MSI-H Cases (msi-h + case)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Near-diploid and near-triploid human sporadic colorectal adenocarcinomas differ for KRAS2 and TP53 mutational status

Walter Giaretti
Mutations of the KRAS2 protoncogene and inactivation of the TP53 oncosuppressor gene have been suggested to contribute to chromosomal instability (CIN) and aneuploidy in colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous work has also shown that the degree of DNA ploidy [DNA index (DI)], as obtained by flow cytometry in CRC, is non-randomly distributed and, in particular, that DI near-diploid and near-triploid values are well separated by a low-probability valley region. At present, it is not known whether a relationship exists between DI and the mutational status of KRAS2 and TP53. Multiple samples obtained from 35 human sporadic CRCs have been used to provide nuclei suspensions for flow cytometric analysis and sorting of specific DI subpopulations. Sorted nuclei were then used to analyze the high-microsatellite-instability (MSI-H) phenotype and the mutation spectrum of the KRAS2 and TP53 genes. A single MSI-H case was detected. There were 6 DNA diploid (DI = 1) and 29 aneuploid (DI , 1) CRCs, with the DI aneuploid cases non-randomly subdivided in 9 near-diploid (DI , 1 and DI , 1.4), 8 near-triploid (1.4 < DI < 1.6), and 12 high-aneuploid (DI , 1.6) cases. Proximal CRCs were more often DNA diploid and near-diploid than distal ones, and Dukes' C cases were more commonly high-aneuploid than Dukes' B. Moreover, the incidence of mutations of the KRAS2 and TP53 genes was lowest among the DNA near-triploid subpopulations and highest among the near-diploid ones. We suggest that DNA near-diploid and near-triploid subpopulations in human sporadic CRC reflect different genetic mechanisms of CIN and have a potentially different clinical behavior. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related,checkpoint kinase 1 DNA damage response axis in colon cancers

Kriste A. Lewis
In response to certain types of DNA damage, ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) phosphorylates checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1) resulting in cell cycle arrest and subsequent DNA repair. ATR and CHEK1 contain mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions, which are mutational targets in tumors with defective mismatch repair (MMR). This study examined the frequency of such mutations in colon cancers and their impact on biologic behavior. Screening for ATR mutations in 48 tumors was performed using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and confirmed with sequencing analysis. The CHEK1 exon 7 A(9) region was sequenced in 20 of the 27 (74%) tumors with high frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations with clinical outcomes. Frequent mutations in MSI-H colon cancers were identified within the ATR (37%)/CHEK1(5%) damage response pathway. Stage and MSI status both independently predicted overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). ATR status was not associated with stage, but was associated with a trend toward improved DFS: 0/9 cancers recurred in MSI-H cases harboring ATR mutations vs. 4/18 recurrences in MSI-H cases without ATR mutations. This suggests that ATR mutations may affect clinical behavior and response to therapy in MSI-H colon cancers. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Densely methylated MLH1 promoter correlates with decreased mRNA expression in sporadic colorectal cancers

Taiji Furukawa
It has been reported that MLH1 is silenced by promoter methylation, and that this phenomenon is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). To clarify the significance of MLH1 promoter methylation in sporadic CRC, we examined the correlation between methylation status over the entire promoter region and mRNA expression in cases showing high-frequency MSI (MSI-H). MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed using the bisulfite modification sequencing in 48 MSI-H cases. We also screened for somatic mutation, loss of heterozygosity, and immunohistochemical staining of MLH1. The results showed that methylation patterns could be subdivided into three types: methylation of more than 80% of the CpG sites analyzed (type 1 methylation), methylation of less than 20% (type 2 methylation), and methylation mainly in the region 500 to 921 bases upstream from the translation start site (type 3 methylation). Of the three types, only type 1 methylation correlated with decreased mRNA expression. The frequency of type 1 methylation was significantly higher in cases involving the proximal colon (66.7%, 18/27) compared to that of the distal colon and rectum (23.8%, 5/21, P = 0.004). Immunohistochemical staining of MSI-H cases showed that decreased MLH1 was found in 77.1% (37/48). Of the cases with decreased MLH1, type 1 methylation was present in 59.5% (22/37). Overall, our data suggested that the type 1 methylation pattern may affect MLH1 mRNA expression, such that the majority of MSI-H cases in sporadic CRC, especially proximal colon cancer, exhibited type 1 methylation. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Microsatellite instability of papillary subtype of human gastric adenocarcinoma and hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in the surrounding mucosa

Rong-Jun Guo
Gastric cancer has striking heterogeneity in histological pattern, cellular phenotype, genotype, biomarkers, and biological behavior. We focused on the specific morphological papillary phenotype of gastric adenocarcinoma and attempted to identify its distinct molecular characteristics. In our comparative study, early stage papillary (papillary-dominant) gastric cancer showed a significantly higher and more widespread high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) than other morphological types. Analysis of mutations in a panel of five putative microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated genes in the MSI-H cases revealed that papillary or papillary-dominant cancer displays a unique profile of mutations compared to profiles previously reported in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical staining and methylation analysis revealed that silencing of hMLH1 by methylation in its promoter region was responsible for the failure of mismatch repair in papillary-type gastric cancer, whereas aberrant promoter methylation of hMLH1 was not found in any cases without the unique mutator phenotype. Promoter hypermethylation of the hMLH1 genes was found to a lesser degree in the adjacent non-tumor mucosa in four of the 10 cases with tumor having the mutator phenotype. Microsatellite instability itself could not be detected in the adjacent non-tumor mucosa. Inactivation of hMLH1 expression by promoter hypermethylation may be an early event in carcinogenesis of this type of gastric cancer, preceding the development of the clear MSI phenotype of papillary carcinoma. [source]