Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of MSCs

  • human msc
  • rat msc

  • Terms modified by MSCs

  • msc differentiation
  • msc isolated
  • msc population
  • msc survival
  • msc transplantation

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Marine Stewardship Council: A multi-stakeholder approach to sustainable fishing

    Alexia Cummins
    Established by WWF and Unilever in 1997, the Marine Stewardship Council is an example of a successful NGO,business partnership, independent since 1999. At a time when awareness of the general public on environmental issues and particularly overfishing is increasing, it offers an eco-labelling programme designed to reward sustainable and well managed fisheries with a visible environmental endorsement. The MSC is the only international fisheries organization working to provide a market-based incentive, encouraging consumers to make the best environmental choice in seafood, by setting a standard against which independent accredited certification bodies assess fisheries. It devotes time and attention to bringing a broad spectrum of stakeholders to the table, maintaining dialogue with all sectors. As more fisheries engage in the certification process, valuable lessons have been learnt on the importance of stakeholder input. Market leading supermarkets recognize that consumers expect retailers to make responsible purchasing decisions as part of their corporate social responsibility. As a key part of this they have become supporters of the MSC, enabling it to achieve the market exposure it requires to highlight the issue of overfishing and the need to ensure the sustainability of fish stocks around the world. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    The significance of endocervical cells and metaplastic squamous cells in liquid-based cervical cytology

    Kai M. Leung M.B.B.S.
    Abstract We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the presence or absence of endocervical cells (EC) and metaplastic squamous cells (MSC) was associated with the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions in liquid-based cervical cytology. 90,376 cases of liquid-based cervical cytology smears received in 2006 were included in the study. Low-grade (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were classified according to the Bethesda system (2001). The rates of detecting LSIL and HSIL in smears with and without EC and/or MSC were determined. There were 1,540 LSIL and 396 HSIL. The ratio of HSIL/NILM (no intraepithelial lesion or malignancy) was 0.0022 in smears without EC or MSC, 0.0040 in smears with EC only, 0.0044 in smears with MSC only, and 0.0056 in smears with both EC and MSC present. Compared with smears without EC or MSC, this ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.05) when either EC or MSC was present. Compared with smears with EC only, the ratio was also significantly higher when both EC and MSC were present (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the presence or absence of EC had no effect on the detection rate of LSIL (0.0191 for both groups), while the presence of MSC was actually associated with lower detection rate of LSIL (0.0153, P < 0.05). The presence of endocervical and metaplastic cells was associated with higher detection rates of HSIL. MSC was associated with lower detection or LSIL. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Anti-tumor activity of mesenchymal stem cells producing IL-12 in a mouse melanoma model

    Lina Elzaouk
    Abstract:, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a new tool for delivery of therapeutic agents to tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-tumor activity of human MSCs stably transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) in a mouse melanoma model. Application of MSC(IL-12) but not control MSCs strongly reduced the formation of lung metastases of B16F10 melanoma cells. The activity of the MSC(IL-12) cells was dependent on the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in this experimental setting. Further, MSC(IL-12) cells elicited a pronounced retardation of tumor growth and led to prolonged survival when injected into established subcutaneous melanoma in a therapeutic regimen. The therapeutic effect of the MSC(IL-12) was in part mediated by CD8+ T cells, while NK cells and CD4+ T cells appeared to play a minor role. The anti-tumor effect of MSC(IL-12) cells was of similar efficiency as observed for application of naked plasmid DNA encoding IL-12. The presented data demonstrate that these two different strategies can induce a similar therapeutic anti-tumor efficacy in the mouse melanoma tumor model. [source]

    WDX Studies on Ceramic Diffusion Barrier Layers of Metal Supported SOECs

    FUEL CELLS, Issue 6 2009
    D. Wiedenmann
    Abstract Solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) have great potential for efficient and economical production of hydrogen fuel. Element diffusion between the Ni-cermet electrode and the metal substrate of metal supported cells (MSC) is a known problem in fuel cell and electrolysis technology. In order to hinder this unintentional mass transport, different ceramic diffusion barrier layers (DBLs) are included in recent cell design concepts. This paper is based on wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence investigations of different SOEC and focuses on Fe, Cr and Ni diffusion between the metal grains of the cathode and the metal substrate. Due to the low detection limits and therefore high analytical sensitivity, wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) provides a precise method to determine element distribution, absolute element concentration and changes between the reference material and aged cells on a microstructural level by element mappings and concentration profiles. The results of this work show considerable concentration gradients in the metal grains caused by mass exchange during cell operation. Diffusion can be inhibited significantly by integrating different ceramic DBLs of doped LaCrO3 -type or doped LaMnO3 -type perovskite, either by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or physical vapour deposition technique (PVD). [source]

    Hepatic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived UE7T-13 cells: Effects of cytokines and CCN family gene expression

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 12 2007
    Takashi Shimomura
    Aim:, Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are expected to be an excellent source of cells for transplantation. We aimed to study the culture conditions and involved genes to differentiate MSC into hepatocytes. Methods:, The culture conditions to induce the efficient differentiation of human bone marrow-derived UE7T-13 cells were examined using cytokines, hormones, 5-azacytidine and type IV collagen. Results:, We found that combination of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with type IV collagen coating induced hepatic differentiation of UE7T-13 cells at over 30% frequency, where expression of albumin mRNA was increased over 20-fold. The differentiated cells had functions of albumin production, glycogen synthesis and urea secretion as well as expressing hepatocyte-specific genes. In addition, these cellshave binuclear and cuboidal morphology, which is a characteristic feature of hepatocytes. During hepatic differentiation, UE7T-13 cells showed depressed expression of WISP1 and WISP2 genes, members of the CCN family. Conversely, knockdown of WISP1 or WISP2 gene by siRNA stimulated hepatic differentiation. The effect of aFGF/bFGF/HGF/type IV collagen coating and WISP1-siRNA on hepatic differentiation was additive. Conclusion:, The present study suggests that aFGF/bFGF/HGF/type IV collagen coating is the efficient condition for hepatic differentiation of UE7T-13 cells, and that WISP1 and WISP2 play an important role in hepatic transdifferentiation of these cells. [source]

    Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells propel human dendritic cells to an intermediate maturation state and boost interleukin-12 production by mature dendritic cells

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Lieke C. J. Van Den Berk
    Summary Pathogen-derived entities force the tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) towards a mature state, followed by migration to the draining lymph node to present antigens to T cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modulate the differentiation, maturation and function of DCs. In umbilical cord blood an immature MSC population was identified. Remarkably, these immature stem cells modulated DCs in a different way. Marker expression was unchanged during the differentiation of monocytes towards immature DCs (iDCs) when cocultured with cord blood MSC [unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs)]. The maturation to mature DCs (mDCs) was enhanced when DCs were co-cultured with USSC, as evidenced by the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules. Endocytosis of dextran by iDCs was hampered in the presence of USSCs, which is indicative for the maturation of iDCs. Despite this maturation, the migration of iDCs cocultured with USSCs appeared to be identical to iDCs cultured alone. However, USSCs increased the migration of mDCs towards CCL21 and boosted interleukin-12 production. So, USSCs mature iDCs, thereby redirecting the antigen-uptake phenotype towards a mature phenotype. Furthermore, DC maturation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or USSCs reflects two distinct pathways because migration was unaffected when iDCs were matured by coculture with USSCs, while it was strongly enhanced in the presence of LPS. DCs are able to discriminate the different MSC subtypes, resulting in diverse differentiation programmes. [source]

    Generalized trapezoidal numerical integration of an advanced soil model

    Yunming Yang
    Abstract This paper investigates the numerical performance of the generalized trapezoidal integration rule by using an advanced soil model. The generalized trapezoidal integration rule can include many other integration algorithms by adjusting a single parameter , ranging from 1 to 0. The soil model used is the recently developed middle surface concept (MSC) sand model which simulates different soil response characteristics by using different pseudo-yield functions. The generalized trapezoidal rule and MSC sand model are used to simulate the responses of sand samples with different relative densities under various initial and loading conditions. Instead of a single step, multiple loading steps bring the sample to the vicinity of failure. These comprehensive investigations examine and compare the influences of various values of , on the numerical solution of integrated constitutive equations, the convergence of Newton's iterative scheme, and the integration accuracy. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A middle surface concept (MSC) model for saturated sands in general stress space

    Y. Yang
    Abstract An elastoplastic constitutive model is proposed for saturated sands in general stress space using the middle surface concept (MSC). In MSC, different features of stress,strain response of a material are divided into different pseudo-yield surfaces. The true-yield surface representing the true response is established by using various links between the yield surfaces. In this MSC sand model, several well-known features of sand response are represented by three different pseudo-yield surfaces, which are developed in a simple and straightforward way. These features include the critical state behaviour, the effects of state parameter, unloading and reloading plastic deformation, the influence of fabric anisotropy, and phase transformation line related behaviour. Finally, the model predictions and test results are compared for two different types of sands under a variety of loading conditions and good comparisons are obtained. The application of MSC to saturated sand modelling shows the versatility of MSC as a general concept for modelling stress,strain response of materials. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A subpopulation of mesenchymal stromal cells with high osteogenic potential

    Hua Liu
    Abstract Current bone disease therapy with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is hampered by low efficiency. Advanced allogeneic studies on well-established mouse genetic and disease models are hindered by difficulties in isolating murine MSC (mMSC). And mMSC prepared from different laboratories exhibit significant heterogeneity. Hence, this study aimed to identify and isolate a sub-population of mMSC at an early passage number with high osteogenic potential. Enrichment of mMSC was achieved by 1-hr silica incubation and negative selection. Approximately 96% of these cells synthesized osteocalcin after 28 days of osteogenic induction in vitro, and displayed a complete dynamic alteration of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity with increasing osteogenic maturation and strong mineralization. Moreover, the cells displayed uniform and stable surface molecular profile, long-term survival, fast proliferation in vitro with maintenance of normal karyotype and distinct immunological properties. CD73 was found to be expressed exclusively in osteogenesis but not in adipogenesis. These cells also retained high osteogenic potential upon allogeneic transplantation in an ectopic site by the detection of bone-specific ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin and local mineralization as early as 12 days after implantation. Hence, these cells may provide a useful source for improving current strategies in bone regenerative therapy, and for characterizing markers defining the putative MSC population. [source]

    Human islet-derived precursor cells can cycle between epithelial clusters and mesenchymal phenotypes

    Behrous Davani
    Abstract We showed previously that undifferentiated, proliferating human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) are a type of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) that can be induced by serum deprivation to form clusters and ultimately differentiate in vitro to endocrine cells. We also demonstrated that partially differentiated hIPC clusters, when implanted under the kidney capsules of mice, continued to differentiate in vivo into hormone-producing cells. However, we noted that not all hIPC preparations yielded insulin-secreting cells in vivo and that in some animals no hormone-expressing cells were found. This suggested that the implanted cells were not always irreversibly committed to further differentiation and may even de-differentiate to a mesenchymal phenotype. In this study, we show that human cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are indeed found in the grafts of mice implanted with hIPCs in epithelial cell clusters (ECCs), which are obtained after 4-day in vitro culture of hIPCs in serum-free medium (SFM); mesenchymal cells were predominant in some grafts. We could mimic the transition of ECCs to de-differentiated mesenchymal cells in vitro by exposure to foetal bovine serum (FBS) or mouse serums, and to a significantly lesser extent to human serum. In a complementary series of experiments, we show that mouse serum and FBS are more effective stimulants of mesenchymal hIPC migration than is human serum. We found that proliferation was not needed for the transition from ECCs to de-differentiated cells because mitomycin-treated hIPCs that could not proliferate underwent a similar transition. Lastly, we show that cells exhibiting a mesenchymal phenotype can be found in grafts of adult human islets in mice. We conclude that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cells in hIPC ECCs can occur following implantation in mice. This potential for EMT of human islets or differentiated precursor cells must be considered in strategies for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. [source]

    Cell-to-cell cross-talk between mesenchymal stem cells and cardiomyocytes in co-culture

    E. Y. Plotnikov
    Abstract The goals of the study were: (1) to explore the communication between human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and rat cardiac myocytes resulting in differentiation of the stem cells and, (2) to evaluate the role of mitochondria in it. Light and fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy revealed that after co-cultivation, cells formed intercellular contacts and transient exchange with cytosolic elements could be observed. The transport of cytosolic entity had no specific direction. Noticeably, mitochondria also could be transferred to the recipient cells in a unidirectional fashion (towards cardiomyocytes only). Transmission electron microscopy revealed significant variability in both the diameter of intercellular contacting tubes and their shape. Inside of these nanotubes mitochondria-resembling structures were identified. Moreover, after co-cultivation with cardiomyocytes, expression of human-specific myosin was revealed in MSC. Thus, we speculate that: (1) transport of intracellular elements to MSC possibly can determine the direction of their differentiation and, (2) mitochondria may be involved in the mechanism of the stem cell differentiation. It looks plausible that mitochondrial transfer to recipient cardiomyocytes may be involved in the mechanism of failed myocardium repair after stem cells transplantation. [source]

    Endomyocardial biopsy derived adherent proliferating cells,A potential cell source for cardiac tissue engineering

    Marion Haag
    Abstract Heart diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) are considered as candidates for cardiac-directed cell therapies. However, clinical translation is hampered since their isolation and expansion is complex. We describe a population of human cardiac derived adherent proliferating (CAP) cells that can be reliably and efficiently isolated and expanded from endomyocardial biopsies (0.1,cm3). Growth kinetics revealed a mean cell doubling time of 49.9,h and a high number of 2.54,×,107 cells in passage 3. Microarray analysis directed at investigating the gene expression profile of human CAP cells demonstrated the absence of the hematopoietic cell markers CD34 and CD45, and of CD90, which is expressed on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. These data were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. CAP cells could not be differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, or myoblasts, demonstrating the absence of multilineage potential. Moreover, despite the expression of heart muscle markers like ,-sarcomeric actin and cardiac myosin, CAP cells cannot be differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Regarding functionality, CAP cells were especially positive for many genes involved in angiogenesis like angiopoietin-1, VEGF, KDR, and neuropilins. Globally, principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis and comparison with microarray data from many undifferentiated and differentiated reference cell types, revealed a unique identity of CAP cells. In conclusion, we have identified a unique cardiac tissue derived cell type that can be isolated and expanded from endomyocardial biopsies and which presents a potential cell source for cardiac repair. Results indicate that these cells rather support angiogenesis than cardiomyocyte differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 109: 564,575, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Oxysterol-induced osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells is regulated by Dkk-1 inhibitable and PI3-kinase mediated signaling

    Christopher M. Amantea
    Abstract Osteoporosis and its complications cause morbidity and mortality in the aging population, and result from increased bone resorption by osteoclasts in parallel with decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. A widely accepted strategy for improving bone health is targeting osteoprogenitor cells in order to stimulate their osteogenic differentiation and bone forming properties through the use of osteoinductive/anabolic factors. We previously reported that specific naturally occurring oxysterols have potent osteoinductive properties, mediated in part through activation of hedgehog signaling in osteoprogenitor cells. In the present report, we further demonstrate the molecular mechanism(s) by which oxysterols induce osteogenesis. In addition to activating the hedgehog signaling pathway, oxysterol-induced osteogenic differentiation is mediated through a Wnt signaling-related, Dkk-1-inhibitable mechanism. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC) treated with oxysterols demonstrated increased expression of osteogenic differentiation markers, along with selective induced expression of Wnt target genes. These oxysterol effects, which occurred in the absence of ,-catenin accumulation or TCF/Lef activation, were inhibited by the hedgehog pathway inhibitor, cyclopamine, and/or by the Wnt pathway inhibitor, Dkk-1. Furthermore, the inhibitors of PI3-Kinase signaling, LY 294002 and wortmanin, inhibited oxysterol-induced osteogenic differentiation and induction of Wnt signaling target genes. Finally, activators of canonical Wnt signaling, Wnt3a and Wnt1, inhibited spontaneous, oxysterol-, and Shh-induced osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, suggesting the involvement of a non-canonical Wnt pathway in pro-osteogenic differentiation events. Osteogenic oxysterols are, therefore, important small molecule modulators of critical signaling pathways in pluripotent mesenchymal cells that regulate numerous developmental and post-developmental processes. J. Cell. Biochem. 105: 424,436, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Distinct osteoblastic differentiation potential of murine fetal liver and bone marrow stroma-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Olivia Fromigué
    Abstract Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into osteoblasts under appropriate induction. Although MSC-derived osteoblasts are part of the hematopoietic niche, the nature of the stromal component in fetal liver remains elusive. Here, we determined the in vitro osteoblastic differentiation potential of murine clonal fetal liver-derived cells (AFT024, BFC012, 2012) in comparison with bone marrow-derived cell lines (BMC9, BMC10). Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, an early osteoblastic marker, in AFT024 and 2012 cells, whereas dexamethasone had little or no effect. BMP2, but not dexamethasone, increased ALP activity in BMC9 cells, and both inducers increased ALP activity in BMC10 cells. BMP2 increased ALP mRNA in AFT024, 2012 and BMC9 cells. By contrast, ALP was not detected in BMC10 and BFC012 cells. BMP2 and dexamethasone increased osteopontin and osteocalcin mRNA expression in 2012 cells. Furthermore, bone marrow-derived cells showed extensive matrix mineralization, whereas fetal liver-derived cell lines showed no or very limited matrix mineralization capacity. These results indicate that the osteoblast differentiation potential differs in bone marrow and fetal liver-derived cell lines, which may be due to a distinct developmental program or different microenvironment in the two hematopoietic sites. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 620,628, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Purification and growth of endothelial progenitor cells from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells

    Qi Ru Wang
    Abstract This study reports the culture and purification of murine bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) using endothelial cell-conditioned medium (EC-CM). Endothelial-like cells appeared at day 5 in culture of bone marrow mononuclear cells in the presence of EC-CM in the culture system, and these cells incorporated acetylated low-density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL) and reacted with endothelial-specific Ulex Europaeus Lectin. Continued incubation of these cells at low density with EC-CM for longer than 10 days resulted in the formation of endothelial cell colonies which gave rise to colonies of endothelial progeny and can be passed for many generations in the EC-CM culture system. Cells derived from these colonies expressed endothelial cell markers such as vWF and CD31, incorporated Dil-Ac-LDL, stained positive for Ulex Europaeus Lectin, formed capillary-like structures on Matrigel, and demonstrated a high proliferative capacity in culture. These bone marrow-derived adherent cells were identified as EPCs. The purification and the formation of EPC colonies by using EC-CM were associated with the cytokines secreted in the EC-CM. VEGF, bFGF, and GM-CSF in the EC-CM stimulated the proliferation and growth of EPCs, whereas AcSDKP (tetrapeptide NAc-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro) in EC-CM suppressed the growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. This approach is efficient for isolation/purification and outgrowth of bone marrow EPCs in vitro, a very important cell source in angiogenic therapies and regenerative medicine. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 21,29, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparison of various kinds of bone marrow stem cells for the repair of infarcted myocardium: Single clonally purified non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells serve as a superior source,

    Shaoheng Zhang
    Abstract A variety of adult stem cells have been used to transplant into the infarcted (MI) heart, however, comparative studies are lacking to show more suitable source of cells for transplantation. We have identified a single non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cell subpopulation (snMSCs) isolated from human bone marrow and clonally purified, that over 99% of them expressed MSC marker proteins and cardiomyocyte marker proteins when induction in vitro. We also compared the effects of the snMSCs with unpurified MSC (uMSCs), mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) on myocardial repair after induction of MI in rats. Ninety days later, we observed a better cardiac function assessed by ejection fraction, fraction of shortening and lung wet/dry weight ratios, less remodeling of left ventricle (LV), lower collagen density in the LV, and more vessels in the ischemic wall in the snMSCs transplantation group than in other cell-transplanted groups. Furthermore, the transplanted cells expressing cardiomyocyte specific proteins or vascular endothelial cell marker proteins were more in the snMSCs group than in other ones. We conclude that transplantation with single clonally purified MSCs seems to be more beneficial to the cardiac repair than with other stem cells after MI. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 1132,1147, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering

    Pankaj Godara
    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) offer great promise in therapies aimed at repairing, replacing or regenerating damaged or diseased tissues and organs. This potential is due to their capacity for self-renewal, ability to differentiate down a range of lineages, and potential in autologous therapies, free from major ethical concerns. This review examines the issues around the use of MSC in tissue engineering (TE) applications. Key issues facing widespread MSC therapeutic use include both the scarcity in adult tissues and the current lack of a simple unambiguous identifying marker. These major challenges facing the isolation, characterization and expansion of MSC to therapeutically significant numbers currently limit their usefulness as ,off the shelf' therapies. Balanced against this, recent evidence suggests that MSC have a much wider tissue distribution and greater plasticity than originally envisaged. Although therapeutic applications of MSC initially focused on mesenchymal lineages such as cartilage and bone, this is now broadening to include organs such as the heart and skin. Ultimately, the clinical utility of such MSC-based therapies will depend on their performance and cost. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Predicting % of crystallinity in FCC catalysts by FT-MIR and PLS

    JOURNAL OF CHEMOMETRICS, Issue 11-12 2008
    Angel Dago
    Abstract This paper describes an analytical procedure for prediction of percent of crystallinity of fluidized catalytic cracking catalysts (FCC) using Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate calibration technique. In order to make a robust regression model, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and smoothed second derivative pre-processing methods were tested. Root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of an independent test set was used to measure the performance of the models. The comparison shows that reasonable values of RMSEP and RMSECV were obtained for PLS-MSC model (RMSEP,=,0.8% and RMSECV,=,1.3%). The accuracy of the results obtained by the PLS-MSC regression model is in accordance with the uncertainty of the XRPD reference method. The developed method can be implemented in a refinery laboratory environment with ease. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A new holistic exploratory approach to Systems Biology by Near Infrared Spectroscopy evaluated by chemometrics and data inspection

    JOURNAL OF CHEMOMETRICS, Issue 10-11 2007
    Lars Munck
    Abstract There is a need for an improved biological and theoretical interpretation of Near Infra-Red Spectral (NIRS) fingerprints from tissues that could contribute with holistic overview to fine-grained detail modelled in Systems Biology. The concept of gene expression in self-organised networks was experimentally tested in a barley endosperm model with molecularly defined and undefined mutants. Surprisingly reproducible gene-specific NIRS fingerprints were observed directly in log1/R MSC pre-treated spectra that could not be accurately represented by destructive mathematical models. A mutant spectrum in an isogenic background represents the physiochemical expression of the gene in the whole network (tissue). The necessary holistic overview that is needed experimentally to introduce Ilya Prigogine's theory on self-organisation in Systems Biology was supplied by defining the spectral phenome. Interval spectral information on genotypes and environment was classified by interval Extended Canonical Variates Analysis (iECVA). Genetic changes in spectra were interpreted by interval Partial Least Squares Regression (iPLSR) correlations to chemical variables. A new pathway regulation was detected. The finely grained ,bottom up' modelling of molecular and chemical data from pathways requires a coarsely grained exploratory ,top down' overview by NIRS to account for the outcome of self-organisation. The amplification of expression from a gene to the phenome (pleiotropy) can now for the first time be quantified as a whole reproducible phenomenological pattern by NIRS and compared to other gene spectra. It explains published findings that transformed respectively mutated genes in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and cancer patients can be detected unsupervised from tissues by spectroscopy, chemometrics and data inspection. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Empirical preprocessing methods and their impact on NIR calibrations: a simulation study

    S. N. Thennadil
    Abstract The extraction of chemical information from dense particulate suspensions, such as industrial slurries and biological suspensions, using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurements is complicated by sample-to-sample path length variations due to light scattering. Empirical preprocessing techniques such as multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), extended MSC and derivatives have been applied to remove these effects and in some cases have shown promise. While the performance of these techniques and other related approaches is known to depend on the nature and extent of the variations and on the measurement configuration, detailed investigations into the efficacy of these approaches under various conditions have not been previously undertaken. The main obstacle to carrying out such investigations has been the lack of, and the difficulty in obtaining, an accurate and comprehensive experimental data set. In this work, simulations that generate ,actual' measurements were carried out to obtain ,experimental' spectroscopic data on particulate systems. This was achieved by solving the exact transport equation for light propagation. A model system comprising four chemical components with one consisting of spherical submicron particles was considered. Total diffuse transmittance and reflectance data generated through simulations for moderate particle concentrations were used as the basis for examining the effect of particle size variations and measurement configurations on the efficacy of a number of preprocessing techniques in enhancing the performance of partial least squares (PLS) models for predicting the concentration of one of the non-scattering chemical species. Additionally, a form of extended multiplicative signal correction based on considerations arising from fundamental light scattering theory is proposed and found to perform better than the other techniques for the cases considered in the study. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    DNA methylation pattern changes upon long-term culture and aging of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    AGING CELL, Issue 1 2010
    Simone Bork
    Summary Within 2,3 months of in vitro culture-expansion, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) undergo replicative senescence characterized by cell enlargement, loss of differentiation potential and ultimate growth arrest. In this study, we have analyzed DNA methylation changes upon long-term culture of MSC by using the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray assessing 27 578 unique CpG sites. Furthermore, we have compared MSC from young and elderly donors. Overall, methylation patterns were maintained throughout both long-term culture and aging but highly significant differences were observed at specific CpG sites. Many of these differences were observed in homeobox genes and genes involved in cell differentiation. Methylation changes were verified by pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion and compared to gene expression data. Notably, methylation changes in MSC were overlapping in long-term culture and aging in vivo. This supports the notion that replicative senescence and aging represent developmental processes that are regulated by specific epigenetic modifications. [source]

    Electronic Nose Technology in Quality Assessment: Predicting Volatile Composition of Danish Blue Cheese During Ripening

    Jeorgos Trihaas
    ABSTRACT This work describes for the 1st time the use of an electronic nose (e-nose) for the determination of changes of blue cheeses flavor during maturation. Headspace analysis of Danish blue cheeses was made for 2 dairy units of the same producer. An e-nose registered changes in cheeses flavor 5, 8, 12, and 20 wk after brining. Volatiles were collected from the headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Features from the chemical sensors of the e-nose were used to model the volatile changes by multivariate methods. Differences registered during ripening of the cheeses as well as between producing units are described and discussed for both methods. Cheeses from different units showed significant differences in their e-nose flavor profiles at early ripening stages but with ripening became more and more alike. Prediction of the concentration of 25 identified aroma compounds by e-nose features was possible by partial least square regression (PLS-R). It was not possible to create a reliable predictive model for both units because cheeses from 1 unit were contaminated by Geotrichum candidum, leading to unstable ripening patterns. Correction of the e-nose features by multiple scatter correction (MSC) and mean normalization (MN) of the integrated GC areas made correlation of the volatile concentration to the e-nose signal features possible. Prediction models were created, evaluated, and used to reconstruct the headspace of unknown cheese samples by e-nose measurements. Classification of predicted volatile compositions of unknown samples by their ripening stage was successful at a 78% and 54% overall correct classification for dairy units 1 and 2, respectively. Compared with GC-MS, the application of the rapid and less demanding e-nose seems an attractive alternative for this type of investigation. [source]

    In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of iron oxide,labeled, arterially-injected mesenchymal stem cells in kidneys of rats with acute ischemic kidney injury: Detection and monitoring at 3T

    Harald Ittrich MD
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate MRI for a qualitative and quantitative in vivo tracking of intraaortal injected iron oxide,labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into rats with acute kidney injury (AKI). Materials and Methods In vitro MRI and R2* measurement of nonlabeled and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled MSC (MSCSPIO) was performed in correlation to cellular iron content and cytological examination (Prussian blue, electron microscopy). In vivo MRI and R2* evaluation were performed before and after ischemic/reperfusion AKI (N = 14) and intraaortal injection of 1.5 × 106 MSCSPIO (N = 7), fetal calf serum (FCS) (medium, N = 6), and SPIO alone (N = 1) up to 14 days using a clinical 3T scanner. Signal to noise ratios (SNR), R2* of kidneys, liver, spleen, and bone marrow, renal function (creatinine [CREA], blood urea nitrogen [BUN]), and kidney volume were measured and tested for statistical significance (Student's t -test, P < 0.05) in comparison histology (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Prussian blue, periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], CD68). Results In vitro, MSCSPIO showed a reduction of SNR and T2* with R2* , number of MSCSPIO (R2 = 0.98). In vivo MSCSPIO administration resulted in a SNR decrease (35 ± 15%) and R2* increase (101 ± 18.3%) in renal cortex caused by MSCSPIO accumulation in contrast to control animals (P < 0.01). Liver, spleen, and bone marrow (MSCSPIO) showed a delayed SNR decline/R2* increase (P < 0.05) resulting from MSCSPIO migration. The increase of kidney volume and the decrease in renal function (P < 0.05) was reduced in MSC-treated animals. Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative in vivo cell-tracking and monitoring of organ distribution of intraaortal injected MSCSPIO in AKI is feasible in MRI at 3T. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007;25:1179,1191. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Functional tissue engineering for tendon repair: A multidisciplinary strategy using mesenchymal stem cells, bioscaffolds, and mechanical stimulation,

    David L. Butler
    Abstract Over the past 8 years, our group has been continuously improving tendon repair using a functional tissue engineering (FTE) paradigm. This paradigm was motivated by inconsistent clinical results after tendon repair and reconstruction, and the modest biomechanical improvements we observed after repair of rabbit central patellar tendon defects using mesenchymal stem cell-gel-suture constructs. Although possessing a significantly higher stiffness and failure force than for natural healing, these first generation constructs were quite weak compared to normal tendon. Fundamental to the new FTE paradigm was the need to determine in vivo forces to which the repair tissue might be exposed. We first recorded these force patterns in two normal tendon models and then compared these peak forces to those for repairs of central defects in the rabbit patellar tendon model (PT). Replacing the suture with end-posts in culture and lowering the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) concentration of these constructs resulted in failure forces greater than peak in vivo forces that were measured for all the studied activities. Augmenting the gel with a type I collagen sponge further increased repair stiffness and maximum force, and resulted in the repair tangent stiffness matching normal stiffness up to peak in vivo forces. Mechanically stimulating these constructs in bioreactors further enhanced repair biomechanics compared to normal. We are now optimizing components of the mechanical signal that is delivered in culture to further improve construct and repair outcome. Our contributions in the area of tendon functional tissue engineering have the potential to create functional load-bearing repairs that will revolutionize surgical reconstruction after tendon and ligament injury. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1,9, 2008 [source]

    Analysis of Nanocrystalline and Microcrystalline ZnO Sintering Using Master Sintering Curves

    Kevin G. Ewsuk
    Master sintering curves were constructed for dry-pressed compacts composed of either a nanocrystalline or a microcrystalline ZnO powder using constant heating rate dilatometry data and an experimentally determined apparent activation energy for densification of 268±25 and 296±21 kJ/mol, respectively. The calculated activation energies for densification are consistent with one another, and with values reported in the literature for ZnO densification by grain boundary diffusion. Grain boundary diffusion appears to be the single dominant mechanism controlling intermediate-stage densification in both the nanocrystalline and the microcrystalline ZnO during sintering from 65% to 90% of the theoretical density (TD). Based on both the consistency of the calculated activation energy as a function of density and the narrow dispersion of the sintering data about the master sintering curve (MSC) for the nanocrystalline ZnO, there is no evidence of either significantly enhanced surface diffusion or grain growth during sintering relative to the microcrystalline ZnO. The MSC constructed for the nanocrystalline ZnO was used to design time,temperature profiles to successfully achieve four different target sintered densities on the MSC, demonstrating the applicability of the MSC theory to nanocrystalline ceramic sintering. The most significant difference in sintering behavior between the two ZnO powders is the enhanced densification in the nanocrystalline ZnO powder at shorter times and lower temperatures. This difference is attributed to a scaling (i.e., particle size) effect. [source]

    Mesenchymal stem cell function on hybrid organic/inorganic microparticles in vitro

    A. Champa Jayasuriya
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function on novel type hybrid organic/inorganic microparticles (MPs) for application to bone regeneration. The MPs were based on chitosan (CS) and consisted of inorganic components, such as dibasic calcium phosphate (CaHPO4) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The MPs were crosslinked using tripolyphosphate. Four types of hybrid MPs were fabricated: CS; CS,10% CaHPO4; CS,20% CaHPO4; and CS,10% CaCO3. The MSCs were attached to all the types of MPs at day 1 and started to spread and proliferate further by days 2 and 7, as analysed by fluorescence microcopy. Cell proliferation was measured at days 7, 14, 21 and 28 by counting the cells attached on the MPs. The number of proliferated cells increased significantly for all types of MPs as time increased. MSC differentiation was analysed using osteoblast (OB) phenotype markers, including alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), collagen I (COLLI) and osteocalcin (OCN) at days 7, 14, 21 and 28, using quantitative real-time PCR. The normalized mRNA expression of ALP for all MPs was observed only at day 7. The normalized mRNA expression of COLLI and OCN was significantly increased for all types of hybrid MPs at each time point compared to the control samples. Collectively, our results proved that hybrid organic/inorganic MPs were non-cytotoxic and supported MSC attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation into the OB phenotype. These hybrid MPs have great potential for application as bone-void fillers or bone tissue engineering scaffolds in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reverse remodeling is associated with changes in extracellular matrix proteases and tissue inhibitors after mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) treatment of pressure overload hypertrophy

    Ezequiel J. Molina
    Abstract Changes in ventricular extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of pressure overload hypertrophy determine clinical outcomes. The effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation upon determinants of ECM composition in pressure overload hypertrophy have not been studied. Sprague,Dawley rats underwent aortic banding and were followed by echocardiography. After an absolute decrease in fractional shortening of 25% from baseline, 1 × 106 MSC (n = 28) or PBS (n = 20) was randomly injected intracoronarily. LV protein analysis, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-6, MMP-9) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3), was performed after sacrifice on postoperative day 7, 14, 21 or 28. Left ventricular levels of MMP-3, MMP-6, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 were demonstrated to be decreased in the MSC group compared with controls after 28 days. Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 remained relatively stable in both groups. Successful MSCs delivery was confirmed by histological analysis and visualization of labelled MSCs. In this model of pressure overload hypertrophy, intracoronary delivery of MSCs during heart failure was associated with specific changes in determinants of ECM composition. LV reverse remodeling was associated with decreased ventricular levels of MMP-3, MMP-6, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, which were upregulated in the control group as heart failure progressed. These effects were most significant at 28 days following injection. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Polypyrrole Thin Films Formed by Admicellar Polymerization Support the Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Harold Castano
    Abstract Summary: The objective of this study was to evaluate the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) toward the osteoblastic phenotype seeded on polypyrrole (PPy) thin films made by admicellar polymerization. Three different concentrations of pyrrole (Py) monomer (20, 35, and 50,×,10,3M) were used with the PPy films deposited on tissue culture polystyrene dishes (TCP). Regular TCP dishes and PPy polymerized on TCP by chemical polymerization without surfactant using 5,×,10,3M Py, were used as controls. Rat MSC were seeded on these surfaces and cultured for up to 20 d in osteogenic media. Surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and static contact angle. Cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium content were measured to evaluate the ability of MSC to adhere and differentiate on PPy-coated TCP. Increased monomer concentrations resulted in PPy films of increased thickness and surface roughness. PPy films generated by different monomer concentrations induced drastically different cellular events. A wide spectrum of cell attachment characteristics (from excellent cell attachment to the complete inability to adhere) were obtained by varying the monomer concentration from 20 m to 50,×,10,3M. In particular the 20,×,10,3M PPy thin films demonstrated superior induction of MSC osteogenicity, which was comparable to standard TCP dishes, unlike PPy films of similar thickness prepared by chemical polymerization without surfactant. Adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells on tissue culture plates (TCP) coated with polypyrrole thin films made by admicellar polymerization. [source]

    Mesenchymal stem cells: Immunobiology and therapeutic potential in kidney disease (Review Article)

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    SUMMARY: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are non-haematopoietic cells that are prevalent in the adult bone marrow but can also be isolated from a variety of other postnatal tissues. MSC are non-immunogenic and are immunosuppressive, with the ability to inhibit maturation of dendritic cells and suppress the function of naïve and memory T cells, B cells and NK cells. In addition to their immunomodulatory properties, MSC are capable of differentiating into various tissues of mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal origin and migrating to sites of tissue injury and inflammation to participate in tissue repair. A number of studies in animal models of cardiac injury, stroke and ischaemic renal injury have demonstrated the clinical potential of MSC in tissue regeneration and repair. MSC are currently being evaluated in various preclinical and clinical studies in humans and offer significant potential as a novel cellular therapy for tissue regeneration and immunological conditions. The present review focuses on the unique immunomodulatory and regenerative properties of MSC and their potential role in the treatment of kidney disease. [source]

    Stem cells in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering

    MV Risbud
    Abstract Authors ,, Risbud MV, Shapiro IM Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been identified in a variety of adult tissues as a population of pluripotential self-renewing cells. Based on their adherence and colony forming properties, a small number of MSC can be isolated from most mesenchymal tissues as well as bone marrow. In the presence of one or more growth factors, these cells commit to lineages that lead to the formation of bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon and adipose tissue; recent studies indicate that stem cells for cementum, dentine and the periodontal ligament also exist. All of these cells can be expanded in vitro, and, embedded in a scaffold, inserted into defects to promote healing and tissue replacement. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanism directing lineage specification and morphogenesis is providing a rational approach for the regeneration of craniofacial tissues and oral structures. [source]