MSC Differentiation (msc + differentiation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Krüppel-Like Zinc Finger Protein Glis3 Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation by Regulating FGF18 Expression,

Ju Youn Beak
Abstract The zinc finger protein Glis3 is highly expressed in human osteoblasts and acts synergistically with BMP2 and Shh in enhancing osteoblast differentiation in multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells. This induction of osteoblast differentiation is at least in part caused by the induction of FGF18 expression. This study supports a regulatory role for Glis3 in osteoblast differentiation. Introduction: Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) is closely related to members of the Gli subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins, transcription factors that act downstream of sonic hedgehog (Shh). In this study, we analyzed the expression of Glis3 in human osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Moreover, we examined the regulatory role of Glis3 in the differentiation of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Materials and Methods: Microarray analysis was performed to identify genes regulated by Glis3 in multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells. Reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to analyze the regulation of fibroblast growth factor 18 (FGF18) by Glis3. Results: Glis3 promotes osteoblast differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells as indicated by the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and increased expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and Runx2. In contrast, Glis3 expression inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Glis3 acts synergistically with BMP2 and Shh in inducing osteoblast differentiation. Deletion analysis indicated that the carboxyl-terminal activation function of Glis3 is needed for its stimulation of osteoblast differentiation. Glis3 is highly expressed in human osteoblasts and induced in MSCs during differentiation along the osteoblast lineage. Microarray analysis identified FGF18 as one of the genes induced by Glis3 in C3H10T1/2 cells. Promoter analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that a Glis3 binding site in the FGF18 promoter flanking region is important in its regulation by Glis3. Conclusions: Our study showed that Glis3 positively regulates differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts and inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Glis3 acts synergistically with BMP2 and Shh in inducing osteoblast differentiation. The promotion of osteoblast differentiation by Glis3 involves increased expression of FGF18, a positive regulator of osteogenesis. This, in conjunction with the induction of Glis3 expression during osteoblast differentiation in MSCs and its expression in osteoblasts, suggests that Glis3 is an important modulator of MSC differentiation. [source]

Wnt 3a promotes proliferation and suppresses osteogenic differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,

Genevieve M. Boland
Abstract Multipotential adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate along several known lineages, and lineage commitment is tightly regulated through specific cellular mediators and interactions. Recent observations of a low/high bone-mass phenotype in patients expressing a loss-/gain-of-function mutation in LRP5, a coreceptor of the Wnt family of signaling molecules, suggest the importance of Wnt signaling in bone formation, possibly involving MSCs. To analyze the role of Wnt signaling in mesenchymal osteogenesis, we have profiled the expression of WNTs and their receptors, FRIZZLEDs (FZDs), and several secreted Wnt inhibitors, such as SFRPs, and examined the effect of Wnt 3a, as a representative canonical Wnt member, during MSC osteogenesis in vitro. WNT11, FZD6, SFRP2, and SFRP3 are upregulated during MSC osteogenesis, while WNT9A and FZD7 are downregulated. MSCs also respond to exogenous Wnt 3a, based on increased ,-catenin nuclearization and activation of a Wnt-responsive promoter, and the magnitude of this response depends on the MSC differentiation state. Wnt 3a exposure inhibits MSC osteogenic differentiation, with decreased matrix mineralization and reduced alkaline phosphatase mRNA and activity. Wnt 3a treatment of fully osteogenically differentiated MSCs also suppresses osteoblastic marker gene expression. The Wnt 3a effect is accompanied by increased cell number, resulting from both increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis, particularly during expansion of undifferentiated MSCs. The osteo-suppressive effects of Wnt 3a are fully reversible, i.e., treatment prior to osteogenic induction does not compromise subsequent MSC osteogenesis. The results also showed that sFRP3 treatment attenuates some of the observed Wnt 3a effects on MSCs, and that inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling using a dominant negative TCF1 enhances MSC osteogenesis. Interestingly, expression of Wnt 5a, a non-canonical Wnt member, appeared to promote osteogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that canonical Wnt signaling functions in maintaining an undifferentiated, proliferating progenitor MSC population, whereas non-canonical Wnts facilitate osteogenic differentiation. Release from canonical Wnt regulation is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation. Thus, loss-/gain-of-function mutations of LRP5 would perturb Wnt signaling and depress/promote bone formation by affecting the progenitor cell pool. Elucidating Wnt regulation of MSC differentiation is important for their potential application in tissue regeneration. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mesenchymal stem cell function on hybrid organic/inorganic microparticles in vitro

A. Champa Jayasuriya
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function on novel type hybrid organic/inorganic microparticles (MPs) for application to bone regeneration. The MPs were based on chitosan (CS) and consisted of inorganic components, such as dibasic calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The MPs were crosslinked using tripolyphosphate. Four types of hybrid MPs were fabricated: CS; CS,10% CaHPO4; CS,20% CaHPO4; and CS,10% CaCO3. The MSCs were attached to all the types of MPs at day 1 and started to spread and proliferate further by days 2 and 7, as analysed by fluorescence microcopy. Cell proliferation was measured at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 by counting the cells attached on the MPs. The number of proliferated cells increased significantly for all types of MPs as time increased. MSC differentiation was analysed using osteoblast (OB) phenotype markers, including alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), collagen I (COLLI) and osteocalcin (OCN) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28, using quantitative real-time PCR. The normalized mRNA expression of ALP for all MPs was observed only at day 7. The normalized mRNA expression of COLLI and OCN was significantly increased for all types of hybrid MPs at each time point compared to the control samples. Collectively, our results proved that hybrid organic/inorganic MPs were non-cytotoxic and supported MSC attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation into the OB phenotype. These hybrid MPs have great potential for application as bone-void fillers or bone tissue engineering scaffolds in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Two and three-dimensional gene transfer from enzymatically degradable hydrogel scaffolds

Yuguo Lei
Abstract The ability to genetically modify mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded inside synthetic hydrogel scaffolds would offer an alternative approach to guide MSC differentiation. In this report, we explored gene transfer to MSCs seeded on top or inside matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable hydrogels that were loaded with DNA/poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) polyplexes. DNA/PEI polyplexes were encapsulated inside poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels crosslinked with MMP degradable peptides via Michael Addition chemistry. Gene transfer was visualized and quantified through using a vector encoding for green fluorescent protein and luciferase. We found that gene transfer to MSCs was possible for cells seeded both in two and three dimensions. The amount of luciferase expression was similar for cells seeded in two and three dimensions even though the number of cells in three dimensions is significantly higher, indicating that gene transfer to cells seeded in two dimensions is more efficient than for cells seeded in three dimensions. The use of hydrogel scaffolds that allow cellular infiltration to deliver DNA may result in long-lasting signals in vivo, which are essential for the regeneration of functional tissues. Microsc. Res. Tech. 73:910,917, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]