MSI-H Cancers (msi-h + cancers)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Differential involvement of the hypermethylator phenotype in hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability

Hiroyuki Yamamoto
High-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) due to defective DNA mismatch repair occurs in the majority of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCCs) and in a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. Clinicopathologic and genotypic features of MSI-H colorectal tumors in HNPCC patients and those in sporadic cases are very similar but not identical. Correlation between the MSI phenotype and aberrant DNA methylation has been highlighted recently. A strong association between MSI and CpG island methylation has been well characterized in sporadic colorectal cancers with MSI-H but not in those of hereditary origin. To address the issue, we analyzed hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers for aberrant DNA methylation of target genes using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA methylation of the MLH1, CDKN2A, MGMT, THBS1, RARB, APC, and p14ARF genes was found in 0%, 23%, 10%, 3%, 73%, 53%, and 33% of 30 MSI-H cancers in HNPCC patients and in 80%, 55%, 23%, 23%, 58%, 35%, and 50% of 40 sporadic colorectal cancers with MSI-H, respectively. Cases showing methylation at three or more loci of six genes other than MLH1 were defined as CpG island methylator phenotype,positive (CIMP+), and 23% of HNPCC tumors and 53% of sporadic cancers with MSI-H were CIMP+ (P = 0.018). Differences in the extent of CpG island methylation, coupled with the differential involvement of several genes by methylation, in HNPCC tumors and sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancers may be associated with diverging developmental pathways in hereditary and sporadic cancers despite similar MSI-H phenotypes. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Beta2-microglobulin mutations in microsatellite unstable colorectal tumors

Matthias Kloor
Abstract Defects of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) cause the high level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) phenotype. MSI-H cancers may develop either sporadically or in the context of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome that is caused by germline mutations of MMR genes. In colorectal cancer (CRC), MSI-H is characterized by a dense lymphocytic infiltration, reflecting a high immunogenicity of these cancers. As a consequence of immunoselection, MSI-H CRCs frequently display a loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen presentation caused by mutations of the ,2 -microglobulin (,2m) gene. To examine the implications of ,2m mutations during MSI-H colorectal tumor development, we analyzed the prevalence of ,2m mutations in MSI-H colorectal adenomas (n = 38) and carcinomas (n = 104) of different stages. Mutations were observed in 6/38 (15.8%) MSI-H adenomas and 29/104 (27.9%) MSI-H CRCs. A higher frequency of ,2m mutations was observed in MSI-H CRC patients with germline mutations of MMR genes MLH1 or MSH2 (36.4%) compared with patients without germline mutations (15.4%). The high frequency of ,2m mutations in HNPCC-associated MSI-H CRCs is in line with the hypothesis that immunoselection may be particularly pronounced in HNPCC patients with inherited predisposition to develop MSI-H cancers. ,2m mutations were positively related to stage in tumors without distant metastases (UICC I-III), suggesting that loss of ,2m expression may promote local progression of colorectal MSI-H tumors. However, no ,2m mutations were observed in metastasized CRCs (UICC stage IV, p = 0.04). These results suggest that functional ,2m may be necessary for distant metastasis formation in CRC patients. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Frameshift mutations of autophagy-related genes ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12 in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability,

Mi Ran Kang
Abstract Mounting evidence indicates that alterations of autophagy processes are directly involved in the development of many human diseases, including cancers. Autophagy-related gene (ATG) products are main players in the autophagy process. In humans there are 16 known ATG genes, of which four (ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12) have mononucleotide repeats with seven or more nucleotides. Frameshift mutations of genes with mononucleotide repeats are features of cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). It is not known whether ATG genes with mononucleotide repeats are altered by frameshift mutations in gastric and colorectal carcinomas with MSI. For this, we analysed the mononecleotide repeats in ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12 in 32 gastric carcinomas with high MSI (MSI-H), 13 gastric carcinomas with low MSI (MSI-L), 43 colorectal carcinomas with MSI-H and 15 colorectal carcinomas with MSI-L by a single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. We found ATG2B, ATG5, ATG9B and ATG12 mutations in 10, 2, 13 and 0 cancers, respectively. The mutations were detected in MSI-H cancers but not in MSI-L cancers. Gastric and colorectal cancers with MSI-H harboured one or more ATG mutations in 28.1% and 27.9%, respectively. Our data indicate that frameshift mutations in ATG genes with mononucleotide repeats are common in gastric and colorectal carcinomas with MSI-H, and suggest that these mutations may contribute to cancer development by deregulating the autophagy process. Copyright 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mutational analysis of mononucleotide repeats in dual specificity tyrosine phosphatase genes in gastric and colon carcinomas with microsatellite instability

APMIS, Issue 5 2010
Song SY, Kang MR, Yoo NJ, Lee SH. Mutational analysis of mononucleotide repeats in dual specificity tyrosine phosphatase genes in gastric and colon carcinomas with microsatellite instability. APMIS 2010; 118: 389,93. Coordinated protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are crucial in the regulation of cell signaling, and disruption of the coordination is known to play important roles in cancer development. Recent reports revealed that classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-encoded genes are somatically mutated in human colorectal cancer. However, data on dual specificity phosphatase (DPTP) gene mutations in human cancers are lacking. By analyzing a public genomic database, we found that five DPTP genes, CDC14A, MTM1, MTMR3, SSH1, and SSH2, have mononucleotide repeats in their coding DNA sequences. To see whether these genes are mutated in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), we analyzed the mononucleotide repeats in 26 gastric cancers (GC) with MSI (MSI-H), 12 GC with low MSI (MSI-L), 45 GC with stable MSI (MSS), 33 colorectal cancers (CRC) with MSI-H, 14 CRC with MSI-L, and 45 CRC with MSS by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). We found CDC14A and MTMR3 mutations in five and one cancer (s), respectively. These mutations were detected in MSI-H cancers, but not in MSI-L or MSS cancers. The GC and CRC with MSI-H harbored the mutations in 15% and 6%, respectively. The CDC14A and MTMR3 mutations detected in the GC and CRC were deletion or duplication mutations of one base in the nucleotide repeats that would result in premature stops of the amino acid syntheses. Our data show that frameshift mutations of DPTP genes in MSI-H cancers occur at moderate frequencies. The data suggested that alterations in the CDC14A and MTMR3 genes may play a role in the development of GC and CRC with MSI-H by deregulating phosphatase functions possibly together with mutations of classical PTP genes. [source]

Genetic and epigenetic classifications define clinical phenotypes and determine patient outcomes in colorectal cancer,

J. A. Sanchez
Background: A molecular classification of colorectal cancer has been proposed based on microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and mutations in the KRAS and BRAF oncogenes. This study examined the prevalence of these molecular classes, and differences in clinical presentation and outcome. Methods: Demographics, tumour characteristics and survival were recorded for 391 subjects with colorectal cancer. Tumour DNA was analysed for MSI (high (MSI-H) or microsatellite stable (MSS)), CIMP (high (CIMP-H) or no (CIMP-neg)) and BRAF and KRAS mutations. Clinical differences between four phenotypes were examined. Results: Most tumours were MSS/CIMP-neg (698 per cent), with a nearly equal distribution of MSI-H/CIMP-H, MSI-H/CIMP-neg and MSS/CIMP-H types. MSS/CIMP-neg tumours were less likely to be poorly differentiated (P = 0009). CIMP-H tumours were more common in older patients (P < 0001). MSI-H/CIMP-H tumours had a high frequency of BRAF mutation and a low rate of KRAS mutation; the opposite was true for MSS/CIMP-neg tumours (P < 0001). The four molecular phenotypes tended towards divergent survival (P = 0067 for stages 1,III). MSI-H cancers were associated with better disease-free survival (hazard ratio 200 (95 per cent confidence interval 103 to 391); P = 0040). Conclusion: Colorectal cancers are molecularly and clinically heterogeneous. These different molecular phenotypes may reflect variable prognosis. Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Frameshift Mutations at Mononucleotide Repeats in RAD50 Recombinational DNA Repair Gene in Colorectal Cancers with Microsatellite Instability

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2001
Tsuneo Ikenoue
To identify additional genes targeted for microsatellite instability (MSI), we search for human genes which contain mononucleotide repeats in their coding region, selected 7 genes (RAD50, DNA-PKcs, FLASH, Apaf-1, XPG, CtIP, and MLSN1), and analyzed frameshift mutations in them. Here we report that 60% (3 out of 5) of human colorectal cancer cell lines exhibiting a high frequency of MSI (MSI-H) and 46% (6 out of 13) of MSI-H primary colorectal tumors had mutations in the (A)9 repeat of RAD50 recombinational repair gene. In contrast, no frameshift mutations were found in any of the 5 MSI-negative colorectal cancer cell lines, 8 colorectal tumors exhibiting a low frequency of MSI (MSI-L), or 28 MSI-negative colorectal tumors. No mutations were found in the mononucleotide repeats of 6 other genes, even in MSI-H cancers. These results suggest that RAD50 frameshift mutations may play a role in the tumorigenesis of MSI-H colorectal cancers. [source]