Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of MTA

  • grey mta
  • proroot mta

  • Selected Abstracts

    Comparative in vitro study of the sealing efficiency of white vs grey ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate formulas as apical barriers

    Spyridon Stefopoulos
    Recently conventional grey MTA has been replaced by a new white MTA formula. The aim of this study was to compare the root canal adaptation of white MTA to that of grey MTA when used as an apical barrier in teeth with open apices. We also examined whether a previous calcium hydroxide intracanal medication affects MTA's sealing ability and investigated the ability to remove calcium hydroxide from the root canal walls. Forty-nine teeth were prepared in a manner to simulate a divergent open apex of immature teeth. Four teeth were used in a preliminary experiment to demonstrate the inefficacy of calcium hydroxide removal from the canal walls in teeth with open apices. Four groups of 10 teeth each were created: groups A and B were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication and then received an apical plug of grey and white MTA respectively. Groups C and D received an apical plug of grey and white MTA respectively without previous intracanal medication. Four teeth served as negative and one as a positive control. The marginal adaptation and sealing ability of the apical barrier were tested by means of a dye tracer (basic fuchsine) after longitudinal sectioning. It was found that MTA apical barrier resisted displacement during gutta-percha condensation. Calcium hydroxide pretreatment, adversely affected white MTA sealing ability (P < 0.05). [source]

    The current opinions and use of MTA for apical barrier formation of non-vital immature permanent incisors by consultants in paediatric dentistry in the UK

    Gillian Catherine Mooney
    A semi-structured postal questionnaire was sent to all known consultants in paediatric dentistry in the UK. The response rate was 78.6% (44 of 56). Thity-eight consultants (86.3%) agreed that the use of this material was a good idea with 68.2% having used or arranged for its use in apical barrier formation. Forty-two consultants (95.5%) agreed that reduced number of visits was an advantage to the technique, with only 34.1% agreeing that this procedure was less likely to weaken the tooth and 63.6% agreed that material and equipment costs were a drawback and 50% agreed that lack of available evidence was a disadvantage to its use. The results from this study give an indication of the extent of MTA use by consultant-led services in paediatric dentistry in the UK and highlights the need for a multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial. [source]

    Vital pulp therapy with mineral trioxide aggregate

    Bekir Karabucak
    Abstract,,, The present case report describes the treatment of complicated crown fractures using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). MTA was used as pulp-capping material after partial pulpotomy to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues in two cases. Follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. [source]

    Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    E. S. C. Korf
    Abstract Hypothesis, Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white matter hyperintensities. Methods, In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0,4), and meaned. Results, Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1,7.8) compared with an MTA score of 0 (no atrophy). The odds ratio for MTA score 2 was not significantly increased (OR 1.8; CI: 0.9,4). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a history of hypertension were not associated with MTA. There was no interaction between DM and hypertension. Stratification on white matter hyperintensities (WMH) did not alter the associations. Conclusion Our study strengthens the observation that MTA is associated with DM, independently of the amount of small vessel disease as reflected by WMH. [source]

    Developments in research concerning Mesozoic,Tertiary Tethys and neotectonics in the Isparta Angle, SW Turkey

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2003
    Alastair H. F. Robertson
    Abstract The Isparta Angle has played a critical role in the development of concepts concerning the tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic,Tertiary Neotethys in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Following early regional studies, mainly by the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA), during the 1960s and 1970s, a French team mapped the area and confirmed a regional tectonostratigraphy of three great allochthonous systems of mainly Mesozoic,Early Tertiary age, termed the Antalya, Lycian and Hoyran-Bey,ehir-Had,m nappes. During the 1970s and 1980s a British group studied the Neotethyan evolution of what they termed the Antalya Complex, utilizing knowledge of plate tectonic processes. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s MTA systematically remapped the area at 1:25,000 scale. The root zone of the Antalya allochthon was either a southerly Neotethys, within and to the south of the Isparta Angle, or a northerly Neotethys, many hundreds of kilometres to the north. The southerly origin is nowadays favoured but some questions remain. Attention focused in the 1990s until present to the post-collisional, neotectonic evolution of the Isparta Angle and its links with the neighbouring Mediterranean Sea. Here, we trace the development of research and the ongoing debates concerning alternative tectonic concepts used to explain the evolution of the Isparta Angle from Mesozoic to Recent time. We conclude by outlining several tectonic models for the evolution of the Antalya allochthon within a southerly Neotethys that require to be tested by future field studies. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Apical surgery of a maxillary molar creating a maxillary sinus window using ultrasonics: a clinical case

    B. García
    García B, Peñarrocha M, Peñarrocha MA, von Arx T. Apical surgery of a maxillary molar creating a maxillary sinus window using ultrasonics: a clinical case. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 1054,1061, 2010. Abstract Aim, To describe a method of carrying out apical surgery of a maxillary molar using ultrasonics to create a lateral sinus window into the maxillary sinus and an endoscope to enhance visibility during surgery. Summary, A 37-year-old female patient presented with tenderness to percussion of the maxillary second right molar. Root canal treatment had been undertaken, and the tooth restored with a metal-ceramic crown. Radiological examination revealed an apical radiolucency in close proximity to the maxillary sinus. Apical surgery of the molar was performed through the maxillary sinus, using ultrasonics for the osteotomy, creating a window in the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. During surgery, the lining of the sinus was exposed and elevated without perforation. The root-end was resected using a round tungsten carbide drill, and the root-end cavity was prepared with ultrasonic retrotips. Root-end filling was accomplished with MTA®. An endoscope was used to examine the cut root face, the prepared cavity and the root-end filling. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth had no clinical signs or symptoms, and the radiograph demonstrated progressing resolution of the radiolucency. Key learning points ,,When conventional root canal retreatment cannot be performed or has failed, apical surgery may be considered, even in maxillary molars with roots in close proximity to the maxillary sinus. ,,Ultrasonic sinus window preparation allows more control and can minimize perforation of the sinus membrane when compared with conventional rotary drilling techniques. ,,The endoscope enhances visibility during endodontic surgery, thus improving the quality of the case. [source]

    Apatite-forming ability (bioactivity) of ProRoot MTA

    M. G. Gandolfi
    Gandolfi MG, Taddei P, Tinti A, Prati C. Apatite-forming ability (bioactivity) of ProRoot MTA. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 917,929, 2010. Abstract Aim, Apatite-forming ability, considered as an index of bioactivity (bond-to-bone ability), was tested on ProRoot MTA cement after immersion in phosphate-containing solution (DPBS). Methodology, Disk samples were prepared and immersed in DPBS for 10 min, 5 h, 1 and 7 days. The cement surface was studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, by micro-Raman spectroscopy and by environmental scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (ESEM-EDX) analyses. The pH of the storage solution was also investigated. Results, Spectroscopic analyses revealed calcium phosphate bands after 5-h immersion in DPBS. After 1 day, an even coating composed of apatite spherulites (0.1,0.8 micron diameter) was observed by ESEM/EDX. After 7 days, its thickness had increased. Apatite nucleation had already occurred after 5-h immersion. At this time, the presence of portlandite (i.e. Ca(OH)2, calcium hydroxide) on the cement surface was also observed; at longer times, this component was released into the medium, which underwent a remarkable pH increase. Conclusions, The study confirms the ability of ProRoot MTA to form a superficial layer of apatite within hours. The excellent bioactivity of ProRoot MTA might provide a significant clinical advantage over the traditional cements used for root-end or root-perforation repair. [source]

    Bioactivity of novel carboxymethyl chitosan scaffold incorporating MTA in a tooth model

    R. Budiraharjo
    Budiraharjo R, Neoh KG, Kang ET, Kishen A. Bioactivity of novel carboxymethyl chitosan scaffold incorporating MTA in a tooth model. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 930,939, 2010. Abstract Aim, To characterise the bioactivity of a novel carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) scaffold with and without incorporating mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in a tooth model. Methodology, Cross-linked CMCS scaffold (CaC) and MTA-coated CaC (CaMT) scaffold were prepared by freeze-drying. The bioactivity of the scaffolds was tested in vitro in four different mineralisation solutions (bulk system) and ex vivo in simulated body fluid (SBF) in the tooth model. After mineralisation, the mineral deposits on the scaffolds were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. All data were statistically analysed using the two-sample t -test (P < 0.05). Results, Hydroxyapatite (HAP) deposition was observed on CaC and CaMT scaffolds after 1 week of mineralisation in the tooth model and in the bulk system. The deposition was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on CaMT scaffold than that on CaC scaffold. The amount of HAP formed in the tooth model was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the bulk solution. Conclusions, The CMCS scaffolds are bioactive and capable of biomineralisation by forming HAP within a tooth model ex vivo. The bioactivity of the CMCS scaffold can be enhanced by incorporating MTA. [source]

    Apexogenesis after initial root canal treatment of an immature maxillary incisor , a case report

    S. R. Kvinnsland
    Abstract Aim, To present a case where a traumatized, immature tooth still showed capacity for continued root development and apexogenesis after root canal treatment was initiated based on an inaccurate pulpal diagnosis. Summary, Traumatic dental injuries may result in endodontic complications. Treatment strategies for traumatized, immature teeth should aim at preserving pulp vitality to ensure further root development and tooth maturation. A 9-year-old boy, who had suffered a concussion injury to the maxillary anterior teeth, was referred after endodontic treatment was initiated in tooth 21 one week earlier. The tooth had incomplete root length, thin dentinal walls and a wide open apex. The pulp chamber had been accessed, and the pulp canal instrumented to size 100. According to the referral, bleeding from the root made it difficult to fill the root canal with calcium hydroxide. No radiographic signs of apical breakdown were recorded. Based on radiographic and clinical findings, a conservative treatment approach was followed to allow continued root development. Follow-up with radiographic examination every 3rd month was performed for 15 months. Continued root formation with apical closure was recorded. In the cervical area, a hard tissue barrier developed, which was sealed with white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Bonded composite was used to seal the access cavity. At the final 2 years follow-up, the tooth showed further root development and was free from symptoms. Key learning points, ,,Endodontic treatment of immature teeth may result in a poor long-term prognosis. ,,The pulp of immature teeth has a significant repair potential as long as infection is prevented. ,,Treatment strategies of traumatized, immature permanent teeth should aim at preserving pulp vitality to secure further root development and tooth maturation. ,,Radiographic interpretation of the periapical area of immature teeth may be confused by the un-mineralized radiolucent zone surrounding the dental papilla. [source]

    Randomized clinical trial of root-end resection followed by root-end filling with mineral trioxide aggregate or smoothing of the orthograde gutta-percha root filling , 1-year follow-up

    R. Christiansen
    Abstract Aim, To compare healing after root-end resection with a root-end filling of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or smoothing of the orthograde gutta-percha (GP) root filling. Methodology, Forty-four patients (consisting of 52 teeth with periapical infection), average age of 54.6 years (range 30,77) participated in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing the MTA and GP treatment methods. Radiographs produced 1-week and 12 months post-operatively were compared after blinding for treatment method, and healing was assessed as complete, incomplete, uncertain, or unsatisfactory. Results, Six teeth were not available for the 12-month follow-up: three teeth (GP) had been re-operated because of pain and two teeth (one GP, one MTA) had been extracted because of root fracture (these five teeth were classified as failures). One patient (GP) was not available for recall. In the GP group, seven teeth (28%) showed complete healing, six teeth (24%) incomplete healing, six teeth (24%) uncertain healing and two teeth (8%) unsatisfactory healing after 1 year. In the MTA group, 22 teeth (85%) showed complete healing, three teeth (12%) incomplete healing, and none were scored as uncertain or unsatisfactory healing after 1 year. The difference in healing between the GP and the MTA groups was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The results from this RCT emphasize the importance of placing a root-end filling after root-end resection. Teeth treated with MTA had significantly better healing (96%) than teeth treated by smoothing of the orthograde GP root filling only (52%). [source]

    The effect of pH on surface hardness and microstructure of mineral trioxide aggregate

    M. S. Namazikhah
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate the surface microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) specimens following exposure of their surface to a range of acidic environments during hydration. In addition, the morphological microstructure features of samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methodology, White ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA) was mixed and packed into cylindrical polycarbonate tubes. Four groups, each of 10 specimens, were formed using a pressure of 3.22 MPa and exposed to pH 4.4, 5.4, 6.4 and 7.4, respectively, for 4 days. Vickers microhardness of the surface of each specimen was measured after exposure. Four groups of two specimens were prepared and treated in the same way prior to qualitative examination by SEM. Data were subjected to one-way anova and post hoc Tukey's test. Result, The greatest mean surface hardness values (53.19 ± 4.124) were observed following exposure to pH 7.4 with the values decreasing to 14.34 ± 6.477 following exposure to pH 4.4. The difference between these values at the 95% CI (33.39,44.30) was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). There were no distinct morphological differences between groups in terms of the internal microstructure. However, a trend was observed that the more acidic the solution, the more extensive the porosity of the specimens. Conclusion, Under the conditions of this study, surface hardness of MTA was impaired in an acidic environment. [source]

    Histological evaluation of MTA as a root-end filling material

    P. F. E. Bernabé
    Abstract Aim, To assess the histological response associated with grey mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) as root-end filling materials in teeth where the root canals were not filled and the coronal access cavities were not restored. Methodology, Periapical lesions were developed in 24 premolar teeth in three dogs. The root canals were prepared and half of them were dried, filled and the coronal access restored (closed). The remaining teeth were not root filled and no coronal restoration was placed (open). Apical root-end resections were performed 3 mm from the apex, and root-end cavities were prepared with ultrasonic tips. These were randomly filled with either ZOE or GMTA in the same number of specimens using MAPSYSTEM device. After 180 days the animals were killed and blocks of tissues removed and processed for histological examination. Periradicular tissue reaction was evaluated, including severity of inflammation and cementum formation. Statistical analysis was performed using anova analysis and Tukey's test. Results, A significant difference was found between the levels of inflammation in the periradicular tissues of the GMTA/closed group, compared with the ZOE/open and ZOE/closed groups (P < 0.05) but not between GMTA/closed and GMTA/open groups. Cementum formation was not found over any ZOE specimens but over MTA in all specimens. No microorganisms were found in the interface between the material and the dentinal walls. Conclusions, GMTA was associated with less periapical inflammation and tissue response when used as a root-end filling material, even when no root filling or coronal restoration was present. [source]

    Fracture strength of bovine incisors after intra-radicular treatment with MTA in an experimental immature tooth model

    E. A. Bortoluzzi
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate, using an experimental immature tooth model, the fracture resistance of bovine incisors submitted to different reinforcement treatments with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methodology, An immature tooth model was created by sectioning the coronal and apical portions of 40 bovine incisors 8 mm above and 12 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The root canals were irrigated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite. They were enlarged both coronally and apically using number 703 carbide burs (ISO: 500,104-168-007-021) and their internal diameter was standardized to 2.1 mm. The specimens were assigned to four groups (n = 10): GI-control (without filling); GII-apical MTA plug + filling with gutta-percha and endodontic sealer; GIII-filling with MTA; GIV-apical MTA plug + filling with MTA + metallic post (Reforpost I). A polyether impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. The specimens were submitted to a compressive load at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min,1 in a servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (MTS 810) applied at 45° to the long axis of the tooth until failure. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by the Kruskal,Wallis test at 5% significance level. Results, GIV presented the highest fracture resistance (32.7N) and differed significantly from the other groups (P < 0.05). No statistically difference was found between GII (16.6N) and GIII (23.4N) (P > 0.05). GIII had a significantly higher fracture resistance than GI (P < 0.05). Conclusions, The use of MTA + metallic post as an intra-radicular reinforcement treatment increased the resistance to fracture of weakened bovine teeth in an experimental immature tooth model. [source]

    Ex vivo microscopic assessment of factors affecting the quality of apical seal created by root-end fillings

    S. I. Tobón-Arroyave
    Abstract Aim, (i) To evaluate the incidence of microcracks around root-end preparations completed with ultrasonic tips and their relationship with the root filling technique and thickness of surrounding dentine. (ii) To investigate the effect of rapid exposure to a water-soluble dye of Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), Super Ethoxybenzoic Acid (sEBA) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), on the marginal adaptation and microleakage of root-end fillings. (iii) To describe the microstructure of the surface of root-end filling materials. Methodology, Ninety-two single-rooted teeth were divided into two groups (n = 46) according to the root canal instrumentation/filling techniques. Group 1 consisted of specimens in which canal preparation was completed using a crown-down technique and then filled with the Thermafil system (TF group); Group 2 consisted of specimens in which canal preparation was completed using a step-back technique and lateral condensation (LC group). Following root-end resection and ultrasonic cavity preparation, the samples were further divided into three subgroups (n = 24) for root-end filling with IRM, sEBA or MTA. The ultrasonic preparation time was recorded. Eight teeth were kept as positive and 12 as negative controls. Following immersion in Indian ink for 7 days, all resected root surfaces were evaluated for the presence of microcracks and the cross-sectional area of root-end surface and root-end filling were measured to evaluate the thickness of the dentinal walls. Thereafter, the samples were sectioned longitudinally so as to assess the depth of dye penetration and marginal adaptation of root-end fillings. Negative controls longitudinally sectioned were used to describe microstructural characteristics of the root-end filling materials using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. Results, Although the thickness of dentinal walls between groups 1 and 2 was similar, the ultrasonic preparation time and number of microcracks were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the TF group. Both groups had a significant correlation between microcracks and ultrasonic preparation time (P < 0.001). sEBA and IRM had better adaptation and less leakage compared with MTA. A SEM analysis displayed microstructural differences between the root-end filling materials. Conclusion, Microcracks can occur independently of the thickness of dentinal walls and may be associated with the prolonged ultrasonic preparation time required for the removal of the root filling during root-end cavity preparation. Although sEBA and IRM had better behaviour than MTA regarding microleakage and marginal adaptation, it is possible that exposure of MTA to a water-soluble dye before achieving full set and its porous microstructure contributed to the results. [source]

    The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on phagocytic activity and production of reactive oxygen, nitrogen species and arginase activity by M1 and M2 macrophages

    T. M. B. Rezende
    Abstract Aim, To assess the influence of co-culture with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and nitrogen (NO) species and the arginase activity by M1 and M2 peritoneal macrophages. Methodology, Cellular viability, adherence and phagocytosis of Saccharomyces boulardii were assayed in the presence of MTA. Macrophages were stimulated with zymosan for ROI assays and with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and IFN- , for NO production and arginase activity, when in contact with capillaries containing MTA. Data were analysed by T, anova, Kruskall,Wallis and Mann,Whitney tests. Results, M2 macrophages displayed greater cellular viability in polypropylene tubes, greater ability to ingest yeast and smaller production of ROI and higher arginase activity when compared with M1 macrophages. Both macrophages, M1 and M2, presented similar cell adherence and NO production. The addition of bacterial preparations to macrophages interfered with NO and arginase productions. MTA did not interfere with any of the parameters measured. Conclusions, Phagocytosis and the ability of the two macrophage subtypes to eliminate microbes were not affected by MTA. [source]

    Prostaglandin E2 production and viability of cells cultured in contact with freshly mixed endodontic materials

    K. K. Melegari
    Abstract Aim, To determine whether commonly used endodontic sealers could either induce or increase the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when in contact with cell types found in the periapical tissues. Methodology, Freshly mixed samples of Roth 801 sealer, Sealapex® and ProRoot® mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were placed in contact with cultured macrophages and fibroblasts for 24 h. The supernatant from the cultures was assayed for PGE2 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability counts were made. As a positive control, similar cultures were also exposed to lipopolysaccharide and the supernatant analysed for PGE2. Data were compared by anova. Results, The three materials examined in these experiments did not stimulate increased PGE2 release from either of the cell lines. In control cultures, lipolysaccharide increased PGE2 release from macrophages but not from fibroblasts. Viability counts revealed that, whilst Roth 801 sealer caused some cell death in both fibroblasts and macrophages, Sealapex® led to cell death only in the macrophage cultures. ProRoot® MTA did not lead to statistically significant cell death in either culture. Conclusions, Under 24-h culture conditions, the three freshly mixed test materials did not increase directly either production or release of PGE2 from either macrophages or gingival fibroblasts. Roth 801 decreased cell viability counts for both fibroblasts and macrophages. Sealapex® decreases macrophage viability. ProRoot® MTA did not affect viability in either cell line. [source]

    The effect of mineral trioxide aggregate on the apexification and periapical healing of teeth with incomplete root formation

    W. T. Felippe
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate the influence of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on apexification and periapical healing of teeth in dogs with incomplete root formation and previously contaminated canals and to verify the necessity of employing calcium hydroxide paste before using MTA. Methodology, Twenty premolars from two 6-month old dogs were used. After access to the root canals and complete removal of the pulp, the canal systems remained exposed to the oral environment for 2 weeks. Canal preparation was then carried out using Hedström files, under irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite, 1 mm short of the radiographic apex. After drying, the canals of two premolars in each dog were left empty (control group). The other eight teeth in each animal were divided into two experimental groups. The apical thirds of the canals of group 1 were filled with MTA. In the teeth of group 2, the canals were dressed with a calcium hydroxide,propylene glycol paste. After 1 week, the paste was removed and the apical third was filled with MTA. All teeth were restored with reinforced zinc oxide cement (IRM) and amalgam. The animals were killed 5 months later, and blocks of the teeth and surrounding tissues were submitted to histological processing. The sections were studied to evaluate seven parameters: formation of an apical calcified tissue barrier, level of barrier formation, inflammatory reaction, bone and root resorption, MTA extrusion, and microorganisms. Results of experimental groups were analysed by Wilcoxon's nonparametric tests and by the test of proportions. The critical value of statistical significance was 5%. Results, Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in relation to the position of barrier formation and MTA extrusion. The barrier was formed in the interior of the canal in 69.2% of roots from MTA group only. In group 2, it was formed beyond the limits of the canal walls in 75% of the roots. MTA extrusion occurred mainly in roots from group 2. There was similarity between the groups for the other parameters. Conclusions, Mineral trioxide aggregate used after root canal preparation favoured the occurrence of the apexification and periapical healing. The initial use of calcium hydroxide paste was not necessary for apexification to occur, and has shown to be strongly related to the extrusion of MTA and formation of barriers beyond the limits of the root canal walls. [source]

    Cytotoxicity of MTA and Portland cement on human ECV 304 endothelial cells

    G. De Deus
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of two brands of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Pro-Root MTA® and MTA Angelus®) and Portland cement (PC) on the human ECV 304 endothelial cell line. Methodology, Endothelial ECV 304 cells were incubated at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 95% air, 5% carbon dioxide and 100% humidity for 7 days and grown in F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum with 50 ,g mL,1 of gentamicin sulphate. Effects of the materials on mitochondrial functions were measured by a colorimetric assay. At each experimental time interval (24, 48 and 72 h), a dimethyl-thiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromid assay was conducted to measure cell viability. All assays were repeated three times to ensure reproducibility. Results were expressed as average absorbance (A570\,nm) ± SD and the data were analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post-test. A P -value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results, No statistically significant difference was shown between any of the experimental materials (P > 0.05). Conclusions, The two brands of MTA analysed, as well as the PC, initially showed a similar elevated cytotoxic effect that decreased gradually with time allowing the cell culture to become reestablished. [source]

    A comparative histological evaluation of the biocompatibility of materials used in apical surgery

    C. J. A. Sousa
    Abstract Aim, To evaluate the biological properties of a variety of materials that could be used in apical surgery. Methodology, The intraosseous implant technique recommended by the FDI (1980) and ADA (1982) was used to test the following materials: zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and Z-100 light-cured composite resin. Thirty guinea-pigs, 10 for each material, divided into experimental periods of 4 and 12 weeks, received one implant on each side of the lower jaw symphysis. The connective tissue response alongside the lateral wall outside the cup served as a negative control for the technique. At the end of the observation periods, the animals were killed and the specimens prepared for routine histological examination to evaluate their biocompatibility. Results, The reaction of the tissue to the materials diminished with time. The ZOE cement was highly toxic during the 4-week experimental period, but this profile changed significantly after 12 weeks, when it showed biocompatible characteristics. MTA and Z-100 showed biocompatibility in this test model at both time periods. Conclusions, MTA and Z-100 composite were biocompatible at 4 and 12 weeks in this experimental model. [source]

    A prospective clinical study of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and IRM when used as root-end filling materials in endodontic surgery

    B. S. Chong
    Abstract Aim, To assess the success rate of the root-end filling material, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Methodology, Referred adult patients were recruited using strict entry criteria and randomly allocated to receive MTA or IRM. A standardized surgical technique was employed: the root end was resected perpendicularly and a root-end cavity was prepared ultrasonically and filled. A radiograph taken immediately after surgery was compared with those taken at 12 and 24 months. Customised film holders and the paralleling technique were used; radiographs were assessed by two trained observers using agreed criteria. The results from 122 patients (58 in IRM group, 64 in MTA group) after 12 months and 108 patients (47 in IRM group, 61 in MTA group) for the 24-month review period were analysed using the ,2 test. Results, The highest number of teeth with complete healing at both times was observed when MTA was used. When the numbers of teeth with complete and incomplete (scar) healing, and those with uncertain and unsatisfactory healing were combined, the success rate for MTA was higher (84% after 12 months, 92% after 24 months) compared with IRM (76% after 12 months, 87% after 24 months). However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in success between materials (P > 0.05) at both 12 and 24 months. Conclusions, In this study, the use of MTA as a root-end filling material resulted in a high success rate that was not significantly better than that obtained using IRM. [source]

    Geothermal energy utilization in Turkey

    G. G. Gunerhan
    Abstract This paper investigates the status of geothermal development in Turkey as of the end of 1999. Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. Resource assessments have been made many times by the Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (MTA) of Turkey. The main uses of geothermal energy are mostly moderate- and low-temperature applications such as space heating and domestic hot water supply, greenhouse heating, swimming and balneology, industrial processes, heat pumps and electricity generation. The data accumulated since 1962 show that the estimated geothermal power and direct use potential are about 4500 MWe and 31 500 MWt, respectively. The direct use capacity in thermal applications is in total 640 MWt representing only 2 per cent of its total potential. Since 1990, space heating and greenhouse developments have exhibited a significant progress. The total area of greenhouses heated by geothermal energy reached up to about 31 ha with a heating capacity of 69.61 MWt. A geothermal power plant with a capacity of 20.4 MWe and a CO2 factory with a capacity of 40000 ton yr,1 have been operated in the Denizli-Kizildere field since 1984 and 1986, respectively. Ground source heat pumps have been used in residential buildings for heating and cooling for approximately 2 years. Present applications have shown that geothermal energy in Turkey is clean and much cheaper compared to the other energy sources like fossil fuels and therefore is a promising alternative. As the projects are recognized by the public, the progress will continue. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    N,N -dimethyl-thioamphetamine and methyl-thioamphetamine, two non-neurotoxic substrates of 5-HT transporters, have scant in vitro efficacy for the induction of transporter-mediated 5-HT release and currents

    Marco Gobbi
    Abstract We studied two non-neurotoxic amphetamine derivatives (methyl-thioamphetamine, MTA and N,N- dimethylMTA, DMMTA) interacting with serotonin (5-HT) transporters (SERTs) with affinities comparable to that of p- Cl-amphetamine (pCA). The rank order for their maximal effects in inducing both [3H]5-HT release from rat brain synaptosomes or hSERT-expressing HEK-293 cells, and currents in hSERT-expressing oocytes, was pCA » MTA , DMMTA. A correlation between drug-induced release and currents is also strengthened by the similar bell shape of the dose,response curves. Release experiments indicated that MTA and DMMTA are SERT substrates although MTA is taken up by HEK-293 cells with a Vmax 40% lower than pCA. The weak effects of MTA and DMMTA in vitro might therefore be due to their properties as ,partial substrates' on the mechanisms, other than translocation, responsible for currents and/or release. After either local or systemic in vivo administration, MTA and DMMTA release 5-HT in a manner comparable to pCA. These findings confirm that the neurotoxic properties of some amphetamine derivatives are independent of their 5-HT-releasing activity in vivo. It is worth noting that only those amphetamine derivatives with high efficiency in inducing 5-HT release and currents in vitro have neurotoxic properties. [source]

    The role of RNA polymerase I transcription and embryonic genome activation in nucleolar development in bovine preimplantation embryos

    O. Svarcova
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RNA polymerase I (RPI) transcription in nucleolar development during major transcriptional activation (MTA) in cattle. Late eight-cell embryos were cultured in the absence (control group) or presence of actinomycin D (AD) (RPI inhibition, AD 0.2 µg/ml; total transcriptional inhibition, AD 2.0 µg/ml). Late four-cell embryos were cultured to late eight-cell stage in 0.2 µg/ml AD (MTA prevention, ADLT (long-term total transcriptional inhibition group). Embryos were processed for autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (ribosomal RNA, rRNA), silver staining (nucleolar proteins), and immunofluorescence (RPI). Control embryos displayed extranucleolar and nucleolar transcription, functional nucleoli, and distinct RPI localization. Nuclei (97%) showed large rRNA clusters, in 94.1% co-localized with nucleolar proteins deposits. In AD 0.2 group, only extranucleolar transcription was detected. Segregated dense-fibrillar and granular components, but no fibrillar centers, were observed. RPI was dispersed. Nuclei (55%) presented rRNA clusters, in 38.8% co-localized with silver-stained deposits. AD 2.0 and ADLT groups displayed no transcription and disintegrating nucleolar precursors. AD 2.0 (34%) and 14% (ADLT) of nuclei presented clusters of maternally inherited rRNA. In AD 2.0 group, RPI was dispersed, but 17.2% of nuclei showed colocalization of rRNA with nucleolar proteins. In ADLT group, RPI was lacking and clustering of nucleolar proteins was hampered. In conclusion, rDNA transcription is not required for targeting of rRNA processing proteins, rRNA is maternally inherited and target to rDNA independent of transcription, and de novo transcription is required for proper nucleologenesis in cattle. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 1095,1103, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Analysis of S -adenosylmethionine and related sulfur metabolites in bacterial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BAA-47) by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Tommaso R. I. Cataldi
    A comprehensive and highly selective method for detecting in bacterial supernatants a modified sulfur nucleoside, S -adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and its metabolites, i.e., S -adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), adenosine (Ado), 5,-deoxy-5,-methylthioadenosine (MTA), adenine (Ade), S -adenosyl-methioninamine (dcSAM), homocysteine (Hcy) and methionine (Met), was developed. The method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) coupled to a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap (LTQ) and 7-T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). A gradient elution was employed with a binary solvent of 0.05,M ammonium formate at pH 4 and acetonitrile. The assay involves a simultaneous cleanup of cell-free bacterial broths by solid-phase extraction and trace enrichment of metabolites with a 50-fold concentration factor by using immobilized phenylboronic and anion-exchange cartridges. While the quantitative determination of SAM was performed using stable-isotope-labeled SAM-d3 as an internal standard, in the case of Met and Ade, Met- 13C and Ade- 15N2 were employed as isotope-labeled internal standards, respectively. This method enabled the identification of SAM and its metabolites in cell-free culture of Pseudomonasaeruginosa grown in Davis minimal broth (formulation without sulphur organic compounds), with routine sub-ppm mass accuracies (,0.27,±,0.68,ppm). The resulting contents of SCSS -SAM, SS -dcSAM, MTA, Ado and Met in the free-cell supernatant of P. aeruginosa was 56.4,±,2.1,nM, 32.2,±,2.2,nM, 0.91,±,0.10,nM, 19.6,±,1.2,nM and 1.93,±,0.02,µM (mean,±,SD, n,=,4 extractions), respectively. We report also the baseline separation (Rs ,1.5) of both diastereoisomeric forms of SAM (SCSS and SCRS) and dcSAM (SS and RS), which can be very useful to establish the relationship between the biologically active versus the inactive species, SCSS/SCRS and SS/RS of SAM and dcSAM, respectively. An additional confirmation of SAM-related metabolites was accomplished by a systematic study of their MS/MS spectra. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The immediate-early ethylene response gene OsARD1 encodes an acireductone dioxygenase involved in recycling of the ethylene precursor S -adenosylmethionine

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
    Margret Sauter
    Summary Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is formed as a by-product of ethylene biosynthesis from S -adenosyl- l -methionine (AdoMet). The methionine cycle regenerates AdoMet from MTA. In two independent differential screens for submergence-induced genes and for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced genes from deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) we identified an acireductone dioxygenase (ARD). OsARD1 is a metal-binding protein that belongs to the cupin superfamily. Acireductone dioxygenases are unique proteins that can acquire two different activities depending on the metal ion bound. Ectopically expressed apo-OsARD1 preferentially binds Fe2+ and reconstituted Fe-OsARD1 catalyzed the formation of 2-keto-pentanoate and formate from the model substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-ketopent-1-ene and dioxygen, indicating that OsARD1 is capable of catalyzing the penultimate step in the methionine cycle. Two highly homologous ARD genes were identified in rice. OsARD1 mRNA levels showed a rapid, early and transient increase upon submergence and after treatment with ethylene-releasing compounds. The second gene from rice, OsARD2, is constitutively expressed. Accumulation of OsARD1 transcript was observed in the same internodal tissues, i.e. the meristem and elongation zone, which were previously shown to synthesize ethylene. OsARD1 transcripts accumulated in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, indicating that OsARD1 is a primary ethylene response gene. Promoter analysis suggests that immediate-early regulation of OsARD1 by ethylene may involve an EIN3-like transcription factor. OsARD1 is induced by low levels of ethylene. We propose that early feedback activation of the methionine cycle by low levels of ethylene ensures the high and continuous rates of ethylene synthesis required for long-term ethylene-mediated submergence adaptation without depleting the tissue of AdoMet. [source]

    A comparative histological analysis of human pulp following direct pulp capping with Propolis, mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal

    A Parolia
    Abstract Background:, Permanent teeth pulp exposures have traditionally been treated with calcium hydroxide pulp capping. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human pulp tissue which were mechanically exposed to a new material, Propolis and compare it with two existing and commonly used pulp capping agents (mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal). Methods:, Thirty-six intact human premolars were mechanically exposed. Teeth were divided into six groups of 6 teeth each and were capped with Propolis, mineral trioxide aggregate and Dycal. Final restoration was done with posterior composite resin using light cured glass ionomer cement as a liner. The teeth were then extracted on the 15th or the 45th day and processed for histological evaluation. Results:, Differences in inflammatory response and dentine bridge formation of the exposed pulp to the three different materials were statistically calculated using chi-square test and were found to be non-significant. There was more pulp inflammation in teeth treated with Dycal than with Propolis and MTA on the 15th as well as on the 45th day. Propolis and MTA showed bridge formation in more teeth, and the bridges were in closer proximity to pulp capping material than teeth treated with Dycal on the 45th day. Conclusions:, The response of pulps to Propolis as a pulp capping agent was comparable to MTA and Dycal. [source]

    Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the hard tissue barrier after pulp capping with calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or ProRoot MTA

    Eduardo Galia Reston dds
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and localisation of calcium hydroxide- and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-induced hard tissue barriers after pulpotomy in dogs' teeth. Pulpotomies were performed on maxillary and mandibular premolars of five dogs. The teeth were assigned into three groups according to the pulp-capping agent used. The pulpal wounds were capped with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, control), MTA or ProRoot MTA, and the cavities were restored with amalgam. After a 90-day follow-up period, the dogs were euthanised and the teeth were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An image-processing and analysis software was used to delimit the perimeters of the root canal area and the hard tissue barrier to determine the percentage of root canal obliteration. SEM data were used to assess the morphology, localisation and extension of the reparative hard tissue barriers. ProRoot MTA was statistically different from MTA and Ca(OH)2 (P < 0.05) regarding tissue barrier morphology. Localisation data showed that ProRoot MTA was significantly different from Ca(OH)2 (P < 0.05) and similar to MTA (P > 0.01; P > 0.05). No statistically significant difference (P > 0.01; P > 0.05) was observed between MTA and Ca(OH)2. A larger number of complete (centroperipheral) hard tissue barriers with predominance of dentinal tubules was observed to the ProRoot MTA when compared with the Ca(OH)2 group. [source]

    MTA pulpotomy of human permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis

    Mohammad Jafar Eghbal dds
    Abstract The histological success of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pulpotomy for treatment of irreversible pulpitis in human teeth as an alternative treatment was investigated in this study. Fourteen molars which had to be extracted were selected from patients 16,28 years old. The selection criteria include carious pulp exposure with a history of lingering pain. After isolation, caries removal and pulp exposure, MTA was used in pulpotomy treatment. Patients were evaluated for pain after 24 h. Two patients were lost from this study. Twelve teeth were extracted after 2 months and were assessed histologically. Recall examinations confirmed that none of the patients experienced pain after pulpotomy. Histological observation revealed that all samples had dentin bridge formation completely and that the pulps were vital and free of inflammation. Although the results favour the use of MTA as a pulpotomy material, more studies with larger samples and a longer recall period are suggested to justify the use of MTA for treatment of irreversible pulpitis in human permanent teeth. [source]

    Histological evaluation of the effect of three medicaments; trichloracetic acid, formocresol and mineral trioxide aggregate on pulpotomised teeth of dogs

    Babak Karami bsc, mscd
    Abstract The aim of this study was to use clinical, radiographic and histological examinations to compare the dental pulp response in 162 premolar roots of eight dogs when trichloracetic acid (TCA), formocresol, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and zinc oxide eugenol were used as pulpotomy agents. The teeth were divided into four groups. Following pulpotomy, the teeth were restored with amalgam. The animals were sacrificed at 48 h, 2, 4 and 8 weeks (two dogs at each interval). Histological evaluation indicated no cases with necrosis. After 8 weeks follow up, dentine bridge formation was evident in 20%, 50% and 91.7% of formocresol, TCA and MTA cases respectively. The first signs of bridge formation were seen for MTA at 2 weeks and for TCA at 4 weeks. MTA was superior to formocresol and TCA in treating pulps in dogs. However, bridge formation was seen in 50% of TCA cases after 8 weeks which is a desirable finding in pulpotomy procedures. [source]

    Comparative SEM study of the marginal adaptation of white and grey MTA and Portland cement

    Maryam Bidar dds
    Abstract The use of a suitable substance that prevents egress of potential contaminants into the periapical tissues is important in endodontic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials (white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), grey MTA and Portland cement), using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. The canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. Following root-end resection and cavity preparation, root-end cavities were filled with white MTA, grey MTA or Portland cement. Using a diamond saw, roots were longitudinally sectioned into two halves. Under scanning electron microscopy, the gaps between the material and dentinal wall were measured. The data were analysed using Kruskal,Wallis test. The mean of the gap in grey MTA, white MTA and Portland cement was 211.6, 349 and 326.3 µm, respectively. The results indicate that the gap between grey MTA and the dentinal wall is less than other materials, but there was no significant difference between the materials tested in this study (P > 0.05). [source]