MS. However (ms + however)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The metabolic syndrome in overweight epileptic patients treated with valproic acid

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2010
Alberto Verrotti
Summary Purpose:, To evaluate the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents treated with valproate (VPA). Methods:, One hundred fourteen patients (54 male and 60 female) were studied. These patients were followed from the beginning of therapy for at least 24 months; at the end of follow-up, 46 patients (40.4%) had a considerable increase in body weight, whereas the other patients (59.6%) remained with the same weight. The MS was defined as having at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and hypertension. Results:, Forty-six patients developed obesity; 20 (43.5%) of 46 patients developed MS. Abnormal glucose homeostasis was identified in 45% of patients. High total serum cholesterol concentrations were noted in 10 (50%), high serum triglyceride concentrations in 7 (35%), and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 15 (75%) of the 20 subjects with MS. However, there were no significant differences in the features of MS between boys and girls with MS. Conclusions:, Patients who gain weight during VPA therapy can develop MS with a possible risk of cardiovascular disease. [source]

The impact of HLA-A and -DRB1 on age at onset, disease course and severity in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients

C. Smestad
The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotype DRB1*15,DQB1*06 (DR15,DQ6) is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), and HLA class I associations in MS have also been reported. However, the influence of HLA class I and II alleles on clinical phenotypes in MS has not yet been completely studied. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of HLA-A and -DRB1 alleles on clinical variables in Scandinavian MS patients. The correlation between HLA-A or -DRB1 alleles and age at onset, disease course and Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) were studied in 1457 Norwegian and Swedish MS patients by regression analyses and Kruskal,Wallis rank sum test. Presence of HLA-DRB1*15 was correlated with younger age at onset of disease (corrected P = 0.009). No correlation was found between HLA-A and the variables studied. This study analysed the effect of HLA-A on clinical variables in a large Scandinavian sample set, but could not identify any significant contribution from HLA-A on the clinical phenotype in MS. However, associations between HLA-DRB1*15 and age at onset of MS were reproduced in this extended Scandinavian MS cohort. [source]

Imaging biomarkers in multiple sclerosis

M. Filippi MD
Abstract Recent years have witnessed impressive advances in the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Complementary to the clinical evaluation, conventional MRI provides crucial pieces of information for the diagnosis of MS. However, the correlation between the burden of lesions observed on conventional MRI scans and the clinical manifestations of the disease remains weak. The discrepancy between clinical and conventional MRI findings in MS is explained, at least partially, by the limited ability of conventional MRI to characterize and quantify the heterogeneous features of MS pathology. Other quantitative MR-based techniques, however, have the potential to overcome such a limitation of conventional MRI. Indeed, magnetization transfer MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, proton MR spectroscopy, and functional MRI are contributing to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie injury, repair, and functional adaptation in patients with MS. Such techniques are likely to benefit from the use of high-field MR systems and thus allow in the near future providing additional insight into all these aspects of the disease. This review summarizes how MRI is dramatically changing our understanding of the factors associated with the accumulation of irreversible disability in MS and highlights the reasons why they should be used more extensively in studies of disease evolution and clinical trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:770,788. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Abnormal Endothelial Tight Junctions in Active Lesions and Normal-appearing White Matter in Multiple Sclerosis

Jonnie Plumb
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, demonstrable in vivo by enhanced MRI is characteristic of new and expanding inflammatory lesions in relapsing-remitting and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtle leakage may also occur in primary progressive MS. However, the anatomical route(s) of BBB leakage have not been demonstrated. We investigated the possible involvement of interendothelial tight junctions (TJ) by examining the expression of TJ proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in blood vessels in active MS lesions from 8 cases of MS and in normal-appearing white (NAWM) matter from 6 cases. Blood vessels (10,50 per frozen section) were scanned using confocal laser scanning microscopy to acquire datasets for analysis. TJ abnormalities manifested as beading, interruption, absence or diffuse cytoplasmic localization of fluorescence, or separation of junctions (putative opening) were frequent (affecting 40% of vessels) in oil-red-O-positive active plaques but less frequent in NAWM (15%), and in normal (<2%) and neurological controls (6%). Putatively "open" junctions were seen in vessels in active lesions and in microscopically inflamed vessels in NAWM. Dual fluorescence revealed abnormal TJs in vessels with pre-mortem serum protein leakage. Abnormal or open TJs, associated with inflammation may contribute to BBB leakage in enhancing MRI lesions and may also be involved in subtle leakage in non-enhancing focal and diffuse lesions in NAWM. BBB disruption due to tight junctional pathology should be regarded as a significant form of tissue injury in MS, alongside demyelination and axonopathy. [source]

Ranolazine Exerts Potent Effects on Atrial Electrical Properties and Abbreviates Atrial Fibrillation Duration in the Intact Porcine Heart

Introduction: In vitro studies and ambulatory ECG recordings from the MERLIN TIMI-36 clinical trial suggest that the novel antianginal agent ranolazine may have the potential to suppress atrial arrhythmias. However, there are no reports of effects of ranolazine on atrial electrophysiologic properties in large intact animals. Methods and Results: In 12 closed-chest anesthetized pigs, effects of intravenous ranolazine (,9 ,M plasma concentration) on multisite atrial effective refractory period (ERP), conduction time (CT), and duration and inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) initiated by intrapericardial acetylcholine were investigated. Ranolazine increased ERP by a median of 45 ms (interquartile range 29,50 ms; P < 0.05, n = 6) in right and left atria compared to control at pacing cycle length (PCL) of 400 ms. However, ERP increased by only 28 (24,34) ms in right ventricle (P < 0.01, n = 6). Ranolazine increased atrial CT from 89 (71,109) ms to 98 (86,121) ms (P = 0.04, n = 6) at PCL of 400 ms. Ranolazine decreased AF duration from 894 (811,1220) seconds to 621 (549,761) seconds (P = 0.03, n = 6). AF was reinducible in 1 of 6 animals after termination with ranolazine compared with all 6 animals during control period (P = 0.07). Dominant frequency (DF) of AF was reduced by ranolazine in left atrium from 11.7 (10.7,20.5) Hz to 7.6 (2.9,8.8) Hz (P = 0.02, n = 6). Conclusions: Ranolazine, at therapeutic doses, increased atrial ERP to greater extent than ventricular ERP and prolonged atrial CT in a frequency-dependent manner in the porcine heart. AF duration and DF were also reduced by ranolazine. Potential role of ranolazine in AF management merits further investigation. [source]

Looking for faces: Attention modulates early occipitotemporal object processing

Andreas Lueschow
Abstract Looking for somebody's face in a crowd is one of the most important examples of visual search. For this goal, attention has to be directed to a well-defined perceptual category. When this categorically selective process starts is, however, still unknown. To this end, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) recorded over right human occipitotemporal cortex to investigate the time course of attentional modulation of perceptual processes elicited by faces and by houses. The first face-distinctive MEG response was observed at 160,170 ms (M170). Nevertheless, attention did not start to modulate face processing before 190 ms. The first house-distinctive MEG activity was also found around 160,170 ms. However, house processing was not modulated by attention before 280 ms (90 ms later than face processing). Further analysis revealed that the attentional modulation of face processing is not due to later, for example, back-propagated activation of the M170 generator. Rather, subsequent stages of occipitotemporal object processing were modulated in a category-specific manner and with preferential access to face processing. [source]