Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of MSI

  • high-frequency msi

  • Terms modified by MSI

  • msi status

  • Selected Abstracts

    Multilineage progression of genetically unstable tumor subclones in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    Albert Rübben
    Abstract:, Molecular analysis of solid malignant tumors has suggested multilineage progression of genetically unstable subclones during early stages of tumorigenesis as a common mechanism of tumor cell evolution. We have investigated whether multilineage progression is a feature of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). To identify individual tumor cell subclones, we determined the pattern of mutations within microsatellite DNA obtained from multiple histomorphologically confined tumor cell nests of mycosis fungoides (MF) and lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) lesions. Tumor cells were isolated by laser microdissection, and allelotypes were determined at microsatellite markers D6S260, D9S162, D9S171, D10S215, TP53.PCR15, and D18S65. Nine cases of MF and one patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) originating from LyP were analyzed at 277 different microdissected areas obtained from 31 individual lesions. Three specimens of cutaneous lichen planus microdissected at 26 areas served as the control tissue. Microsatellite instability in microdissected tissue [MSI(md-tissue)] was detected in tumor tissues of all CTCL patients. One hundred and fifty-seven of 469 analyzed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications contained mutated microsatellite alleles (34%). In lichen planus, MSI(md-tissue) was seen in only four of 76 PCR products (5%) (P < 0.0001). The distribution of allelotypes in tumor cells from different disease stages was consistent with multilineage progression in five MF cases, as well as in the LyP/ALCL patient. Our results suggest that CTCL may evolve by multilineage progression and that tumor subclones in MF can be detected in early disease stages by mutation analysis of microsatellite DNA obtained from multiple microdissected areas. [source]

    Simulation of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) recruitment with an individual-based model and comparison with field data

    J. Bartsch
    Abstract An individual-based model (IBM) for the simulation of year-to-year survival during the early life-history stages of the north-east Atlantic stock of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) was developed within the EU funded Shelf-Edge Advection, Mortality and Recruitment (SEAMAR) programme. The IBM included transport, growth and survival and was used to track the passive movement of mackerel eggs, larvae and post-larvae and determine their distribution and abundance after approximately 2 months of drift. One of the main outputs from the IBM, namely distributions and numbers of surviving post-larvae, are compared with field data as recruit (age-0/age-1 juveniles) distribution and abundance for the years 1998, 1999 and 2000. The juvenile distributions show more inter-annual and spatial variability than the modelled distributions of survivors; this may be due to the restriction of using the same initial egg distribution for all 3 yr of simulation. The IBM simulations indicate two main recruitment areas for the north-east Atlantic stock of mackerel, these being Porcupine Bank and the south-eastern Bay of Biscay. These areas correspond to areas of high juvenile catches, although the juveniles generally have a more widespread distribution than the model simulations. The best agreement between modelled data and field data for distribution (juveniles and model survivors) is for the year 1998. The juvenile catches in different representative nursery areas are totalled to give a field abundance index (FAI). This index is compared with a model survivor index (MSI) which is calculated from the total of survivors for the whole spawning season. The MSI compares favourably with the FAI for 1998 and 1999 but not for 2000; in this year, juvenile catches dropped sharply compared with the previous years but there was no equivalent drop in modelled survivors. [source]

    Oncogenetic tree model of somatic mutations and DNA methylation in colon tumors

    Carol Sweeney
    Our understanding of somatic alterations in colon cancer has evolved from a concept of a series of events taking place in a single sequence to a recognition of multiple pathways. An oncogenetic tree is a model intended to describe the pathways and sequence of somatic alterations in carcinogenesis without assuming that tumors will fall in mutually exclusive categories. We applied this model to data on colon tumor somatic alterations. An oncogenetic tree model was built using data on mutations of TP53, KRAS2, APC, and BRAF genes, methylation at CpG sites of MLH1 and TP16 genes, methylation in tumor (MINT) markers, and microsatellite instability (MSI) for 971 colon tumors from a population-based series. Oncogenetic tree analysis resulted in a reproducible tree with three branches. The model represents methylation of MINT markers as initiating a branch and predisposing to MSI, methylation of MHL1 and TP16, and BRAF mutation. APC mutation is the first alteration in an independent branch and is followed by TP53 mutation. KRAS2 mutation was placed a third independent branch, implying that it neither depends on, nor predisposes to, the other alterations. Individual tumors were observed to have alteration patterns representing every combination of one, two, or all three branches. The oncogenetic tree model assumptions are appropriate for the observed heterogeneity of colon tumors, and the model produces a useful visual schematic of the sequence of events in pathways of colon carcinogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mutational inactivation of TGFBR2 in microsatellite unstable colon cancer arises from the cooperation of genomic instability and the clonal outgrowth of transforming growth factor , resistant cells

    Swati Biswas
    The mutational inactivation of transforming growth factor , receptor type II (TGFBR2) occurs in ,30% of colon cancers and promotes the formation of colon cancer by inhibiting the tumor suppressor activity of the TGFB signaling pathway. TGFBR2 mutations occur in >90% of microsatellite unstable (MSI) colon cancers and affect a polyadenine tract in exon 3 of TGFBR2, called BAT-RII, which is vulnerable to mutation in the setting of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system deficiency. In light of the vulnerable nature of the BAT-RII tract in the setting of MMR inactivation and the favorable effects of TGFBR2 inactivation in colon cancer, analysis of TGFBR2 inactivation provides an opportunity to assess the roles of genomic instability vs. clonal selection in cells acquiring TGFBR2 BAT-RII tract mutations in MSI colon cancer formation. The contribution of genomic instability and/or clonal evolution to the mutational inactivation of TGBFR2 in MSI colon cancers has not been studied in a systematic way that would allow a determination of the relative contribution of these two mechanisms in the formation of MSI colon cancer. It has not been demonstrated whether the BAT-RII tract mutations are strictly a consequence of the BAT-RII region being hypermutable in the setting of MMR deficiency or if the mutations are rather a consequence of clonal selection pressure against the TGFB receptor. Through the use of defined cell line systems, we show that both genomic instability and clonal selection of TGFB resistant cells contribute to the high frequency of TGFBR2 mutations in MSI colon cancer. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Multiple forms of genetic instability within a 2-Mb chromosomal segment of 3q26.3,q27 are associated with development of esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Lin Lin
    Gene amplification is one of the mechanisms to activate oncogenes in many cancers, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). In the present study, we used two-dimensional restriction landmark genome scanning to clone a NotI/DpnII fragment that showed increased genomic dosage in 1 of 44 EAs analyzed. This fragment maps to 3q26.3,q27, and subsequent experiments identified two intrachromosomal amplicons within a 10-Mb DNA segment in 7 of 75 (9%) EAs. The distal amplified-core region maps centromeric to the PIK3CA locus, and a microsatellite (D3S1754) within this region exhibited significant instability (MSI), in stark contrast to the genomewide microsatellite stability found in EA. D3S1754-MSI arises in premalignant Barrett's dysplastic cells and preceded amplification of the nascent MSI allele in the corresponding EA. Seven ESTs within the amplified-core were overexpressed in amplicon-containing EAs. One of these, EST AW513672, represents a chimeric transcript that initiated from an antisense promoter sequence in the 5,UTR of a full-length LINE-1 element (L1-5,ASP). Similar chimeric transcripts encoding portions of the MET oncogene and the BCAS3 gene also were overexpressed in EAs, suggesting that L1-5,ASP activation may occur at a broad level in primary EAs. Thus, the fine dissection of a 2-Mb amplified DNA segment in 3q26.3,q27 in EA revealed multiple genetic alterations that had occurred sequentially and/or concurrently during EA development. This article has supplementary material, available at © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Densely methylated MLH1 promoter correlates with decreased mRNA expression in sporadic colorectal cancers

    Taiji Furukawa
    It has been reported that MLH1 is silenced by promoter methylation, and that this phenomenon is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). To clarify the significance of MLH1 promoter methylation in sporadic CRC, we examined the correlation between methylation status over the entire promoter region and mRNA expression in cases showing high-frequency MSI (MSI-H). MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed using the bisulfite modification sequencing in 48 MSI-H cases. We also screened for somatic mutation, loss of heterozygosity, and immunohistochemical staining of MLH1. The results showed that methylation patterns could be subdivided into three types: methylation of more than 80% of the CpG sites analyzed (type 1 methylation), methylation of less than 20% (type 2 methylation), and methylation mainly in the region 500 to 921 bases upstream from the translation start site (type 3 methylation). Of the three types, only type 1 methylation correlated with decreased mRNA expression. The frequency of type 1 methylation was significantly higher in cases involving the proximal colon (66.7%, 18/27) compared to that of the distal colon and rectum (23.8%, 5/21, P = 0.004). Immunohistochemical staining of MSI-H cases showed that decreased MLH1 was found in 77.1% (37/48). Of the cases with decreased MLH1, type 1 methylation was present in 59.5% (22/37). Overall, our data suggested that the type 1 methylation pattern may affect MLH1 mRNA expression, such that the majority of MSI-H cases in sporadic CRC, especially proximal colon cancer, exhibited type 1 methylation. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential involvement of the hypermethylator phenotype in hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto
    High-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) due to defective DNA mismatch repair occurs in the majority of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCCs) and in a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. Clinicopathologic and genotypic features of MSI-H colorectal tumors in HNPCC patients and those in sporadic cases are very similar but not identical. Correlation between the MSI phenotype and aberrant DNA methylation has been highlighted recently. A strong association between MSI and CpG island methylation has been well characterized in sporadic colorectal cancers with MSI-H but not in those of hereditary origin. To address the issue, we analyzed hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancers for aberrant DNA methylation of target genes using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA methylation of the MLH1, CDKN2A, MGMT, THBS1, RARB, APC, and p14ARF genes was found in 0%, 23%, 10%, 3%, 73%, 53%, and 33% of 30 MSI-H cancers in HNPCC patients and in 80%, 55%, 23%, 23%, 58%, 35%, and 50% of 40 sporadic colorectal cancers with MSI-H, respectively. Cases showing methylation at three or more loci of six genes other than MLH1 were defined as CpG island methylator phenotype,positive (CIMP+), and 23% of HNPCC tumors and 53% of sporadic cancers with MSI-H were CIMP+ (P = 0.018). Differences in the extent of CpG island methylation, coupled with the differential involvement of several genes by methylation, in HNPCC tumors and sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancers may be associated with diverging developmental pathways in hereditary and sporadic cancers despite similar MSI-H phenotypes. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Genome-wide analysis of genetic changes in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma

    Mario A. Hermsen PhD
    Abstract Background Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinomas are rare tumors related to professional exposure to wood dust. Little is known about the genetic changes in these tumors. Methods Twenty-two tumors were analyzed by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition, DNA ploidy was measured by flow cytometry and microsatellite instability (MSI) by multiplex PCR. Results The most frequent gains were, in descending order, as follows: 5p15, 20q13, and 8q24. Losses occurred most frequently at 4q31-qter, 18q12-22, 8p12-pter, and 5q11-qter. MSI was not detected. Seven cases that harbored very few changes were mostly DNA diploid and had more favorable clinicopathological features, such as lack of intracranial invasion, less metastases, and longer overall survival. Conclusion The microarray CGH results enabled to better define hotspots of chromosomal gains and losses for further investigation of genes involved in the tumorigenesis of sinonasal adenocarcinoma. In addition, the data allowed classification of a group of patients with better clinical outcome. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]

    DNA mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability in primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    C Marani
    Aims:, To examine the expression of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins and the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in seven primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck (MMHN). Methods and results:, Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis for routine diagnostic markers and for MMR proteins were performed. Six cases were examined for MSI. Four cases were monomorphous and three cases were pleomorphic type MMHN. Melanocytic markers were positive in all cases. Immunoreactivity for MMR proteins was weak in normal epithelium. The neoplastic tissue in six cases showed positivity for all MMR proteins with different percentages. One case showed weak positivity for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and no immunoreactivity for hMLH1 or hPMS2. Staining intensity was higher in tumour cells than in matched normal mucosa in three cases for hMSH2 and hMLH1 and in two cases for hPMS2. None of the examined cases showed MSI. Conclusions:, Expression of hMSH2 and hMLH1 proteins was up-regulated in three cases, whereas in two cases that of hPMS2 was increased. hMSH6 expression was comparable to that of normal cells in all cases. The percentage of positive neoplastic cells and the intensity of staining seemed to be greater in pleomorphic melanomas. Six cases were MMR-proficient and microsatellite stable. [source]

    Deletions removing the last exon of TACSTD1 constitute a distinct class of mutations predisposing to Lynch syndrome,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 2 2009
    Marietta E. Kovacs
    Abstract Several different genetic alterations in the etiology of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]) are known, mostly point mutations and genomic rearrangements in 1 of at least 3 mismatch-repair (MMR) genes. However, no susceptibility factor has yet been identified in a significant part (30,50%) of clinicopathologically well-defined HNPCC families, suggesting the presence of other predisposing mechanisms. In a set of probands from 27 Lynch syndrome families who lacked evidence of a germline mutation in either the MSH2 or MLH1 gene, we performed genomic deletion screening with the use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and sequencing. We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and microsatellite instability (MSI) analyses on samples of the probands of all families. Comparative analysis of mRNA transcripts was performed on blood leukocyte,derived samples from mutation carriers and noncarrier controls. We report that large germline deletions encompassing the last exons of the TACSTD1 gene, upstream of MSH2, cosegregate with the HNPCC phenotype in 19% (5/27) of families tested. The tumors of the carriers show high-level MSI and MSH2 protein loss. We show that these deletions, by removing the transcriptional termination sequences of the upstream gene, give rise to multiple TACSTD1/MSH2 fusion transcripts. Our results provide evidence that deletions removing the last exon of TACSTD1 constitute a distinct class of mutations predisposing to Lynch syndrome. Thus, analysis of the 3, region of the TACSTD1 gene should be included in the routine mutation screening protocols for HNPCC. Hum Mutat 30, 197,203, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Combined analysis of specific KRAS mutation, BRAF and microsatellite instability identifies prognostic subgroups of sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer

    Inti Zlobec
    Abstract Confounding effects of specific KRAS gene alterations on colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis stratified by microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAFV600E have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of MSI, BRAFV600E and specific KRAS mutation (Gly , Asp; G12D, Gly , Asp, G13D; Gly , Val; G12V) on prognosis in 404 sporadic and 94 hereditary CRC patients. MSI status was determined according to the Bethesda guidelines. Mutational status of KRAS and BRAFV600E was assessed by direct DNA sequencing. In sporadic CRC, KRAS G12D mutations had a negative prognostic effect compared to G13D and wild-type cancers (p = 0.038). With MSI, specific KRAS and BRAFV600E mutations, 3 distinct prognostic subgroups were observed in univariate (p = 0.006) and multivariable (p = 0.051) analysis: patients with (i) KRAS mutation G12D, G12V or BRAFV600E mutation, (ii) KRAS/BRAFV600E wild-type or KRAS G13D mutations in MSS/MSI-L and (iii) MSI-H and KRAS G13D mutations. Moreover, none of the sporadic MSI-H or hereditary patients with KRAS G13 mutations had a fatal outcome. Specific KRAS mutation is an informative prognostic factor in both sporadic and hereditary CRC and applied in an algorithm with BRAFV600E and MSI may identify sporadic CRC patients with poor clinical outcome. [source]

    The mechanisms underlying MMR deficiency in immunodeficiency-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas are different from those in other sporadic microsatellite instable neoplasms

    Claire Borie
    Abstract The spectrum of tumors showing microsatellite instability (MSI) has recently been enlarged to sporadic neoplasms whose incidence is favored in the context of chronic immunosuppression. We investigated the biological, therapeutic and clinical features associated with MSI in immunodeficiency-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (ID-RL). MSI screening was performed in 275 ID-RL. MSI ID-RL were further analyzed for MMR gene expression and for BRAF/KRAS mutations since these genes are frequently altered in MSI cancers. We also assessed the expression of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), an enzyme whose inactivation has been reported in lymphomas and may help in the selection of MMR deficient clones. Unlike other sporadic MSI neoplasms, MSI ID-RL (N = 17) presented with heterogeneous MMR defects and no MLH1 promoter methylation. About one third of these tumors presented with normal expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. They accumulated BRAF activating mutations (33%). Unlike other ID-RL, MSI ID-RL were primarily EBV-negative NHL of T-cell origin, and arose after long-term immunosuppression in patients who received azathioprine as part of their immunosuppressive regimen (p = 0.05) and/or who exhibited methylation-induced loss of expression of MGMT in tumor cells (p= 0.02). Overall, these results highlight that, in the context of deficient immune status, some MSI neoplasms arise through alternative mechanism when compared to other sporadic MSI neoplasms. They give the exact way how to make the diagnosis of MSI in these tumors and may help to define biological and clinicalrisk factors associated with their emergence in such a clinicalcontext. © 2009 UICC [source]

    Population-based detection of Lynch syndrome in young colorectal cancer patients using microsatellite instability as the initial test

    Lyn Schofield
    Abstract Approximately 1,2% of colorectal cancers (CRC) arise because of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, referred to as Lynch syndrome. These tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. Pre-symptomatic identification of mutation carriers has been demonstrated to improve survival; however, there is concern that many are not being identified using current practices. We evaluated population-based MSI screening of CRC in young patients as a means of ascertaining mutation carriers. CRC diagnosed in patients aged <60 years were identified from pathology records. No prior information was available on family history of cancer. PCR techniques were used to determine MSI in the BAT-26 mononucleotide repeat and mutation in the BRAF oncogene. Loss of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 protein expression was evaluated in MSI+ tumours by immunohistochemistry. MSI+ tumours were found in 105/1,344 (7.8%) patients, of which 7 were excluded as possible Lynch syndrome because of BRAF mutation. Of the 98 "red flag" cases that were followed up, 25 were already known as mutation carriers or members of mutation carrier families. Germline test results were obtained for 35 patients and revealed that 22 showed no apparent mutation, 11 showed likely pathogenic mutations and 2 had unclassified variants. The proportion of MSI+ cases in different age groups that were estimated to be mutation carriers was 89% (<30 years), 83% (30,39), 68% (40,49) and 17% (50,59). We recommend MSI as the initial test for population-based screening of Lynch syndrome in younger CRC patients, regardless of family history. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Distinct CpG island methylation profiles and BRAF mutation status in serrated and adenomatous colorectal polyps

    Yong Ho Kim
    Abstract A subset of colorectal cancers with CpG island methylator phenotype-high (CIMP-H) is frequently associated with MSI and BRAF V600E mutation. Since limited data are available on different histological types of colorectal polyps, we compared the pattern and the frequency of promoter methylation, CIMP-H, MSI, KRAS and BRAF V600E mutations and the relationship among these molecular parameters and the clinicopathologic characteristics in 110 serrated polyps (48 hyperplastic polyps, 32 sessile serrated adenomas and 30 serrated adenomas) and 32 tubular adenomas using 7 commonly used tumor-associated gene loci. No significant difference in the frequency of overall methylation frequency (86% vs. 100%) and CIMP-H (39% vs. 28%) between serrated polyps and tubular adenomas was observed, but proximally located serrated polyps showed more frequent methylation at 5 of 7 loci examined, and were more likely to be CIMP-H (62% vs. 22%). MGMT methylation was more common in tubular adenomas while MLH1 and HIC1 were more frequently methylated in serrated polyps. BRAF mutation was frequently present in all types of serrated polyps (80%), but was absent in tubular adenomas and was not associated with CIMP or MSI status. These results show comparable frequencies of promoter methylation of tumor-associated genes and CIMP-H, but distinct differences in gene-specific or colonic site-specific methylation profiles occur in serrated polyps and tubular adenomas. BRAF mutation occurs independently of CIMP and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mismatch repair expression in testicular cancer predicts recurrence and survival

    Alfredo Velasco
    Abstract We investigated mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression in testicular cancer as a molecular marker for clinical outcome (recurrence, response to chemotherapy and death) using protein expression and specific genetic alterations associated with the presence or absence of MMR activity. One hundred sixty-two cases of paraffin-embedded testis cancer specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibody for MLH1 and MSH2 MMR proteins and genetic analysis using specific polymorphic markers. The degree of MMR immunoreactivity and genetic instability in the form of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or microsatellite instability (MSI) were determined by comparing matched normal and tumor tissue. The degree of immunohistochemical staining for MMR expression was associated with a shorter time to tumor recurrence, resistance to chemotherapy and death. Furthermore, clinical relapse and cancer specific death was also associated with tumors exhibiting a high degree of MSI, p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. In contrast, LOH was not associated with recurrence, resistance to chemotherapy or death. Therefore, MMR expression defines testis cancers with distinct molecular properties and clinical behavior, such that tumors with decreased MMR immunostaining and/or increased frequency of MSI have a shorter time to recurrence and death despite chemotherapy. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in endometrial cancer patients

    Sang Nam Yoon
    Abstract Endometrial cancer is the second most common cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). It has often been overlooked to explore the possibility of HNPCC in endometrial cancer patients. Our study was to investigate how many HNPCC patients existed among endometrial cancer patients. Among patients who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial cancer at Seoul National University Hospital from 1996 to 2004, 113 patients were included, whose family history and clinical data could be obtained and tumor specimens were available for microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 proteins. There were 4 (3.5%) clinical HNPCC patients fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria II, and 2 (2/4, 50%) of them carried MSH2 germline mutations. There were also 8 (7.1%) suspected HNPCC (s-HNPCC) patients fulfilling the revised criteria for s-HNPCC, and one (1/8, 12.5%) of them revealed MLH1 germline mutation. In 101 patients, who were not clinical HNPCC or s-HNPCC, 11 patients showed both MSI-high and loss of expression of MLH1, MSH2 or MSH6 proteins, and 2 (2/11, 18.2%) of them showed MSH6 germline mutations. In 113 patients with endometrial cancer, we could find 5 (4.4%) HNPCC patients with MMR germline mutation and 2 (1.8%) clinical HNPCC patients without identified MMR gene mutation. Family history was critical in detecting 3 HNPCC patients with MMR germline mutation, and MSI testing with IHC staining for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 proteins was needed in the diagnosis of 2 HNPCC patients who were not clinical HNPCC or s-HNPCC, especially for MSH6 germline mutation. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Infrequent microsatellite instability in liver fluke infection-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas from Thailand

    Upama Liengswangwong
    Abstract The liver fluke infection-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a major liver cancer in Northeast Thailand. The molecular basis of this ICC is poorly understood. To address possible roles of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in ICC carcinogenesis, a fluorescence-labeling PCR/laser scanning technique with high sensitivity was employed to analyze genomic instability in the nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 24 fresh and 13 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of ICC and their corresponding normal parts. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed in nDNA, using 12 highly polymorphic loci including 5 Bethesda markers. These loci were mainly related to major MMR genes, hMSH2 and hMLH1. Also 3 (C)n and/or (C)n(A)n repeat instability at 1 noncoding region in the displacement-loop (D-loop) and 2 coding sequences in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and subunit 5 gene in mtDNA were analyzed. MSI was only detected in 1 (2.7%), 6 (16.7%), 1 (2.9%), 1 (2.9%) or 2 (6.3%) out of 37, 36, 35, 35 or 32 cases at BAT-25, D2S123, D3S1611, D11S904 or D17S250, respectively. LOH was found at D3S1298, D3S1561, D5S346 and TP53 in 4 (18.2%) out of 22, 2 (18.2%) out of 11, 6 (33.3%) out of 18 and 3 (12.5%) out of 24 informative cases, respectively. In mtDNA, none except a single case out of the 37 (2.7%) exhibited repeat sequence instability in the D-loop. We conclude that the liver fluke infection-associated ICC in Thailand is classified as low frequency MSI or microsatellite stable type and that DNA MMR system, through hMSH2 and hMLH1 gene mutations, does not play a major role in its carcinogenesis. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evidence for an age-related influence of microsatellite instability on colorectal cancer survival

    Susan M. Farrington
    Abstract It is well established that microsatellite instability (MSI), the hallmark of defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR), is associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer compared with tumours that are microsatellite stable (MSS). MSI in sporadic colorectal tumours is primarily due to epigenetic silencing of MLH1. However, there are no prospective population-based studies of survival in patients with germline MMR gene mutations who develop cancer. Although MSI is almost universal in tumours from HNPCC family members, there is a potential confounding effect of ascertainment and other biases that could explain the apparent survival benefit in HNPCC families. Resolving whether germline MMR gene mutations impact on survival is important because it potentially undermines the rationale for surveillance of mutation carriers. Here, we report an investigation of the influence of MSI on survival in cohorts of cancer patients (aged < 30 years at diagnosis, n = 118; non-age-selected, n = 181) in the context of clinicopathologic variables. There was a substantial age-related influence of tumour MSI status on survival. In young patients with tumour MSI, 65% of patients with MSI tumours had germline MSH2 or MLH1 mutations. Clinicopathologic variables and tumour MSI of the cohort were studied with respect to survival and compared with control groups. Young patients had excess MSI tumours (p < 0.000001), mucinous tumours (p < 0.01), advanced disease (p , 0.001) and poorer 5-year survival compared with older cases. Cox proportional hazard analysis identified Dukes' stage, age at diagnosis and calendar year of treatment as independent predictors of survival. There was no detectable association between tumour MSI and survival in young patients, although we confirmed previous observations that MSI is associated with better prognosis in later onset cohorts. These findings underscore the rationale for surveillance and early identification of tumours in MMR gene carriers as well as refining understanding of the influence of MSI on cancer progression. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Assessment of Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in Salinity Tolerant and Sensitive Basmati Rice Varieties

    M. P. Singh
    Abstract This investigation was undertaken to compare the level of salinity tolerance of the newly bred CSR-30 basmati rice variety with that of the salinity sensitive HBC-19 and Pokkali rice varieties. Twenty-one-day-old hydroponically raised seedlings at 6 and 12 dS m,1 were investigated for growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) activity, relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), lipid peroxidation, Na/K ratio and activities and gene expression of various isoforms of antioxidative enzymes. Salinity stress led to reduction in shoot length, leaf area, dry weight, RWC, MSI, rate of photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity in all the three rice varieties. The levels of reduction in these parameters were maximal in HBC-19 followed by those in CSR-30 and Pokkali respectively. Cumulative superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in Pokkali and CSR-30 in consonance with increase in salinity stress while it decreased in HBC-19. The Mn-SOD activity however, was enhanced in all three varieties in the presence of salinity stress while the activities of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and ascorbate peroxidase were decreased in HBC-19 when compared with CSR-30 and Pokkali. The activity of catalase (CAT) was higher in HBC-19 when compared with its activity in CSR-30 and Pokkali. The levels of gene expressions of the three isoforms of SOD ascertained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were not necessarily indicative of the activities of the corresponding enzymes. Thus, despite the maximal enhancement in gene expression of Fe-SOD in HBC-19 in response to salinity stress, the activity of this enzyme in HBC-19 remained low. Similarly, despite a marginal increase in gene expression of Cu-Zn SOD in the three varieties, its activity was significantly higher in Pokkali and CSR-30 when compared with that in HBC-19. A significant enhancement in the activity of CAT at 12 dS m,1 in HBC-19 when compared with CSR-30 and Pokkali might confer a degree of tolerance to H2O2 stress in this variety in the presence of higher levels of NaCl at the seedling stage. [source]

    Cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms as markers of Muir-Torre syndrome: a diagnostic algorithm

    Ossama Abbas
    Sebaceous gland neoplasms such as adenoma, epithelioma, and carcinoma are uncommon cutaneous tumors. Although sporadic, their occurrence is clinically significant because of their association with Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). MTS is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the occurrence of sebaceous gland neoplasms and/or keratoacanthomas associated with visceral malignancies that include gastrointestinal and genitourinary cancers. MTS is usually the result of germline mutation in one or more of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR genes commonly implicated include MSH -2 and MLH -1 and, more recently, MSH -6. Recent evidence suggests that immunohistochemistry is very sensitive and effective in detecting these defects in cutaneous tumors in MTS. In addition, the genetic instability of cutaneous and visceral tumors in MTS caused by the defects in MMR genes can also be detected, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques, for microsatellite instability (MSI). Given that some sebaceous neoplasms represent cutaneous markers of MTS, what should we as dermatopathologists be advocating? Should we be looking for absence/loss of MMRs in all sebaceous neoplasms? When should we recommend assaying for MSI? This review attempts to address all of these issues with a view to streamlining the work-up of a patient presenting for the first time with a sebaceous neoplasm and no prior personal or family history of internal malignancies. [source]

    Microsatellite instability and its relevance to cutaneous tumorigenesis

    Mahmoud R. Hussein
    Increasing evidence suggests that human tumors sequentially accumulate multiple mutations that cannot be explained by the low rates of spontaneous mutations in normal cells (2,3 mutations/cell). The mathematical models estimate that for the solid tumors to develop, as many as 6,12 mutations are required in each tumor cell. Therefore, to account for such high mutation rates, it is proposed that tumor cells are genetically unstable, i.e. they have genome-wide mutations at short repetitive DNA sequences called microsatellites. Microsatellite repeats are scattered throughout the human genome, primarily in the non-coding regions, and can give rise to variants with increased or reduced lengths, i.e. microsatellite instability (MSI). This instability has been reported in an increasing number of cutaneous tumors including: melanocytic tumors, basal cell carcinomas and primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Moreover, MSI has been observed in skin tumors arising in the context of some hereditary disorders such as Muir,Torre syndrome, Von Recklinghausen's disease and disseminated superficial porokeratosis. While MSI in some of these disorders reflects underlying DNA replication errors, the mechanism of instability in others is still unknown. Thus far, MSI is considered to be a distinct tumorigenic pathway that reveals surprising versatility. The ramifications for cutaneous neoplasms warrant further investigation. [source]

    Comprehensive analysis of 112 melanocytic skin lesions demonstrates microsatellite instability in melanomas and dysplastic nevi, but not in benign nevi

    Mahmoud R. Hussein
    Introduction: Alterations in the length of DNA repetitive sequences (microsatellite instability (MSI)) represent distinct tumorigenic pathways associated with several familial and sporadic tumors. Material and methods: To investigate the prevalence and frequency of MSI in melanocytic lesions, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based microsatellite assay was used to examine formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 30 benign melanocytic nevi, 60 melanocytic dysplastic nevi (MDN), and 22 primary vertical growth phase cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM). Twenty-four microsatellite markers at the 1p, 2p, 3p, 4q and 9p chromosomal regions were used. Results: MSI was found at 1p and 9p in MDN and CMM but not in benign melanocytic nevi. The overall prevalence of MSI was17/60 (28%) in MDN and 7/22 (31%) in CMM. The frequency of MSI ranged from 2/24 (9%) to 4/24 (17%) and was most commonly found at D9S162. There was a statistically significant correlation between degree of atypia and frequency of MSI (p<0.001) in MDN. There were two MSI banding patterns: band shifts and additional bands. Conclusions: The data presented revealed the presence of low-frequency MSI (MSI-L) at the 1p and 9p regions in both MDN and CMM. Whether the MSI-L pattern reflects a defect in mismatch repair genes is still to be determined. [source]

    p53 expression, K- ras gene mutation and microsatellite instability in gastric B-cell lymphomas

    Abstract Background and Aims:, Genetic mechanisms involved in the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the roles of mutations of the p53 and K- ras genes, and microsatellite instability (MSI) in the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas. Methods:, We investigated p53 immunoreactivity, mutations of the K- ras gene, and MSI in 27 gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MZBCL) and 24 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). p53 immunoreactivity was examined using a monoclonal antibody, DO-7. Mutation of the K- ras gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. MSI was examined at five microsatellite loci with a microsatellite assay. Cases were classified as having high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) (, 2 loci showing instability), low-frequency MSI (MSI-L) (only one locus showing instability), or as microsatellite stable. Results:, p53 immunoreactivity was detected in 1 of 16 (6%) MZBCL and 8 of 19 (42%) DLBCL. Frequency of p53 immunoreactivity in DLBCL was significantly higher than that in MZBCL (P = 0.018). MSI-H was detected only in 1 of 20 (5%) DLBCL. None of the cases examined showed mutation of the K- ras gene. Conclusions:, These data suggest that mutations of the p53 gene may play an important role in the development of gastric DLBCL, and that mutations of the K- ras gene and MSI may be involved in little part of the development of gastric B-cell lymphomas. [source]

    In vivo effects of mesalazine or E. coli Nissle 1917 on microsatellite instability in ulcerative colitis

    A. GOEL
    Summary Background, Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in chronically inflamed colorectal tissue and may evolve to colitis-associated cancer. In vitro data suggest that mesalazine (5-ASA) improves MSI. Aim, To analyse the changes in MSI in 156 distal colonic biopsies of 39 patients with ulcerative colitis that had been treated within a randomized, double-blind trial comparing 5-ASA with E. coli Nissle (EcN). Methods, Two biopsies had been collected before and after 1 year of treatment. MSI testing was performed using a panel of eight markers, including 3 dinucleotide and 5 mononucleotide repeats. Results, No MSI was observed with any of the mono-repeats, and among dinucleotide repeats, only D5S346 (maps to APC) and D17S250 (p53) were consistently informative. Overall, 31/156 (20%) biopsies displayed MSI. After 1 year, 3/11 patients displayed MSI improvement [change to microsatellite stability (MSS); 1 on 5-ASA, 2 on EcN] at D5S346 and 4/11 showed MSI worsening (change from MSS to MSI; all 5-ASA). For D17S250, the corresponding data were for 3/9 patients (2 on 5-ASA, 1 on EcN) and 2/9 (both on 5-ASA), respectively. Conclusions, In the set of biopsies taken from patients treated with 1.5 g 5-ASA for 1 year, there was no improvement in the prevalence of MSI in the distal colon. [source]

    Light propagation in multi-step index optical fibres

    J. Zubia
    Abstract This paper reviews the theoretical analysis of light propagation we have carried out on multimode multi-step index (MSI) optical fibres. Starting from the Eikonal equation, we derive the analytical expressions that allow calculating the ray trajectories inside these fibres. We also analyse the effects of leaky rays on the transmission properties of MSI fibres. For this purpose, a single analytical expression for the evaluation of the ray power transmission coefficient is calculated. Afterwards, we investigate the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic coupling losses on the performance of MSI fibres, providing analytical expressions to calculate the coupling loss and, also, determining the most critical parameters. Finally, we carry out a comprehensive numerical analysis of the fibre bandwidth under different source configurations. [source]

    Characterization of monolithic spiral inductor using neural networks

    A. Ouchar
    Abstract The characterization of a monolithic spiral inductor (MSI) by using a multilayer neural network approach is presented in this Letter. The inductance, physical, and geometrical parameters are extracted in order to perform a full characterization of MSI. A three-layer neural network was used for accurate representation. The results obtained by using neural networks are compared with measured S parameters of typical MSI. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 34: 299,302, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.10442 [source]

    Size Measurement of Very Small Spherical Particles by Mie Scattering Imaging (MSI)

    Arne Graßmann
    Abstract The Mie Scattering Imaging method (MSI) gathers out-of-focus images of dispersed spherical particles present in a laser light sheet and extracts the individual particle diameter from these images. The general idea of the method has been around for more than a decade and a number of papers has dealt with it over recent years. Our work focuses on small particle sizes from 20 ,m down to 2 ,m, a range which has not been tackled so far although it is of great importance in particle systems. We present an optical set-up with a special arrangement of camera lenses that allows to work in this range. An evaluation algorithm based on correlation of the experimental optical information with theoretical Mie scattering was found to give the most accurate results for particle sizing. Besides accuracy measurements on solid spheres the versatility of the method is demonstrated by an example of transient droplet growth between 2,7,,m. [source]

    Microsatellite instability in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is not associated with hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation

    Masahiro Hayashi
    To test whether a subset of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) develop through a deficiency in DNA mismatch repair, we examined microsatellite instability (MSI) using 11 microsatellite markers including BAT-26, hMLH1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and methylation status of the hMLH1 promoter by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). p53 mutations were also investigated. Microsatellite instability at one or more loci was observed in 40% (12/30) of esophageal SCC tumor samples, although only one of these tumors was categorized as high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and none showed BAT-26 instability. While immunohistochemistry revealed decreased hMLH1 protein expression in 27% (8/30) of the tumors, hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation was not observed. Absence of hMLH1 protein expression was relatively common in well-differentiated (keratinizing-type) esophageal SCC, but was not associated with hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation. p53 mutation was detected in 37% (11/30) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 90% (27/30) of esophageal SCC samples. Our results suggested that most esophageal SCC develop through defects in tumor suppressor genes (i.e. the suppressor pathway), and that MSI in esophageal SCC probably represent random replication errors rather than being associated with DNA mismatch repair deficiency. [source]

    Application of the crypt isolation technique to the assessment of genetic alterations of colorectal carcinomas

    Hiroshi Takahashi
    The crypt isolation technique (CIT) allows for the isolation of pure tumor crypts from colon tumor tissue. In a previous study we reported on the genetic alterations found in colorectal tumor crypts using the CIT; however, a direct comparison of the genetic alterations found in colorectal carcinomas using either conventional methods (CM) or the CIT has not previously been performed. Here, we analyzed the impact of this method on the genetic analysis of colon tumor cells by comparing the observed frequency of genetic alterations in colon tumors isolated using CM or the CIT. We used a combination of the CIT and the fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assay to accurately assess the incidence of allelic imbalances (AI) at a number of chromosomal loci (17p, 5q, 18q, 1p, 8p, 22q), microsatellite instability (MSI), and mutations of cancer-related genes (p53 and APC genes) in 48 sporadic colorectal carcinomas. In addition, genetic alterations seen in multiploid tumors (defined as tumors with both diploid and aneuploid cell populations) identified by the CIT were also examined. The incidence of AI at the chromosomal loci tested was more frequently detected in samples isolated from tumors using the CIT than in those isolated from the same tumors using CM. In contrast, we observed no differences in the frequency of MSI or cancer-related gene mutation between the two groups. Although there was no difference in the frequency of genetic alterations between tumors with evidence of multiploidy, sorting of diploid and aneuploid populations allowed detection of distinct genetic changes. The crypt isolation method thus appears to be useful in that it allows purification of tumor cells and the accurate assessment of their genetic alterations. In addition, it may also be of benefit in clarifying the genetic profile of multiploid tumor cell populations. [source]

    Microsatellite instability of papillary subtype of human gastric adenocarcinoma and hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in the surrounding mucosa

    Rong-Jun Guo
    Gastric cancer has striking heterogeneity in histological pattern, cellular phenotype, genotype, biomarkers, and biological behavior. We focused on the specific morphological papillary phenotype of gastric adenocarcinoma and attempted to identify its distinct molecular characteristics. In our comparative study, early stage papillary (papillary-dominant) gastric cancer showed a significantly higher and more widespread high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) than other morphological types. Analysis of mutations in a panel of five putative microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated genes in the MSI-H cases revealed that papillary or papillary-dominant cancer displays a unique profile of mutations compared to profiles previously reported in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemical staining and methylation analysis revealed that silencing of hMLH1 by methylation in its promoter region was responsible for the failure of mismatch repair in papillary-type gastric cancer, whereas aberrant promoter methylation of hMLH1 was not found in any cases without the unique mutator phenotype. Promoter hypermethylation of the hMLH1 genes was found to a lesser degree in the adjacent non-tumor mucosa in four of the 10 cases with tumor having the mutator phenotype. Microsatellite instability itself could not be detected in the adjacent non-tumor mucosa. Inactivation of hMLH1 expression by promoter hypermethylation may be an early event in carcinogenesis of this type of gastric cancer, preceding the development of the clear MSI phenotype of papillary carcinoma. [source]