected in the surface EMG signal. The 20 motor units from 6 subjects [recruitment threshold, 35.3 ± 11.3% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force] that were detected with fine wire electrodes discharged 2,9 trains of action potentials (7.2 ± 5.6 s in duration) when recruited during a contraction that was sustained at a force below its recruitment threshold (target force, 25.4 ± 10.6% MVC force). High-pass filtering the bipolar surface EMG signal improved its correlation with the single motor unit signal. An algorithm applied to the surface EMG was able to detect 75% of the trains of motor unit action potentials. The results indicate that bursts of activity in the surface EMG during a constant-force contraction correspond to the transient recruitment of higher-threshold motor units in healthy individuals, and these results could assist in the diagnosis and design of treatment in individuals who demonstrate deficits in motor unit activation. Muscle Nerve, 2008 [source]

Contribution of central and peripheral factors to residual fatigue in Guillain,Barré syndrome

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 1 2007
Marcel P.J. Garssen MD
Abstract Many patients with Guillain,Barré syndrome (GBS) suffer from severe residual fatigue that has an uncertain basis. We determined the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors during a 2-min fatiguing sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in 10 neurologically well-recovered GBS patients and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Physiological fatigue was defined as the decline of voluntary force during an MVC of the biceps brachii. Relative amounts of peripheral fatigue and central activation failure were determined combining voluntary force and force responses to electrical stimulation. Surface electromyography was used to determine muscle-fiber conduction velocity. During the first minute of sustained MVC, peripheral fatigue developed more slowly in patients than in controls. Central fatigue only occurred in patients. The muscle-fiber conduction velocity was higher in patients. The initial MVC, decrease of MVC, initial force response, and initial central activation failure did not significantly differ between the groups. Although peripheral mechanisms cannot be excluded in the pathogenesis of residual fatigue after GBS, these results suggest that central changes are involved. This study thus provides further insight into the factors contributing to residual fatigue in GBS patients. Muscle Nerve, 2007 [source]

Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on voluntary activation in patients with quadriceps weakness

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 2 2005
Dietmar Urbach MD
Abstract Joint disease causes weakness and wasting of adjacent muscles, in part because of inability to fully activate these muscles voluntarily. Previous findings suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with muscle contractions enhances maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC) in healthy subjects by improving voluntary activation (VA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether such an effect is also present in subjects suffering from diminished muscle force due to decreased VA. Three single TMS over resting motor threshold were applied in 10 patients with a mean age of 62 years after total-knee arthroplasty either during MVC or during muscle relaxation (control experiment) in a blinded randomized crossover study. MVC and VA were determined using a twitch-interpolation technique at 1, 15, 30, and 60 min after stimulation. There was a significant effect of TMS on MVC if applied in synchrony with muscle contraction, and this persisted for at least 60 min beyond stimulation. In patients suffering from joint disease, TMS might make physiotherapy more effective. Muscle Nerve, 2005 [source]

Mechanisms of force failure during repetitive maximal efforts in a human upper airway muscle

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 1 2002
Christiana DelloRusso BS
Abstract The upper airway respiratory muscles play an important role in the regulation of airway resistance, but surprisingly little is known about their contractile properties and endurance performance. We developed a technique that allows measurement of force and the electromyogram (EMG) of human nasal dilator muscles (NDMs). Endurance performance was quantified by measuring NDM "flaring" force and EMG activity as healthy human subjects performed 10 s maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), separated by 10 s rest, until the area under the force curve fell to 50% MVC (the time limit of the fatigue task, Tlim), which was reached in 34.2 ± 3.1 contractions (685.0 ± 62.3 s). EMG activity was unchanged except at Tlim, where it averaged 78.7 ± 3.6% of pretest activity (P < 0.01). M-wave amplitude did not change, suggesting that neuromuscular propagation was not impaired. MVC force increased to 80% of the pretest level within 10 min of recovery but twitch force failed to recover, suggesting low-frequency fatigue. The data suggest that a failure of the nervous system to excite muscle could explain at most only a small fraction of the NDM force loss during an intermittent fatigue task, and then only at Tlim. Thus, the majority of the force failure during this task is due to impairment of mechanisms that reside within the muscle fibers. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 26: 94,100, 2002 [source]

An additional phase in PCr use during sustained isometric exercise at 30% MVC in the tibialis anterior muscle

C. J. Houtman
Abstract The occurrence of an abrupt acceleration in phosphocreatine hydrolysis in the tibial anterior muscle during the last part of a sustained isometric exercise at 30% maximal voluntary contraction until fatigue is demonstrated in seven out of eight healthy subjects by applying in vivo31P NMR spectroscopy at 1.5,T field strength. This additional third phase in PCr hydrolysis, is preceded by a common biphasic pattern (first fast then slow) in PCr use. The NMR spectra, as localized by a surface coil and improved by proton irradiation, were collected at a time resolution of 16 s. Mean rates of PCr hydrolysis during exercise were ,0.44,±,0.19% s,1, ,0.07,±,0.04% s,1, and ,0.29,±,0.10% s,1 for the three successive phases. The increased rate of PCr hydrolysis, and also the loss of fine force control evident in the force records are consistent with increased involvement of large, fast-fatiguable units later in the contraction. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ganglionic transmission in a vasomotor pathway studied in vivo

Bradford Bratton
Intracellular recordings were made in vivo from 40 spontaneously active cells in the third lumbar sympathetic ganglion of urethane-anaesthetized rats. In 38/40 cells ongoing action potentials showed strong cardiac rhythmicity (93.4 ± 1.9% modulation) indicating high barosensitivity and probable muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) function. Subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) showed the same pattern. The 38 barosensitive neurons fired action potentials at 2.9 ± 0.3 Hz. All action potentials were triggered by EPSPs, most of which were unitary events. Calculations indicated that <5% of action potentials were triggered by summation of otherwise subthreshold EPSPs. ,Dominant' synaptic inputs with a high safety factor were identified, confirming previous work. These were active in 24/38 cells and accounted for 32% of all action potentials; other (,secondary') inputs drove the remainder. Inputs (21 dominant, 19 secondary) attributed to single preganglionic neurons fired at 1.38 ± 0.16 Hz. An average of two to three preganglionic neurons were estimated to drive each ganglion cell's action potentials. When cells were held hyperpolarized to block spiking, a range of spontaneous EPSP amplitudes was revealed. Threshold equivalent was defined as the membrane potential value that was exceeded by spontaneous EPSPs at the same frequency as the cell's original firing rate. In 10/12 cells examined, a continuum of EPSP amplitudes overlapped threshold equivalent. Small changes in cell excitability could therefore raise or lower the percentage of preganglionic inputs triggering action potentials. The results indicate that vasoconstrictor ganglion cells in vivo mostly behave not as 1:1 relays, but as continuously variable gates. [source]

The response to paired motor cortical stimuli is abolished at a spinal level during human muscle fatigue

Chris J. McNeil
During maximal exercise, supraspinal fatigue contributes significantly to the decline in muscle performance but little is known about intracortical inhibition during such contractions. Long-interval inhibition is produced by a conditioning motor cortical stimulus delivered via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 50,200 ms prior to a second test stimulus. We aimed to delineate changes in this inhibition during a sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Eight subjects performed a 2 min MVC of elbow flexors. Single test and paired (conditioning,test interval of 100 ms) stimuli were delivered via TMS over the motor cortex every 7,8 s throughout the effort and during intermittent MVCs in the recovery period. To determine the role of spinal mechanisms, the protocol was repeated but the TMS test stimulus was replaced by cervicomedullary stimulation which activates the corticospinal tract. TMS motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs) were recorded from biceps brachii. Unconditioned MEPs increased progressively with fatigue, whereas CMEPs increased initially but returned to the control value in the final 40 s of contraction. In contrast, both conditioned MEPs and CMEPs decreased rapidly with fatigue and were virtually abolished within 30 s. In recovery, unconditioned responses required <30 s but conditioned MEPs and CMEPs required ,90 s to return to control levels. Thus, long-interval inhibition increased markedly as fatigue progressed. Contrary to expectations, subcortically evoked CMEPs were inhibited as much as MEPs. This new phenomenon was also observed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Tested with a high intensity conditioning stimulus during a fatiguing maximal effort, long-interval inhibition of MEPs was increased primarily by spinal rather than motor cortical mechanisms. The spinal mechanisms exposed here may contribute to the development of central fatigue in human muscles. [source]

Intracortical modulation of cortical-bulbar responses for the masseter muscle

Enzo Ortu
Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were evaluated in the masseter muscles of 12 subjects and the cortical silent period (SP) in nine subjects. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from contralateral (cMM) and ipsilateral (iMM) masseters, activated at 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Interstimulus intervals (ISIs) were 2 and 3 ms for SICI, 10 and 15 ms for ICF. TMS of the left masseteric cortex induced MEPs that were larger in the cMM than the iMM; stimulation of right masseteric cortex produced a similar asymmetry in response amplitude. SICI was only observed using a CS intensity of 70% AMT and was equal in both cMM and iMM. SICI was stronger at higher TS intensities, was abolished by muscle activation greater than 10% MVC, and was unaffected by coil orientation changes. Control experiments confirmed that SICI was not contaminated by any inhibitory peripheral reflexes. However, ICF could not be obtained because it was masked by bilateral reflex depression of masseter EMG caused by auditory input from the coil discharge. The SP was bilateral and symmetric; its duration ranged from 35 to 70 ms depending on TS intensity and coil orientation. We conclude that SICI is present in the cortical representation of masseter muscles. The similarity of SICI in cMM and iMM suggests either that a single pool of inhibitory interneurons controls ipsi- and contralateral corticotrigeminal projections or that inhibition is directed to bilaterally projecting corticotrigeminal fibres. Finally, the corticotrigeminal projection seems to be weakly influenced by inhibitory interneurons mediating the cortical SP. [source]

The sites of neural adaptation induced by resistance training in humans

Timothy J. Carroll
Although it has long been supposed that resistance training causes adaptive changes in the CNS, the sites and nature of these adaptations have not previously been identified. In order to determine whether the neural adaptations to resistance training occur to a greater extent at cortical or subcortical sites in the CNS, we compared the effects of resistance training on the electromyographic (EMG) responses to transcranial magnetic (TMS) and electrical (TES) stimulation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 16 individuals before and after 4 weeks of resistance training for the index finger abductors (n= 8), or training involving finger abduction-adduction without external resistance (n= 8). TMS was delivered at rest at intensities from 5 % below the passive threshold to the maximal output of the stimulator. TMS and TES were also delivered at the active threshold intensity while the participants exerted torques ranging from 5 to 60 % of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The average latency of MEPs elicited by TES was significantly shorter than that of TMS MEPs (TES latency = 21.5 ± 1.4 ms; TMS latency = 23.4 ± 1.4 ms; P < 0.05), which indicates that the site of activation differed between the two forms of stimulation. Training resulted in a significant increase in MVC torque for the resistance-training group, but not the control group. There were no statistically significant changes in the corticospinal properties measured at rest for either group. For the active trials involving both TMS and TES, however, the slope of the relationship between MEP size and the torque exerted was significantly lower after training for the resistance-training group (P < 0.05). Thus, for a specific level of muscle activity, the magnitude of the EMG responses to both forms of transcranial stimulation were smaller following resistance training. These results suggest that resistance training changes the functional properties of spinal cord circuitry in humans, but does not substantially affect the organisation of the motor cortex. [source]

Guardian Availability in Children Evaluated in the Emergency Department for Blunt Head Trauma

James F. Holmes MD
Abstract Background:, Enrolling children in research studies in the emergency department (ED) is typically dependent on the presence of a guardian to provide written informed consent. Objectives:, The objectives were to determine the rate of guardian availability during the initial ED evaluation of children with nontrivial blunt head trauma, to identify the reasons why a guardian is unavailable, and to compare clinical factors in patients with and without a guardian present during initial ED evaluation. Methods:, This was a prospective study of children (<18 years of age) presenting to a single Level 1 trauma center after nontrivial blunt head trauma over a 10-month period. Physicians documented patient history and physical examination findings onto a structured data form after initial evaluation. The data form contained data points regarding the presence or absence of the patient's guardian during the initial ED evaluation. For those children for whom the guardian was not available during the initial ED evaluation, the physicians completing the data forms documented the reasons for the absence. Results:, The authors enrolled 602 patients, of whom 271 (45%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 41% to 49%) did not have a guardian available during the initial ED evaluation. In these 271 patients, 261 had reasons documented for lack of guardian availability, 43 of whom had multiple reasons. The most common of these was that the guardian did not ride in the ambulance (51%). Those patients without a guardian available were more likely to be older (mean age, 11.4 years vs. 7.6 years; p < 0.001), be victims of a motor vehicle collision (MVC; 130/268 [49%] vs. 35/328 [11%]; p < 0.001), have a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <14 (21/269 [7.8%] vs. 11/331 [3.3%]; p = 0.02), and undergo cranial computed tomography (CT) scanning (224/271 [83%] vs. 213/331 [64%]; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified similar independent risk factors for lack of guardian presence. Conclusions:, Nearly one-half of children with nontrivial blunt head trauma evaluated in the ED may not have a guardian available during their initial ED evaluation. Patients whose guardians are not available at the time of initial ED evaluation are older and have more severe mechanisms of injury and more serious head trauma. ED research studies of pediatric trauma patients that require written informed consent from a guardian at the time of initial ED evaluation and treatment may have difficulty enrolling targeted sample size numbers and will likely be limited by enrollment bias. [source]