MRSA Strains (mrsa + strain)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Involvement of endotoxin in the mortality of mice with gut-derived sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Masashi Uramatsu
ABSTRACT MRSA causes a wide diversity of diseases, ranging from benign skin infections to life-threatening diseases, such as sepsis. However, there have been few reports of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of sepsis resulting from the gut-derived origin of MRSA. Therefore, we established a murine model of gut-derived sepsis with MRSA and factors of MRSA sepsis that cause deterioration. We separated mice into four groups according to antibiotic treatment as follows: (i) ABPC 40 mg/kg; (ii) CAZ 80 mg/kg; (iii) CAZ 80 mg/kg + endotoxin 10 ,g/mouse; and (iv) saline-treated control groups. Gut-derived sepsis was induced by i.p. injection of cyclophosphamide after colonization of MRSA strain 334 in the intestine. After the induction of sepsis, significantly more CAZ-treated mice survived compared with ABPC-treated and control groups. MRSA were detected in the blood and liver among all groups. Endotoxin levels were significantly lower in the CAZ-treated group compared to other groups. Inflammatory cytokine levels in the serum were lower in the CAZ-treated group compared to other groups. Fecal culture showed a lower level of colonization of E. coli in the CAZ-treated group compared to other groups. In conclusion, we found that CAZ-treatment ameliorates infection and suppresses endotoxin level by the elimination of E. coli from the intestinal tract of mice. However, giving endotoxin in the CAZ-treated group increased mortality to almost the same level as in the ABPC-treated group. These results suggest endotoxin released from resident E. coli in the intestine is involved in clinical deterioration resulting from gut-derived MRSA sepsis. [source]

Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of ,-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Farrukh Aqil
Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of ,-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common ,-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced ,-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other ,-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin. TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Comparison of methods for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food products

M. Corrente
Abstract Aims:, To compare several methods for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food. Methods and Results:, Two hundred S. aureus isolates from food of animal origin were screened for methicillin resistance by a PCR assay specific for the mecA gene, an oxacillin agar screen test and a cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Six out of 200 strains (3%) were found to be methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by PCR. The oxacillin agar screen test detected only one of the MRSA isolates (sensitivity of 167%) and mischaracterized three additional strains as MRSA (specificity of 9845%). None of the MRSA strains was detected by the cefoxitin test (sensitivity of 0%), while 15 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains were misclassified as resistant (specificity of 923%). Fifteen MSSA strains displayed a ,-lactamase hyperproducer-like phenotype. The six MRSA (mecA-positive) strains resembled the characteristics of heteroresistant strains. Conclusions:, As MRSA of animal origin may display atypical phenotypes, PCR appears to be more reliable for detection of methicillin resistance in animal strains. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The study stresses the need for implementing the methods of screening S. aureus from food of animal origin for methicillin resistance. [source]

Different antibacterial actions of isoflavones isolated from Erythrina poeppigiana against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

M. Sato
Abstract Aims:, To screen six isoflavones isolated from Erythrina poeppigiana (Leguminosae) for their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods and Results:, Stem bark of E. poeppigiana was macerated with acetone and the methylene chloride-soluble fraction of the residue was applied to repeated silica gel column chromatography and eluted. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by a broth dilution method. Inactive compounds that failed inhibiting bacterial growth at 25 ,g ml,1 were further investigated for their combination effects with methicillin and oxacillin. Of the isolated isoflavones, 5,7,4,-trihydroxy-8,3,-di(,,, -dimethylallyl)isoflavone (isolupalbigenin) exhibited the highest anti-MRSA activity (MICs: 156,313 ,g ml,1; MBCs: 625,125 ,g ml,1), followed by 5,7,4,-trihydroxy-6- ,,, -dimethylallylisoflavone (erythrinin B). Inactive compounds were combined with methicillin or oxacillin, 5,4,-dihydroxy-(3,,,4,,-dihydro-3,,-hydroxy)-2,,,2,,-dimethylpyrano[5,,,6,,:6,7]isoflavone (M-Wi-2) intensifying the susceptibility of MRSA strains to these antibiotics. In all but one strain, the MIC values of methicillin were reduced from ,100 to 625,125 ,g ml,1 in the presence of M-Wi-2 (25 ,g ml,1). Conclusions:, Isoflavones from E. poeppigiana showed two different antibacterial activities against MRSA: direct growth inhibition and intensification of methicillin sensitivity. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Isolupalbigenin and M-Wi-2 could lead to the development of compounds for new approaches against MRSA infection. [source]

Anti-infectious activity of synbiotics in a novel mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection

Enkhtuya Lkhagvadorj
ABSTRACT The anti-infectious activity of synbiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection was evaluated using a novel lethal mouse model. Groups of 12 mice treated with multiple antibiotics were infected orally with a clinical isolate of MRSA at an inoculum of 108 CFU on day 7 after starting the antibiotics. A dose of 400 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was injected intraperitoneally on day 7 after the infection. A dose of 108 CFU Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and 10 mg of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) were given orally to mice daily with the antibiotic treatment until day 28. The intestinal population levels of MRSA in the mice on multiple antibiotics were maintained stably at 108 CFU/g of intestinal contents after oral MRSA infection and the subsequent 5-FU treatment killed all the mice in the group within 14 days. B. breve administration saved most of the mice, but the synbiotic treatment saved all of the mice from lethal MRSA infection. The synbiotic treatment was effective for the treatment of intestinal infection caused by four MRSA strains with different toxin productions. There was a large difference among the six Bifidobacteria strains that were naturally resistant to the antibacterial drugs used. B. breve in combination with GOS is demonstrated to have valuable preventive and curative effects against even fatal MRSA infections. [source]

Isopimaric acid from Pinus nigra shows activity against multidrug-resistant and EMRSA strains of Staphylococcus aureus

Eileen Smith
Abstract The diterpene isopimaric acid was extracted from the immature cones of Pinus nigra (Arnold) using bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude hexane extract. Isopimaric acid was assayed against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 32,64 g/mL and compared with a commercially obtained resin acid, abietic acid, with MICs of 64 g/mL. Resin acids are known to have antibacterial activity and are valued in traditional medicine for their antiseptic properties. These results show that isopimaric acid is active against MDR and MRSA strains of S. aureus which are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Both compounds were evaluated for modulation activity in combination with antibiotics, but did not potentiate the activity of the antibiotics tested. However, the compounds were also assayed in combination with the efflux pump inhibitor reserpine, to see if inhibition of the TetK or NorA efflux pump increased their activity. Interestingly, rather than a potentiation of activity by a reduction in MIC, a two to four-fold increase in MIC was seen. It may be that isopimaric acid and abietic acid are not substrates for these efflux pumps, but it is also possible that an antagonistic interaction with reserpine may render the antibiotics inactive. 1H-NMR of abietic acid and reserpine taken individually and in combination, revealed a shift in resonance of some peaks for both compounds when mixed together compared with the spectra of the compounds on their own. It is proposed that this may be due to complex formation between abietic acid and reserpine and that this complex formation is responsible for a reduction in activity and elevation of MIC. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A selective broth enrichment combined with real-time nuc-mecA -PCR in the exclusion of MRSA

APMIS, Issue 1 2010
Pasanen T, Korkeila M, Mero S, Tarkka E, Piiparinen H, Vuopio-Varkila J, Vaara M, Tissari P. A selective broth enrichment combined with real-time nuc-mecA -PCR in the exclusion of MRSA. APMIS 2010; 118: 74,80. We analyzed the performance of a selective enrichment broth combined with Taqman-based real-time duplex nuc-mecA -PCR to expedite the screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We found the broth to be able to select MRSA strains (oxacillin MIC range 4,256 ,g/ml) from MSSA strains. A total of 31 MRSA strains were found from 1250 clinical samples screened. The nuc-mecA -PCR was positive from all enrichment broths containing MRSA. From the remaining 1219 samples negative for MRSA on culture/subculture, 138 samples were nuc+/mecA+ in PCR. The sensitivity of the test was 93.5%, specificity 88.6%, positive predictive value 17.3%, and negative predictive value 99.8% as compared to culture. Thus, with this method, the negative MRSA results can be reliably reported within 24,48 h from sampling. The method is a practical additional alternative to those already described for the same purpose. [source]

An epidemiologic analysis of staphylococcus aureus-associated keratitis in Boston

Purpose S. aureus is a normal commensal of the human skin and nasopharynx. It is therefore of interest to determine whether S. aureus keratitis is caused by a subset of these organisms. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of S.aureus keratitis isolates were analyzed. Methods All S. aureus clinical isolates were prospectively collected over a 24 month period at the MEEI (2006-2008). The diagnosis of clinical keratitis and associated risk factors was by medical record review. Keratitis-associated S. aureus strains were assessed for: 1) antibiotic susceptibility, 2) biofilm robustness by gentian violet staining using an in vitro microtiter plate assay, and 3) genetic lineage by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Results 26 cases of keratitis were identified from the 600 S. aureus clinical isolates. Risk factors associated with S.aureus keratitis included trauma, prior surgery, soft contact lens wear, and the presence of a foreign body. Ocular surface disease does not appear to be an independent risk factor. All 26 isolates were tetracycline- and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole- sensitive. All the MRSA strains were found to be ciprofloxacin-resistant (10/26). Nearly one-half of all the S.aureus keratitis-associated isolates were caused by a single clone, ST5. Both methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus strains were represented within ST5. Conclusion These results suggest that there may be specific S.aureus lineages which possess phenotypic and genotypic characteristics that enable S. aureus to more effectively cause sight-threatening keratitis. Future work will examine their virulence traits and a comparison to commensal S.aureus strains. [source]

Community-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections and nasal carriage among children: molecular microbial data and clinical characteristics

G. Sdougkos
Abstract An increasing number of infections caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carrying the Panton,Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was recently identified in Greece. In the present study, 170 patients with S. aureus infections and 123 uninfected children (<15 years old) who had been tested for nasal carriage were evaluated during a 2-year period. The MecA, PVL and superantigen family genes, and MRSA clones, were investigated by molecular methods. Sites of infection and laboratory findings for patients were recorded. The results were compared and statistically analysed. Among 123 uninfected children 73 (59%) carried S. aureus, including four MRSA strains. Of these, three MRSA and three methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were PVL-positive (p <0.0001). Ninety-six patients (96/170) exhibited skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), and 74 exhibited invasive infections. The incidence of staphylococcal infections increased during July to September each year. In total, 110 S. aureus isolates were PVL-positive (81 from SSTIs and 29 from invasive infections, p <0.0001). Ninety-nine out of 106 MRSA (93%) isolates from 170 patients carried the PVL genes (p <0.0001); 97 belonged to the clonal complex CC80. Leukocyte and polymorphonuclear cell counts were higher among children with MRSA infections (p <0.005). MSSA predominated among patients with invasive infections (43/74), and carried mainly genes of the superantigen family. Children <5 years of age showed a higher risk of MRSA infection. The present study demonstrates that infections due to PVL-positive CA-MRSA spread easily among children, and SSTIs can lead to invasive infections. Nasal colonization may be an additional factor contributing to the emergence of CA-MRSA. [source]

Detection of low-level oxacillin resistance in mecA -positive Staphylococcus aureus

W. Witte
Abstract Detection of low-level oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a problem that needs special attention, particularly in relation to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in the community that belong to clonal lineage ST80. This study compared different phenotypic methods for the detection of 74 low-level oxacillin-resistant S. aureus strains (oxacillin MIC ,1 mg/L), 46 MRSA strains (oxacillin MIC ,2 mg/L) and 117 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains. Determination of microbroth dilution MICs for oxacillin was wholly unsatisfactory, and gave a limited specificity for cefoxitin. The sensitivity of disk-diffusion performed according to CLSI recommendations was 92% with an oxacillin 1-g disk, and 96% with a cefoxitin 30-g disk; use of a 10-g cefoxitin disk and a semi-confluent inoculum (breakpoint for resistance <18 mm zone diameter) gave a sensitivity of 97%. When disk-diffusion was performed on IsoSensitest agar with a zone diameter breakpoint for resistance of <22 mm (as recommended by the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics), the sensitivity was 95%. [source]

PCR for the identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains using a single primer pair specific for SCCmec elements and the neighbouring chromosome-borne orfX

C. Cuny
Abstract The chromosomal location of the SCCmec elements containing mecA allows the identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by PCR amplification of a sequence covering the right junction of the SCCmec elements and the adjacent chromosomal region encoding the species-specific ORFX. MRSA strains can be identified specifically using one forward primer, with only one or two mismatches, targeting the SCCmec elements of different types, and one reverse primer targeting the orfX region. [source]

Clonal dissemination of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Belgium and neighboring countries

A. Deplano
Objectives To determine the diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types among epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) recovered in Belgium, France, Germany and The Netherlands over the period 1981,94. Methods MRSA strains collected in a multicenter survey in Belgium (n = 171) and from reference laboratories in neighboring countries (n = 102) were characterized by PFGE analysis using the SmaI enzyme. Results In total, 32 PFGE types were found. Epidemic PFGE type 1, first recognized in 1984, accounted for 82% of Belgian strains (87% of hospitals) and 51% of European MRSA strains. Four other internationally epidemic PFGE types (types 8, 10, 11 and 12) were less widely disseminated and more recently detected (1991,94), each recovered from two or three countries. International spread of two PFGE types was linked to transfer of colonized patients to Dutch hospitals from another country where this type was frequently recovered. Conclusions Genotypic analysis indicated widespread distribution of several outbreak-associated MRSA strains over large European regions, which was in some instances related to interhospital patient transfer. These findings underscore the need for standardized international surveillance and control of MRSA transmission between healthcare institutions across Europe. [source]