MS. In Addition (ms + in_addition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

EFNS guidelines on the use of neuroimaging in the management of multiple sclerosis

M. Filippi
Magnetic resonance (MR)-based techniques are widely used for the assessment of patients with suspected and definite multiple sclerosis (MS). However, despite the publication of several position papers, which attempted to define the utility of MR techniques in the management of MS, their application in everyday clinical practice is still suboptimal. This is probably related, not only, to the fact that the majority of published guidelines focused on the optimization of MR technology in clinical trials, but also to the continuing development of modern, quantitative MR-based techniques, that have not as yet entered the clinical arena. The present report summarizes the conclusions of the ,EFNS Expert Panel of Neuroimaging of MS' on the application of conventional and non-conventional MR techniques to the clinical management of patients with MS. These guidelines are intended to assist in the use of conventional MRI for the diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of patients with MS. In addition, they should provide a foundation for the development of more widespread but rational clinical applications of non-conventional MR-based techniques in studies of MS patients. [source]

Novel polysialogangliosides of skate brain

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 16 2000
Structural determination of tetra, hexasialogangliosides with a NeuAc-GalNAc linkage, penta
The gangliosides in the brain of a cartilaginous fish, skate (Bathyraja smirnovi), have been isolated and characterized by means of methylation analysis, antibody binding, enzymatic hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF MS. In addition to gangliosides with known structures (GM2, fucosyl-GM1, GD3, GD2, GT3 and GT2), five polysialogangliosides were isolated and characterized as having the following structures. (1) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer; (2) IV3NeuAc2, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc-Gg4Cer; (3) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc2 -Gg4Cer; (4) IV3NeuAc, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc3 -Gg4Cer; and (5) IV3NeuAc2, III6NeuAc, II3NeuAc3 -Gg4Cer. These structures are ,hybrid-type' which comprise combinations of ,-series and either a, b or c-series structures. Three gangliosides (2), (4) and (5), were novel. The main features of the ganglioside composition of skate brain were an abundance of gangliotriaosyl species, a lack of gangliotetraosyl species (except fucosyl-GM1), and an abundance of hybrid-types. These characteristics closely resemble those in shark brain which we reported previously [Nakamura, K., Tamai, Y. & Kasama, T. (1997) Neurochem. Int.30, 593,604]. Two of the hybrid-type gangliosides (1) and (4), were examined for their neuritogenic activity toward cultured neuronal cells (Neuro-2A), and were found to have more potent activity than nonhybrid-type gangliosides such as GM1. [source]

De novo sequencing of peptides by MS/MS

Joerg Seidler
Abstract The current status of de novo sequencing of peptides by MS/MS is reviewed with focus on collision cell MS/MS spectra. The relation between peptide structure and observed fragment ion series is discussed and the exhaustive extraction of sequence information from CID spectra of protonated peptide ions is described. The partial redundancy of the extracted sequence information and a high mass accuracy are recognized as key parameters for dependable de novo sequencing by MS. In addition, the benefits of special techniques enhancing the generation of long uninterrupted fragment ion series for de novo peptide sequencing are highlighted. Among these are terminal 18O labeling, MSn of sodiated peptide ions, N-terminal derivatization, the use of special proteases, and time-delayed fragmentation. The emerging electron transfer dissociation technique and the recent progress of MALDI techniques for intact protein sequencing are covered. Finally, the integration of bioinformatic tools into peptide de novo sequencing is demonstrated. [source]

Mortality salience effects on modesty and relative self-effacement

Ryutaro Wakimoto
Terror management theory argues that mortality salience (MS) enhances adherence to cultural norms. Recent cross-cultural research has suggested that Japanese culture emphasizes modesty and the enhancement of important others compared to the self. Thus, it was predicted that Japanese would show increased modesty and relative self-effacement in response to MS. In addition, the moderating effects of degree of enculturation were examined in two studies investigating Japanese undergraduates. Those strongly enculturated to the Japanese worldview showed a tendency to evaluate success more negatively (Study 1) and self-efface more relative to their close friends (Study 2). A view which regards both Easterners' self-effacement and Westerners' self-enhancement after MS to be a reflection of efforts to fit into cultural norm is presented. [source]

CLINICAL STUDY: Attentional bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the role of chronicity and executive functioning

Sabine Loeber
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that the attention towards alcohol-related stimuli increases with the duration of drinking and alcohol dependence. The present study aimed to assess whether an attentional bias was present in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, and if the magnitude of the attentional bias depended on the subject's drinking history and variables of executive functioning. Attentional bias was assessed in 30 alcohol-dependent patients using a visual dot-probe task with a picture presentation time of 50 ms. In addition, patients completed a variety of different cognitive tasks such as attention, continuous performance, working memory, set shifting and inhibitory control tests. Based on correlation analysis we split the patient sample on the median with regard to the duration of alcohol dependence and our results indicated a significant attentional bias towards alcohol-associated pictures in patients dependent for less than 9 years, but not in patients with a longer duration of dependence. The two patient samples differed significantly with regard to attention and working memory functioning with patients who were dependent for more than 9 years showing a greater impairment. When impairment of attention and working memory were controlled for, the group differences in attentional bias were no longer significant. Our results indicate that differences with regard to drinking-related variables as well as cognitive functioning seem to modulate attentional bias and need to be taken into account in models of drinking maintenance. [source]