MTHFR Polymorphism (mthfr + polymorphism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The MTHFR C677T polymorphism confers a high risk for stroke in both homozygous and heterozygous T allele carriers with Type 2 diabetes

M. P. Hermans
Abstract Objective Individuals with Type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of stroke. Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The methylene,tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism (thermolabile variant C677T) is associated with CV risk, partly as a result of increased Hcy, especially in homozygous subjects. Aim To relate the occurrence of the MTHFR polymorphism with stroke prevalence by examining allelic frequency and genotype distribution in 165 subjects with Type 2 diabetes studied for the presence of thermolabile C677T MTHFR mutation. Results Mean age was 67.7 years, and tHcy 18.2 µmol/l. T allele frequency was 38.5%. MTHFR genotypes were: normal (CC) 40%; heterozygous (CT) 43%; homozygous (TT) 17%. Serum levels of folic acid and B12 vitamin were within normal limits. Stroke prevalence was 14%. Sixty-four per cent of stroke-free subjects had the normal C allele vs. 46% in stroke subjects. The frequencies of genotypes (CC-CT-TT) were (%): 44-41-15 in stroke-free vs. 17-57-26 in stroke patients. Coronary (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) were common in all groups, with no differences according to genotypes. Stroke prevalence was markedly higher in genotypes CT and TT (18 and 21%) compared with CC (6%). Mean tHcy levels were higher in TT subjects. Conclusion The allelic frequency of C677T MTHFR mutation in Type 2 diabetes subjects with stroke is markedly different from that of subjects without stroke. Genotypic characteristics suggest that C677T MTHFR mutation confers a higher risk for stroke to both homozygous and heterozygous T allele carriers that cannot be ascribed solely to raised tHcy and/or lower folate status in CT subjects, nor to phenotypic expression of conventional risk factors for stroke. The impact of the MTHFR polymorphism on stroke may result from T allele-linked deleterious effects, or C allele-linked protection. Confirmatory studies are warranted, as this cohort was not randomly selected, and a type 1 error cannot be ruled out. [source]

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T mutation is related to the defects in the internal elastic lamina of the artery wall

P. Hämelahti
Abstract Background The C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene leads to C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes, which affect the plasma homocysteine concentration in humans. In mini-pigs, high serum homocysteine levels are associated with defects in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of the artery wall, which are apparently related to the migration of smooth muscle cells into the intima during atherogenesis. We studied the association between the MTHFR genotypes and the number of gaps in the IEL in the wall of the five major abdominal arteries. Materials and methods The autopsy study included 123 subjects (90 males and 33 females) aged 18,93. For the light microscopy, a 0·5 cm circular segment of the coeliac, the superior mesenteric, the inferior mesenteric and the renal arteries were cut and embedded in paraffin blocks. The circumference of the IEL, the thickness of the intima and the number of the gaps per millimetre in the IEL were measured by MOP 3 image analysis. Results The T-allele carriers (C/T and T/T) of the MTHFR gene had significantly less gaps in the IEL than the subjects with the C/C genotype in the superior mesenteric and in the left renal arteries (2·02 ± 2·25 vs. 2·53 ± 1·89, P < 0·04 and 0·56 ± 1·09 vs. 1·82 ± 2·66, P < 0·02, respectively). The trend was similar for the coeliac and the right renal arteries. Conclusions Our result suggests that MTHFR polymorphism may be involved in the fragmentation of the IEL. [source]

Homocysteine, the MTHFR 677 C,T polymorphism and family history of premature cardiovascular disease

A. Carey
Background:, Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of premature death in the UK and accounts for 36% of all premature male deaths and 27% of female deaths every year (British Heart Foundation, 2006). Although many risk factors for CVD are known, family history has been identified as being of particular importance in premature CVD (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2004). Recently, it was suggested that an elevated homocysteine (tHcy) may be associated with premature CVD (Homocystiene Studies Collaboration, 2002). The main genetic determinant of tHcy is the common 677 C,T polymorphism, in the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), which is prevalent in approximately 10% of the UK population. Relatively few studies have examined the association between tHcy and premature CVD and hardly any have considered the role of this polymorphism. The aim of this study therefore was to examine the relationships between the MTHFR 677 C,T polymorphism, tHcy and a family history of CVD in patients with established premature CVD. Methods:, An analysis was conducted on medical, lifestyle and family history data collected from patients and age-sex matched controls, recruited through the GENOVIT study in 2003. This case,control study involved n = 404 premature CVD patients and a similar number of age-sex matched controls, all of whom were screened for the TT genotype. A subset of patients (n = 196) and controls (n = 167) provided a blood sample, from which the tHcy concentration was established. Independent sample t -tests were used to determine differences between patients and controls and differences among genotype groups were examined using a one-way analysis of variance, followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. Results:, Plasma tHcy was significantly elevated in patients with a family history of CVD (compared to those without) (P = 0.013). A nonsignificant trend towards higher tHcy (compared to those without) was observed in patients with the TT genotype (P = 0.419). Furthermore, specifically in those with the TT genotype, those with a family history of CVD (compared to those without) showed significantly higher tHcy concentrations (P < 0.005). Those with the TT genotype who smoked had significantly higher tHcy (P < 0.05) than the CC and CT genotypes. Discussion:, The findings presented provide evidence to support an association between the MTHFR 677C,T polymorphism, elevated homocysteine and family history of premature CVD. Given that dietary levels of riboflavin have been shown to lower homocysteine specifically in individuals with the TT genotype (McNulty et al., 2006), these results have implications for the dietary management of premature CVD in those individuals with a genetic predisposition for elevated tHcy. In conclusion, further research in larger cohort numbers, regarding the correlation between family history, tHcy and the MTHFR polymorphism, would be beneficial for establishing their cause and effect relationship. References British Heart Foundation (2006) All Deaths and Deaths Under 75 by Cause and Sex, 2005, England, Wales, Scotland, N Ireland and United Kingdom. Available at Homocystine Studies Collaboration (2002) Homocysteine and the risk of ishaemic heart disease and stroke. JAMA288, 2015,2022. Llyod-Jones, D.M., Nam, B.H., D'Agostino, R.B., Levy, D., Murabito, J.M., Wang, T.J., Wilson, P.W. & O'Donnell, C.J. (2004) Parental cardiovascular disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults, a prospective study of parents and offspring. JAMA291, 2204,2211. McNulty, H., Dowey le, R.C., Strain, J.J., Dunne, A., Ward, M., Molloy, A.M., McAnena. L.B., Hughes, J.P., Hannon-Fletcher, M. & Scott, J.M. Riboflavin lowers homocysteine in individuals homozygous for the MTHFR 677C->T polymorphism. Circulation113, 74,80. [source]

The MTHFR 677C,T polymorphism and behaviors in children with autism: exploratory genotype,phenotype correlations

Robin P. Goin-Kochel
Abstract New evidence suggests that autism may be associated with (a) varied behavioral responses to folate therapy and (b) metabolic anomalies, including those in folate metabolism, that contribute to hypomethylation of DNA. We hypothesized that children with autism who are homozygous for the MTHFR 677 T allele (TT) and, to a lesser extent those with the CT variant, would exhibit more behavioral problems and/or more severe problematic behaviors than homozygous wild-type (CC) individuals because of difficulties in effectively converting 5,10-MTHF to 5-MTHF. Data from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) collection were analyzed for all children who met strict criteria for autism per the Autism Diagnostic Interview,Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and who had been genotyped for the 677 C to T MTHFR polymorphism (n=147). Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and one-way ANOVAs were used to determine whether differences existed among MTHFR genotypes for specific behaviors on the ADI-R and indices for level of functioning. Exploratory results indicated four behaviors from the ADI-R that were more common and problematic (95% CI) among those with at least one copy of the T allele as compared to homozygous wild-type individuals: direct gaze, current complex body movements, a history of self-injurious behavior, and current overactivity (ORs=2.72, 2.33, 2.12, 2.47, respectively). No differences existed among genotypes for level of functioning as measured with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,Third Edition, Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, or the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Findings call for further investigation of the relationship between folate metabolism and problem behaviors among children with autism. [source]

Aberrant DNA methylation associated with MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphism in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients

M.E. Laing
Summary Background, Changes in genomic DNA methylation associated with cancer include global DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific hyper- or hypomethylation. We have previously identified a genetic variant in the MTHFR gene involved in the methylation pathway which confers risk for the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in renal transplant patients. This genetic variant has also been discovered to confer SCC risk in nontransplant patients with low folate status. Objectives, To explore the methylation profile of SCC compared with adjacent non-neoplastic skin using pyrosequencing, and to elucidate whether the MTHFR polymorphism impacts upon the methylation patterns in SCC. Methods, We used pyrosequencing to evaluate global (using long interspersed nuclear element 1) and gene-specific (p16 and MGMT) methylation status in 47 SCCs and 40 adjacent autologous non-neoplastic skin samples in those with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) the MTHFR polymorphism. Results, Pyrosequencing methylation analysis revealed that SCC was hypomethylated compared with adjacent non-neoplastic skin (P < 0·04). Patients with the MTHFR polymorphism had higher levels of global methylation in tumours and non-neoplastic skin compared with those without the MTHFR polymorphism (P < 0·002). There was no association between levels of methylation in tumour and non-neoplastic skin for the genes MGMT and p16. Conclusions, Global hypomethylation appears to be a feature of SCC. Aberrant methylation of DNA appears related to polymorphisms of MTHFR. Such findings suggest that intervention in the form of demethylating agents or folate supplementation might be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of SCC. [source]

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C genotypes are associated with the risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and chronic myelogenous leukaemia in the Korean population

Summary Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme involved in folate metabolism, DNA methylation and synthesis. We investigated the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and the risks of acute and chronic leukaemias. MTHFR C677T and A1298C were genotyped in 396 Korean individuals using multiplex polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment-length polymorphism. They were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, n = 89), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, n = 55), biphenotypic acute leukaemia (n = 12), chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML, n = 40), and normal controls (n = 200). C677T genotypes were not associated with the risk of each disease. A1298C variants, however, significantly decreased the risks of ALL and CML compared with 1298AA. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1298AC and 1298AC + CC were 0.53 (0.31,0.93) and 0.54 (0.31,0.93) in ALL, and 0.34 (0.14,0.80) and 0.40 (0.18,0.89) in CML, respectively, compared with 1298AA. These findings demonstrate that the development of ALL and CML is more dependent on folate status, and more susceptible to DNA instability than that of AML. In addition, A1298C rather than C677T may be a more important genetic risk modifier in leukaemogenesis at least in the Korean population. [source]

ACE and MTHFR gene polymorphisms in unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss

Venkatesan Vettriselvi
Abstract Aim:, To assess the association between polymorphisms in angiotensin converting enzyme and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase genes and recurrent pregnancy loss by a case-control study in South Indian women. Methods:, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of 104 women with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) and 120 controls. Genotyping of ACE Insertion Deletion and MTHFR C677T polymorphism were carried out by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. Results:, No statistically significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes between cases and controls for ACE and MTHFR polymorphisms. Further, the combination of MTHFR and ACE genotypes failed to reveal an association. Conclusion:, In conclusion, the present study reveals lack of association of MTHFR C677T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in RPL in South Indian women. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that other polymorphisms of ACE and MTHFR genes could be associated with the disease and might be clinically useful as a marker to assess risk for RPL. [source]

Homocysteine levels and sustained virological response to pegylated-interferon ,2b plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C: a prospective study

Guglielmo Borgia
Abstract Background: Chronic hepatitis C affects about 3% of the world's population. Pegylated interferon (IFN) , plus ribavirin is the gold standard treatment. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase(MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of homocysteine. MTHFR gene polymorphisms and high levels of homocysteine are associated with a high degree of steatosis and fibrosis, conditions associated with a low sustained virological response (SVR) rate. Aims: To evaluate whether MTHFR polymorphisms and homocysteine levels are predictors of the outcome of treatment in 102 prospectively enrolled patients with chronic hepatitis C naive to treatment. Methods: Patients were treated with pegylated interferon ,-2b plus ribavirin. All patients underwent blood tests, assessment of homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate, hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA levels, screening for MTHFR gene polymorphisms and liver ultrasound examination. Results: Homocysteine levels were deranged (>16 ,mol/L) in 10.5% of MTHFR wild-type patients vs 40.3% of non-wild-type patients (P=0.015). Homocysteine levels were 14.4 ,mol/L in SVR patients and 15.5 ,mol/L in non-SVR patients (P=0.049). The SVR rate was 40.0% in MTHFR wild-type patients, 52.0% in heterozygote mutants and 39.3% in homozygote mutants (P=0.467). At logistic regression analysis, genotypes 2 and 3 (odds ratio: 12.328, 95% confidence interval: 3.390,44.837, P=0.0001), homocysteine <16 ,mol/L (odds ratio: 3.397, 95% confidence interval: 1.033,11.177, P=0.044) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels <48 U/L (odds ratio: 3.262, 95% confidence interval: 1.125,9.458, P=0.029) were independent predictors of SVR. Conclusions: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, homocysteine levels are associated with the outcome of pegylated-IFN, plus ribavirin treatment, while polymorphisms of MTHFR are not. [source]

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphisms, Folate, and Cancer Risk: A Paradigm of Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Carcinogenesis

F.R.C.P.(C), Young-In Kim M.D.
Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that common polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with allele frequencies up to 35% in the general North American population may modulate cancer risk. In some cancers, folate and other nutrients involved in the MTHFR metabolic pathway appear to interact with MTHFR polymorphisms to further modify cancer risk. In carcinogenesis, MTHFR polymorphisms thus provide a paradigm of gene-nutrient interactions, an emerging and important topic in the field ofnutritisn and cancer. Furthermore, MTHFR polymorphisms and MTHFR-nutrient interactions provide an opportunity to identify an ideal target group of individuals, at high risk of developing cancer, for rational, effective, and safe chemoprevention using these nutrients. [source]

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms, serum methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase levels, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a Chinese population

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
Na Tong
(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 782,786) Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), involved in DNA methylation and nucleotide synthesis, is thought to be associated with a decreased risk of adult and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Accumulating evidence has indicated that two common genetic variants, C677T and A1298C, are associated with cancer risk. We hypothesized that these two variants were associated with childhood ALL susceptibility and influence serum MTHFR levels. We genotyped these two polymorphisms and detected MTHFR levels in a case,control study of 361 cases and 508 controls. Compared with the 677CC and 677CC/CT genotypes, the 677TT genotype was associated with a statistically significantly decreased risk of childhood ALL (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = 0.32,0.88, and odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval = 0.35,0.88, respectively). In addition, a pronounced reduced risk of ALL was observed among low-risk ALL and B-phenotype ALL. Moreover, the mean serum MTHFR level was 8.01 ng/mL (±4.38) in cases and 9.27 ng/mL (±4.80) in controls (P < 0.001). MTHFR levels in subjects with 677TT genotype was significantly higher than those with 677CC genotype (P = 0.010) or 677CT genotype (P = 0.043) in controls. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the MTHFR polymorphisms might contribute to reduced childhood ALL risk in this population. [source]