Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by MSA

  • msa patient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Volatile organic compounds: a potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonistic action of Fusarium oxysporum strain MSA 35

    Daniela Minerdi
    Summary Fusarium oxysporum MSA 35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is an antagonistic Fusarium that lives in association with a consortium of bacteria belonging to the genera Serratia, Achromobacter, Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas in an Italian soil suppressive to Fusarium wilt. Typing experiments and virulence tests provided evidence that the F. oxysporum isolate when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms identical to those caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Here, we demonstrate that small volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the WT strain negatively influence the mycelial growth of different formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Furthermore, these VOCs repress gene expression of two putative virulence genes in F. oxysporum lactucae strain Fuslat10, a fungus against which the WT strain MSA 35 has antagonistic activity. The VOC profile of the WT and CU fungus shows different compositions. Sesquiterpenes, mainly caryophyllene, were present in the headspace only of WT MSA 35. No sesquiterpenes were found in the volatiles of ectosymbiotic Serratia sp. strain DM1 and Achromobacter sp. strain MM1. Bacterial volatiles had no effects on the growth of the different ff. spp. of F. oxysporum examined. Hyphae grown with VOC from WT F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae strain MSA 35 were hydrophobic whereas those grown without VOCs were not, suggesting a correlation between the presence of volatiles in the atmosphere and the phenotype of the mycelium. This is the first report of VOC production by antagonistic F. oxysporum MSA 35 and their effects on pathogenic F. oxysporum. The results obtained in this work led us to propose a new potential direct long-distance mechanism for antagonism by F. oxysporum MSA 35 mediated by VOCs. Antagonism could be the consequence of both reduction of pathogen mycelial growth and inhibition of pathogen virulence gene expression. [source]

    Assessment of dementia in patients with multiple system atrophy

    M. Kitayama
    Background and purpose:, We investigated dementia in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) in order to characterize the prevalence and nature of impairments in these patients. Methods:, Fifty-eight MSA patients were recruited in our institution between April 1996 and December 2006 and investigated. Results:, Of 58 patients, 10 were diagnosed with dementia. There were no significant differences in age at onset, gender, duration of disease, or severity of cerebellar dysfunction between patients with and without dementia. The early and delayed heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios obtained with 123I-metaidobenylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy were significantly decreased in patients with dementia compared with those without dementia. Of the 10 patients with dementia, three were found to have cognitive decline that preceded onset of motor symptoms. White matter lesions were evident in these patients, whilst frontal atrophy was prominent in patients whose cognitive decline was preceded by onset of motor symptoms. Conclusions:, Dementia in patients with MSA may be more common than previously thought, furthermore, we speculate that clinical features of dementia in these patients might be heterogeneous. [source]

    Progression of dysautonomia in multiple system atrophy: a prospective study of self-perceived impairment

    M. Köllensperger
    To assess severity and progression of self-perceived dysautonomia and their impact on health-related quality of life (Hr-QoL) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), twenty-seven patients were recruited by the European MSA Study Group (EMSA-SG). At baseline, all patients completed the Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) and the 36 item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and they were assessed using the 3-point global disease severity scale (SS-3) and the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS). After 6 months follow-up, the self completed COMPASS Change Scale (CCS), the SF-36, SS-3, and UMSARS were obtained. MSA patients showed marked self-perceived dysautonomia at baseline visit and pronounced worsening of dysautonomia severity on the CCS at follow-up. Severity and progression of dysautonomia did not correlate with age, disease duration, motor impairment and overall disease severity at baseline. There were no significant differences between genders and motor subtypes. Baseline COMPASS scores were, however, inversely correlated with SF-36 scores. Progression of self-perceived dysautonomia did not correlate with global disease progression. Hr-QoL scores were stable during follow-up. This is the first study to investigate self-perceived dysautonomia severity in MSA and its evolution over time. Our data suggest that dysautonomia should be recognized as a key target for therapeutic intervention in MSA. [source]

    The symptomatic treatment of multiple system atrophy

    C. Colosimo
    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease of undetermined aetiology that occurs sporadically and manifests itself as a combination of parkinsonian, autonomic, cerebellar and pyramidal signs. Despite the lack of any effective therapy to reverse this condition, some of the symptoms may be, at least temporarily, improved with adequate symptomatic therapies. Medical treatment is largely aimed at mitigating the parkinsonian and autonomic features. The therapeutic results of levodopa therapy in cases of MSA are difficult to interpret because of their variability. Nevertheless, the statement that patients with MSA are non or poorly levodopa-responsive is misleading. Clinical and pathologically proven series document about 40,60% levodopa efficacy in patients with MSA presenting with predominant parkinsonian features. Unfortunately, other antiparkinsonian compounds (dopamine agonists, amantadine) are not more effective than levodopa. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) can be suspected from the patient's history and subsequently documented in the clinic by measuring lying and standing blood pressure. The diagnosis ideally should be confirmed in the laboratory with additional tests to determine the cause and evaluate the functional deficit, so as to aid treatment. A variety of pharmacological agents with different mechanisms of action have been used in MSA to reduce OH when this is symptomatic. OH can also be alleviated by avoiding aggravating factors, such as the effects of food, micturition, exposure to a warm environment and physiological diurnal changes and by using other non-pharmacological strategies. The treatment of the very common genito-urinary symptoms (incontinence, retention, impotence) should also be considered in order to improve the quality of life of these patients. [source]

    A reconstruction of Quaternary pluvial environments and human occupations using stratigraphy and geochronology of fossil-spring tufas, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    Jennifer R. Smith
    We carried out a geologic survey and a preliminary archaeological survey of four fossil-spring tufa localities in Kharga Oasis, Egypt, to constrain the timing of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, and to document prehistoric occupation contemporaneous with times of increased rainfall. Uranium-series dating of the tufas confirms that at least five episodes of tufa deposition are represented in Kharga, although not every event is represented at each locality. Across the region studied, tufas were most frequently deposited as part of a fluvial barrage system, characterized by terraced, vegetated pools impounded by arcuate tufa dams and separated by small waterfalls. Available water resources during pluvial phases would have included not only spring-fed streams but also small freshwater lakes. While Earlier Stone Age (ESA) and Middle Stone Age (MSA) lithic artifacts may be found either as surficial lags on tufas, or, less commonly, encased within tufas, Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic artifacts are generally found in or on silts within surface deflation depressions in the tufas, principally at Wadi Midauwara. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Change in the Concentration of Employment in Computer Services: Spatial Estimation at the U.S. Metro County Level

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2007
    ABSTRACT This article models the concentration of computer services activity across the U.S. with factors that incorporate spatial relationships. Specifically, we enhance the standard home-area study with an analysis that allows conditions in neighboring counties to affect the concentration of employment in the home county. We use county-level data for metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1997. To measure change in employment concentration, we use the change in location quotients for SIC 737, which captures employment concentration changes caused by both the number of firms and the scale of their activity relative to the national average. After controlling for local demand for computer services, our results support the importance of the presence of a qualified labor supply, interindustry linkages, proximity to a major airport, and spatial processes in explaining changes in computer services employment concentration, finding little support for the influence of cost factors. Our enhanced model reveals interjurisdictional relationships among these metro counties that could not be captured with standard estimates by state, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or county. Using counties within MSAs, therefore, provides more general results than case studies but still allows measurement of local interactions. [source]

    Methylseleninic acid enhances the effect of etoposide to inhibit prostate cancer growth in vivo

    Oscar Gonzalez-Moreno
    Abstract New therapeutic agents are needed for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PrCa). We have investigated the effect of methylseleninic acid (MSA) on tumor stage-specific prostate cells derived from the C3 (1)/Tag model for PrCa: Pr111, a slow-growing and nontumorigenic cell line isolated from a prostate intraepithelial neoplasia lesion; Pr14, a tumorigenic line derived from a primary tumor; and Pr14C1, a sub-clone of Pr14 explanted from a lung metastasis. We demonstrate that MSA strongly inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in C3 (1)/Tag tumor cells, in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 and AKT was also found in tumor cells, but not in Pr111. Microarray analysis using affymetrix showed that the number of genes with an altered expression in tumor cells is significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in nontumoral cells. Pathways analyses revealed a decrease in the expression of genes involved in metabolism (Fabp5, Cyba), signal transduction (ERK, AKT), angiogenesis (neuropilin-1, Flt-4) and transcription (cAMP response element-binding protein) in tumor cells. The expression of neuropilin-1, a protein involved in VEGF signaling and tumor angiogenesis, was 97-fold repressed in Pr14 cells treated with MSA. Combination treatments using low doses of etoposide or taxotere (docetaxel), plus low doses of MSA revealed a strong enhancement of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in tumor cells. Our in vivo studies using Pr14 cells xenografted into nude mice demonstrated that MSA significantly enhances the chemotherapeutical effect of etoposide, resulting in 78.3% tumor growth inhibition. These results suggest that MSA could be used against PrCa to enhance the effect of etoposide. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A High-Yield, Liquid-Phase Approach for the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Methanol using SO3 as the Oxidant

    Sudip Mukhopadhyay
    Abstract A direct approach for producing methanol from methane in a three-step, liquid phase process is reported. In the first step, methane is reacted with SO3 to form methanesulfonic acid (MSA) at 75,°C using a free-radical initiator and MSA as the solvent. Urea-H2O2 in combination with RhCl3 is found to be the most effective initiator (57% conversion of SO3; 7.2% conversion of CH4). MSA is then oxidized by SO3 at 160,°C in a second step to produce a mixture containing methyl bisulfate and some methyl methanesulfonate (87% conversion of MSA). In the third step, the mixture of methyl bisulfate and methyl methanesulfonate is hydrolyzed in the presence of an organic solvent, to produce an organic phase containing methanol and an aqueous phase containing sulfuric acid and some MSA (63% conversion of methyl bisulfate; 72% conversion of methyl methanesulfonate). Overall, 58% of the MSA (of which 23% is derived from methane) is converted to methanol. [source]

    Dermal sheet preparations in the evaluation of dermal innervation in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Peter Novak
    Background:, Evaluation of dermal nerve fibers in conventional vertical sections is difficult because of the small number of fibers available for examination. In this study, we evaluated dermal sheet mounts for fibers in which the majority of fibers can be visualized. Methods:, We compared the dermal small fiber density in six Parkinson's disease (PD) and six multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients using dermal sheet preparations (DSP). DSP are based on epidermal-dermal separations and immunostaining of the entire dermis by the nerve growth factor receptor p75 antibody that stains both autonomic and sensory fibers. Results:, The small fiber density was reduced in PD compared with MSA (p < 0.0001), suggesting the presence of small fiber neuropathy in PD. Conclusions:, DSP offer a unique method of evaluation of dermal nerve fibers. This method can be used to evaluate small nerve fibers in many neurological disorders such as MSA and PD. [source]

    Immunohistochemical Expression of Cutaneous Leiomyosarcoma

    P. Bhattacharjee
    Immunohistochemistry plays a vital role in distinguishing cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLMS) from other spindle cell neoplasms. Recently, several new immunohistochemical markers of smooth muscle differentiation (calponin, h-caldesmon) have shown greater utility in the diagnosis of CLMS. We compared the expression of various traditional and novel immunohistochemical markers in CLMS. Thirteen cases of CLMS were immunostained with a panel of antibodies (SMA, MSA, desmin, vimentin, S100, cytokeratin, NSE, HMB-45, CD117, procollagen, h-caldesmon and calponin. Immunostaining was graded from 0 to 4+ based on the percentage of positive staining. All 13 cases of CLMS showed positive staining with SMA, MSA and h-caldesmon. 12 cases showed positive staining with desmin, calponin, vimentin and NSE. 8 cases showed positive staining with CD117 and procollagen. 4 and 3 cases showed focal positive staining for S100 and cytokeratin. All cases were HMB-45 negative. All 13 cases exhibited greater than 50% staining with SMA and MSA. 11 cases were strongly positive (>50%) for calponin and h-caldesmon, while only 8 cases were strongly positive for desmin. Our study finds no significant difference between traditional and novel smooth muscle immunostains. We conclude that a panel of immunohistochemical stains should be employed to differentiate CLMS from other spindle cell neoplasms. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2006
    ABSTRACT A four-compartment thin agar layer (4-TAL) system was developed to improve operation efficiency and recover injured foodborne pathogens simultaneously. The system consisted of a layer of nonselective agar overlaid on four different selective agars (xylose lysine desoxycholate [XLD], cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin [CIN], modified Oxford medium [MOX] and MacConkey sorbitol agar [MSA]) housed in a four-compartment petri dish. We applied this system to simultaneously recover heat-injured (55C, 10 min) Escherichia coli O157:H7 (MSA), Listeria monocytogenes (MOX), Salmonella Typhimurium (XLD) and Yersinia enterocolitica (CIN) from ground beef and pasteurized milk. No significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between the single recovery unit (nonselective agar overlaid on one selective agar in a standard petri dish) and the 4-TAL for detecting four heat-injured pathogens in tested samples. Both TAL methods showed greater recovery of four heat-injured pathogens than the pathogen-specific selective media (P < 0.05). The 4-TAL system appears to be efficient for recovery and detection of injured pathogens in food in terms of operation, material and labor costs, and space of incubation. [source]

    Phosphopeptide fragmentation and analysis by mass spectrometry

    Paul J. Boersema
    Abstract Reversible phosphorylation is a key event in many biological processes and is therefore a much studied phenomenon. The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of phosphorylation is challenged by the substoichiometric levels of phosphorylation and the lability of the phosphate group in collision-induced dissociation (CID). Here, we review the fragmentation behaviour of phosphorylated peptides in MS and discuss several MS approaches that have been developed to improve and facilitate the analysis of phosphorylated peptides. CID of phosphopeptides typically results in spectra dominated by a neutral loss of the phosphate group. Several proposed mechanisms for this neutral loss and several factors affecting the extent at which this occurs are discussed. Approaches are described to interpret such neutral loss-dominated spectra to identify the phosphopeptide and localize the phosphorylation site. Methods using additional activation, such as MS3 and multistage activation (MSA), have been designed to generate more sequence-informative fragments from the ion produced by the neutral loss. The characteristics and benefits of these methods are reviewed together with approaches using phosphopeptide derivatization or specific MS scan modes. Additionally, electron-driven dissociation methods by electron capture dissociation (ECD) or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and their application in phosphopeptide analysis are evaluated. Finally, these techniques are put into perspective for their use in large-scale phosphoproteomics studies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Isofurans, but not F2 -isoprostanes, are increased in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease and with dementia with Lewy body disease

    Joshua P. Fessel
    Abstract F2 -isoprostanes (F2 -IsoPs) are well-established sensitive and specific markers of oxidative stress in vivo. Isofurans (IsoFs) are also products of lipid peroxidation, but in contrast to F2 -IsoPs, their formation is favored when oxygen tension is increased in vitro or in vivo. Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) may not only lead to oxidative damage to brain tissue but also potentially result in increased intracellular oxygen tension, thereby influencing relative concentrations of F2 -IsoPs and IsoFs. In this study, we attempted to compare the levels of F2 -IsoPs and IsoFs esterified in phospholipids in the substantia nigra (SN) from patients with PD to those of age-matched controls as well as patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results demonstrated that IsoFs but not F2 -IsoPs in the SN of patients with PD and DLB were significantly higher than those of controls. Levels of IsoFs and F2 -IsoPs in the SN of patients with MSA and AD were indistinguishable from those of age-matched controls. This preferential increase in IsoFs in the SN of patients with PD or DLB not only indicates a unique mode of oxidant injury in these two diseases but also suggests different underlying mechanisms of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD and DLB from those of MSA. [source]

    The solubility of ,-synuclein in multiple system atrophy differs from that of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease

    Bruce C. V. Campbell
    Intracellular inclusions containing ,-synuclein (,SN) are pathognomonic features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Inclusions occur in oligodendrocytes in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and in neurons in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to identify disease-associated changes of ,SN, this study compared the levels, solubility and molecular weight species of ,SN in brain homogenates from MSA, DLB, PD and normal aged controls. In DLB and PD, substantial amounts of detergent-soluble and detergent-insoluble ,SN were detected compared with controls in grey matter homogenate. Compared with controls, MSA cases had significantly higher levels of ,SN in the detergent-soluble fraction of brain samples from pons and white matter but detergent-insoluble ,SN was not detected. There was an inverse correlation between buffered saline-soluble and detergent-soluble levels of ,SN in individual MSA cases suggesting a transition towards insolubility in disease. The differences in solubility of ,SN between grey and white matter in disease may result from different processing of ,SN in neurons compared with oligodendrocytes. Highly insoluble ,SN is not involved in the pathogenesis of MSA. It is therefore possible that buffered saline-soluble or detergent-soluble forms of ,SN are involved in the pathogenesis of other ,SN-related diseases. [source]

    Voxel-Based Morphometry and Voxel-Based Relaxometry in Parkinsonian Variant of Multiple System Atrophy

    Loukia C. Tzarouchi MD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder divided into a parkinsonian (MSA-P) and a cerebellar variant. The purpose of this study was to assess regional brain atrophy and iron content using Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) respectively, in MSA-P. METHODS Using biological parametric mapping the effect of brain atrophy was evaluated in T2 relaxation time (T2) measurements by applying analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and correlation analysis to the VBM and VBR data. Eleven patients with MSA-P (aged 61.9 ± 11.7 years, disease duration 5.42 ± 2.5 years) and 11 controls were studied. RESULTS In comparison to the controls the patients showed decreased gray matter in the putamen, the caudate nuclei, the thalami, the anterior cerebellar lobes, and the cerebral cortex, and white matter atrophy in the pons, midbrain, and peduncles. VBR analysis showed prolonged T2 in various cortical regions. On ANCOVA, when controlling for gray and white matter volume, these regions of prolonged T2 were shrunk. Negative correlation was demonstrated between T2 and gray and white matter volume. CONCLUSIONS Diffuse brain atrophy, mainly in the motor circuitry is observed in MSA-P. Normalization for atrophy should always be performed in T2 measurements. [source]

    The "Cross" Signs in Patients With Multiple System Atrophy: A Quantitative Study

    Kazuo Abe MD
    ABSTRACT Patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) may show the "cross" sign in the pontine base that has been considered as an expression of the degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse pontocerebellar fibers. However, correlations between pontine base atrophy and existence of "cross" sign have not been fully investigated. The authors studied 68 patients with MSA (47 MSA-C [predominantly cerebellar ataxia], 21 MSA-P [predominantly parkinsonism], mean [±SD ] 58.7 ± 10.9 years). T1-weighted (T1W) sagittal and axial images and T2-weighted (T2W) axial images were obtained for all patients and controls. To measure the areas of pontine basis and cerebellar vermis, the authors used midsagittal T1W images and analyzed a bit map transformed on a computer. They classified atrophy in the pontine base into 3 grades. There is significant correlation between atrophies of pontine base and existence of the cross sign. All patients with a smaller area of pontine base 2 standard deviations below those of normal controls had the cross sign. This supports that existence of the cross sign depends only on the extent of pontine base atrophies. [source]


    Alex Anas
    ABSTRACT RELU is a dynamic general equilibrium model of a metropolitan economy and its land use, derived by unifying in a theoretically valid way, models developed by one of the authors [Anas (1982), Anas,Arnott (1991, 1997), Anas,Kim (1996), Anas,Xu (1999)]. RELU equilibrates floor space, land and labor markets, and the market for the products of industries, treating development (construction and demolition), spatial interindustry linkages, commuting, and discretionary travel. Mode choices and equilibrium congestion on the highway network are treated by unifying RELU with the TRAN algorithm of stochastic user equilibrium [Anas,Kim (1990)]. The RELU-TRAN algorithm's performance for a stationary state is demonstrated for a prototype consisting of 4-building, 4-industry, 4-labor-type, 15-land-use-zone, 68-link-highway-network version of the Chicago MSA. The algorithm solves 656 equations in a special block-recursive convergent procedure by iterations nested within loops and loops within cycles. Runs show excellent and smooth convergence from different starting points, so that the number of loops within successive cycles continually decreases. The tests also imply a numerically ascertained unique stationary equilibrium solution of the unified model for the calibrated parameters. [source]

    Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography retention coefficients for predicting peptide elution with TFA and methanesulfonic acid ion-pairing reagents

    Chad E. Wujcik
    Abstract Hydrophilic retention coefficients for 17 peptides were calculated based on retention coefficients previously published for TSKgel silica-60 and were compared with the experimental elution profile on a Waters Atlantis HILIC silica column using TFA and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as ion-pairing reagents. Relative peptide retention could be accurately determined with both counter-ions. Peptide retention and chromatographic behavior were influenced by the percent acid modifier used with increases in both retention and peak symmetry observed at increasing modifier concentrations. The enhancement of net peptide polarity through MSA pairing shifted retention out by nearly five-fold for the earliest eluting peptide, compared with TFA. Despite improvements in retention and efficiency (Neff) for MSA over TFA, a consistent reduction in calculated selectivity (,) was observed. This result is believed to be attributed to the stronger polar contribution of MSA masking and diminishing the underlying influence of the amino acid residues of each associated peptide. Finally, post-column infusion of propionic acid and acetic acid was evaluated for their potential to recover signal intensity for TFA and MSA counter-ions for LC-ESI-MS applications. Acetic acid generally yielded more substantial signal improvements over propionic acid on the TFA system while minimal benefits and some further reductions were noted with MSA. [source]

    Quantitative X-Ray Spectrum Imaging of Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate PLZT Thin-Films

    Chad M. Parish
    The high permittivity of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3,PZT and PLZT, respectively,thin films and the flexibility of chemical solution deposition (CSD) make solution-derived P(L)ZT thin films extremely attractive for integrated capacitor applications. However, Pb-loss or cation segregation during processing results in degraded properties of the final film. Here, we have extended the use of multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum images (SIs) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to allow the two-dimensional (2D) quantitative analysis of cation segregation and depletion in P(L)ZT thin films. Quantified STEM-EDS SIs allow high-resolution (< ,10 nm) quantification of these cation distributions. Surface Pb depletion is found after crystallization and is replenished by a unique post-crystallization PbO overcoat+anneal processes. Zr/Ti and La segregation are found to develop in a decidedly nonplanar fashion during crystallization, especially in PLZT 12/70/30 material, highlighting the need for 2D analysis. Quantitative 2D chemical information is essential for improved processing of homogeneous P(L)ZT films with optimal electrical properties. [source]

    Abstracts of the 8th Meeting of the Italian Peripheral Nerve Study Group: 84

    V Donadio
    The aim of the study is to determine the site of autonomic lesion in a patient with Holmes-Adie Syndrome (HAS) who subsequently developed generalized anhydrosis. We describe a 38-year-old woman who from age 33 showed a right pupil larger than the left and from age 34 complained of focal and, a year later, generalized anhydrosis. Neurological examination showed absent tendon reflexes and right mydriatic pupil. Brain MRI, EEG, motor and sensory conduction studies were normal. Serologic screening for autoimmune disease was negative. To determine the site of the autonomic lesion the patient underwent the following investigations: pupillary tests with a diluted solution of pilocarpine (0.062%) and adrenaline (0.1%); cardiovascular reflexes; thermoregulatory sweat test (TST); circadian rhythm of body core temperature (CRT°); sympathetic skin response (SSR); microneurography recording of skin sympathetic activity (SSA) from median and peroneal nerves, and muscle sympathetic activity (MSA) from peroneal nerve; skin biopsy to evaluated the eccrine glands. Pupillary tests showed postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic denervation only of the right pupil. TST showed complete anhydrosis, SSR and SSA were absent and skin biopsy revealed normal morphology of the eccrine glands with hypotrophy of their structures. These results indicated a lesion of the postganglionic skin sympathetic fibers. Mechanisms for heat loss and conservation, cardiovascular reflexes and MSA were normal excluding a hypothalamic dysfunction or a more diffuse involvement of the autonomic nervous system. In conclusion, our patient showed a HAS associated with generalized anhydrosis and the autonomic investigations suggested underlying postganglionic parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic lesions. [source]


    M. Laurà
    A 75-year-old man with HCV hepatitis developed at the age of 70 presented with rest and action tremor localized at both hands and progressive cognitive impairment with memory loss. Four years later he begun to complain of progressive fatigue, occasional falls, numbness at the extremities and orthostatic hypotension. One month after admission, he rapidly worsened with inability to walk, mainly because of autonomic failure. Neurological examination revealed gait disturbances, including a wide base of support and short stride, slurred speech, reduction of upward gaze, rest and action tremor at both hands, intrinsic hand muscle and anterior tibialis muscle wasting and weakness on both sides, absent deep tendon reflexes, loss of vibration sense at lower limbs, and bilateral pes cavus. Routine laboratory studies, autoantibodies, thyroid function, neoplastic markers and immunoelectrophoresis were normal. Cryoglobulins were absent, whereas CSF protein content was increased (142 mg/dl). Autonomic nervous system investigation detected severe orthostatic hypotension. Nerve conduction studies showed absent sensory potentials and a marked reduction of compound motor action potential amplitudes and of motor conduction velocities. A sural nerve biopsy revealed remarkable onion bulb-like changes, endoneurial and perivascular infiltrations of inflammatory cells. Psychometric tests showed mild cognitive impairment. Brain MRI was consistent with normotensive hydrocephalus. The findings indicated the presence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, autonomic nervous system involvement and normal pressure hydrocephalus. A condition of multiple system atrophy (MSA) might be taken into account, even if somatic peripheral nerve involvement may rarely occur in MSA. Moreover the normal pressure hydrocephalus could be due to the high protein content in CSF (Fukatsu R et al., 1997). [source]

    Selective growth of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater using acriflavine-supplemented mannitol salt agar

    J.A. Davis
    Abstract Aims:, To investigate the use of mannitol salt agar (MSA) supplemented with acriflavine for selective growth and quantification of Staphylococcus aureus from flushed dairy manure wastewater (FDMW). Methods and Results:, Minimal inhibitory concentrations of acriflavine in MSA were determined by comparing the growth of S. aureus subsp. aureus (ATCC 33591) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 155) in pure culture. Acriflavine concentrations of 1·3, 1·4 and 1·5 mg l,1 reduced CFU of S. epidermidis by 43%, 55% and 87%, respectively, while CFU of S. aureus subsp. aureus were only reduced by 15%, 20% and 26% at the respective concentrations of acriflavine. MSA supplemented with 1·5 mg l,1 acriflavine was tested for selective growth of indigenous S. aureus from three grab samples of FDMW. Acriflavine concentrations of 1·5 mg l,1 reduced background flora without significantly reducing (P < 0·05) indigenous S. aureus counts. Conclusions:, Acriflavine-supplemented MSA provides an effective media for selective growth and quantification of indigenous S. aureus from FDMW in the presence of high levels of background microflora. Significance and Impact of the Study:,S. aureus is implicated for mastitis infections in dairy cows. Therefore, a reliable means for monitoring and detecting the organism in FDMW provides a tool for measuring the effectiveness of treatment for reducing S. aureus levels and implementing flushwater recycling without affecting herd health. [source]

    New low profile cavity-backed Hilbert slot antenna

    Guido Biffi Gentili
    Abstract In this paper, the use of a cavity-backed Hilbert surface as an efficient slot-like narrowband radiating aperture is suggested, to exploit its own unique electromagnetic characteristics in the context of radio frequency identification (RFID) applications. The proposed meta-slot antenna (MSA) consists of a Hilbert surface window (HSW) made of a cascade of space-filling slot inclusions of order three and backed by a very shallow cavity that contributes to its surface impedance and radiation characteristics. A straight longitudinal microstrip line printed on a thin, low permittivity substrate, whose ground plane includes the HSW, feeds the aperture through distributed electromagnetic coupling. As illustrated by simulation results and measurements, the antenna behaves as a magnetic current sheet over a ground plane, with a highly frequency-selective impedance response and unidirectional radiation pattern. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 48: 2577,2581, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.21995 [source]

    microsatellite analyser (MSA): a platform independent analysis tool for large microsatellite data sets

    Daniel Dieringer
    Abstract In molecular ecology the analysis of large microsatellite data sets is becoming increasingly popular. Here we introduce a new software tool, which is specifically designed to facilitate the analysis of large microsatellite data sets. All common microsatellite summary statistics and distances can be calculated. Furthermore, the microsatellite analyser (msa) software offers an improved method to deal with inbred samples (such as Drosophila isofemale lines). Executables are available for Windows and Macintosh computers. [source]

    Estimation of Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rate Constants of Hydroxyl Radical with Phenols, Alkanes and Alcohols

    MOLECULAR INFORMATICS, Issue 11-12 2009
    Ya-nan Wang
    Abstract A quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed for the aqueous-phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants (kOH) employing quantum chemical descriptors and multiple linear regressions (MLR). The QSAR development followed the OECD guidelines, with special attention to validation, applicability domain (AD) and mechanistic interpretation. The established model yielded satisfactory performance: the correlation coefficient square (R2) was 0.905, the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 0.139, the leave-many-out cross-validated QLMO2 was 0.806, and the external validated QEXT2 was 0.922 log units. The AD of the model covering compounds of phenols, alkanes and alcohols, was analyzed by Williams plot. The main molecular structural factors governing kOH are the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), average net atomic charges on hydrogen atoms (), molecular surface area (MSA) and dipole moment (,). It was concluded that kOH increased with increasing EHOMO and MSA, while decreased with increasing and ,. [source]

    Putaminal magnetic resonance imaging features at various magnetic field strengths in multiple system atrophy,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2010
    Hirohisa Watanabe MD
    Abstract We delineated the effects of magnetic field strength on signal intensities to facilitate the specific findings of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Fifteen patients with probable MSA were imaged by 0.35T fast spin-echo (FSE), 1.5T FSE, and 3.0T FSE using a consistent protocol, testing all field strengths on the same day. Sixty patients with probable Parkinson's disease (PD) also underwent imaging. Moderate or marked hyperintensity at the dorsolateral outer putaminal margin, hyperintensity of the putaminal body, hypointensity relative to the globus pallidus at the dorsolateral putaminal margin, and infratentorial signal changes were evaluated as specific findings for MSA. As the field strength increased, the occurrence of hyperintensity both at the dorsolateral outer putaminal margin and of the putaminal body decreased, while the occurrence of hypointensity at the dorsolateral putaminal margin increased in MSA. The occurrence of uniform mild hyperintensity of the outer putaminal margin was evident in 7% at 0.35T, 40% at 1.5T, and 47% at 3.0T in MSA and in 5% at 0.35T, 60% at 1.5T, and 75% at 3.0T in PD. However, no PD patients showed hyperintensity at the dorsolateral outer putaminal margin and that of the putaminal body. Putaminal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in MSA were altered considerably by magnetic field strength. The severity and distribution of signal changes are important for assessing putaminal MRI findings in MSA. © 2010 Movement Disorders Society [source]

    Tremulous arytenoid movements predict severity of glottic stenosis in multiple system atrophy,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 10 2010
    Tetsutaro Ozawa MD
    Abstract To determine whether tremulous arytenoid movements predict the severity of glottic stenosis in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), 28 MSA patients and 14 age-matched controls underwent fiberoptic laryngoscopy with video monitoring during wakefulness and under anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol. Presence or absence of tremulous arytenoid movements was recorded during wakefulness. The ratio of glottic stenosis (%), which represents the extent of airway narrowing under anesthesia, was obtained by measuring the inspiratory glottic angle during wakefulness and under anesthesia. The median ratio of glottic stenosis was significantly higher in patients with MSA (57.5%) than in control subjects (0.5%). Tremulous arytenoid movements were characterized by shaking movements of the arytenoid region including the vocal folds, which are most apparent in the arytenoid cartilage. In this study, tremulous arytenoid movements were observed in 18 (64.2%) of 28 patients with MSA, who displayed a significantly higher median ratio of glottic stenosis (71.2%) than other patients (34.9%). None of the control subjects exhibited tremulous arytenoid movements. A clear correlation existed between the ratio of glottic stenosis and disease duration. Our observations indicate that tremulous arytenoid movements are a marker of the severity of glottic stenosis, which confers an increased risk of upper airway obstruction in patients with MSA. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Proposed neuroimaging criteria for the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy,,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 7 2009
    David J. Brooks MD, FRCP
    Abstract In this article, we review the state of the art knowledge concerning structural and functional imaging in multiple system atrophy (MSA). The relative value of imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis of MSA from other parkinsonian syndromes is debated. It is concluded that, although neuroimaging biomarkers provide valuable supportive data alongside clinical assessments, it is not possible to use them as surrogate markers. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    The clinical spectrum of freezing of gait in atypical parkinsonism,

    Stewart A. Factor DO
    Abstract Freezing of gait (FOG), commonly seen in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), has been classified as its fifth cardinal feature. However, its presence frequently leads to a misdiagnosis of PD. FOG is actually more common in atypical parkinsonism (AP): including vascular Parkinsonism (VP), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and higher level gait disorders (HLGDs). VP is the result of multiple small vessel infarcts (lacunar state or Binswanger's disease), particularly involving the frontal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. Approximately 50% have FOG (often referred to as lower body parkinsonism). FOG is also common in neurodegenerative forms of AP, present in 45,57%. Of these, FOG is present in 53% of PSP, 54% MSA, 54% DLB, 25% CBD, and 40% HLGD. It is generally seen in the late stages. There are two syndromes closely associated with AP that are dominated by FOG; pure akinesia (PA) and primary progressive freezing gait (PPFG). PA is characterized by akinesia of gait (including FOG), writing, and speech. Tremor, rigidity, dementia, and response to levodopa are notably absent. PPFG is defined by early FOG (often the initial feature) that progresses to include postural instability. It is accompanied by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural tremor, dementia, and levodopa unresponsiveness. Both syndromes are heterogeneous but PSP seems to be the most common cause. CBD and DLB can also present as PPFG. FOG is a common feature of AP and although typically occurring late in disease may also be an early symptom. © 2008 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Potential outcome measures and trial design issues for multiple system atrophy,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 16 2007
    Susanne May PhD
    Abstract Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting a combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, and autonomic failure. A disease-specific scale, the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS), has been developed and validated to measure progression of MSA, but its use as an outcome measure for therapeutic trials has not been evaluated. On the basis of twelve months of follow-up from an observational study of 67 patients with probable MSA, we evaluated three disease-specific scores: Activities of Daily Living, Motor Examination, and a combined score from the UMSARS and two general health scores, the Physical Health and Mental Health scores of the SF-36 health survey, for their use as outcome measures in a therapeutic trial. We discuss related design issues and provide sample size estimates. Scores based on the disease-specific UMSARS seemed to be equal or superior to scores based on the SF-36 health survey. They appeared to capture disease progression, were well correlated and required the smallest sample size. The UMSARS Motor Examination score exhibited the most favorable characteristics as an outcome measure for a therapeutic trial in MSA with 1 year of follow-up. © 2007 Movement Disorder Society [source]