MRS Data (mrs + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Magnetic Resonance Sounding: New Method for Ground Water Assessment

GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2004
M. Lubczynski
The advantage of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) as compared to other classical geophysical methods is in its water selective approach and reduced ambiguity in determination of subsurface free water content and hydraulic properties of the media due to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principle applied. Two case examples are used to explain how hydrogeological parameters are obtained from an MRS survey. The first case example in Delft (the Netherlands) is a multiaquifer system characterized by large signal to noise ratio (S/N = 73), with a 24 m thick, shallow sand aquifer, confined by a 15 m thick clay layer. For the shallow aquifer, a very good match between MRS and borehole data was obtained with regard to effective porosity nc,28% and specific drainage Sd,20%. The MRS interpretation at the level deeper than 39 m was disturbed by signal attenuation in the low resistivity (,10 ,m) media. The second case of Serowe (Botswana) shows a fractured sandstone aquifer where hydrogeological parameters are well defined at depth >74 m below ground surface despite quite a low S/N = 0.9 ratio, thanks to the negligible signal attenuation in the resistive environment. Finally, capabilities and limitations of the MRS technology are reviewed and discussed. MRS can contribute to subsurface hydrostratigraphy description, hydrogeological system parameterization, and improvement of well siting. The main limitations are survey dependence upon the value of the S/N ratio, signal attenuation in electrically conductive environments, nonuniformity of magnetic field, and some instrumental limitations. At locations sufficiently resistive to disregard the signal attenuation problems, the MRS S/N ratio determines how successfully MRS data can be acquired. Both signal and noise vary spatially; therefore, world scale maps providing guidelines on spatial variability of signal and noise are presented and their importance with respect to the MRS survey results is discussed. The noise varies also temporally; therefore, its diurnal and seasonal variability impact upon the MRS survey is covered as well. [source]

3T MR of the prostate: Reducing susceptibility gradients by inflating the endorectal coil with a barium sulfate suspension

Yael Rosen
Abstract Most prostate MRI/MRS examinations are performed with an endorectal coil inflated with air, leading to an air,tissue interface that induces magnetic susceptibility gradients within the gland. Inflation of the coil with a barium sulfate suspension is described and compared to inflation with air or liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC). The B0 field in the prostate gland was mapped for five healthy volunteers when the endorectal coil was inflated with each of the three agents. A marked decrease in the posterior-anterior (P-A) field gradient and a significant improvement in field homogeneity were evident in the presence of a barium suspension and PFC relative to air. MRS data acquired from the prostate gland in the presence of air, PFC, and a barium suspension in the endorectal coil showed similar trends, demonstrating improvement in line-widths and spectral resolution when the barium suspension or the PFC were inflating the endorectal coil. On this basis we conclude that a barium suspension provides an available, cheap, and safe alternative to PFC, and we suggest that inflating the endorectal coil with a barium suspension should be considered for prostate MR studies, especially at high field strengths (such as 3T). Magn Reson Med 57:898,904, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Investigation of metabolite changes in the transition from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer measured using 1H and 31P magic angle spinning MRS of intact tissue

Sonali S. De Silva
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic changes in the transition from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) MRS. Biopsy specimens were obtained from women with histologically normal cervix (n,=,5), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; mild, n,=,5; moderate/severe, n,=,40), and invasive cancer (n,=,23). 1H HR-MAS MRS data were acquired using a Bruker Avance 11.74,T spectrometer (Carr,Purcell,Meiboom,Gill sequence; TR,=,4.8,s; TE,=,135,ms; 512 scans; 41,min acquisition). 31P HR-MAS spectra were obtained from the normal subjects and cancer patients only (as acetic acid applied before tissue sampling in patients with CIN impaired spectral quality) using a 1H-decoupled pulse-acquire sequence (TR,=,2.82,s; 2048 scans; 96,min acquisition). Peak assignments were based on values reported in the literature. Peak areas were measured using the AMARES algorithm. Estimated metabolite concentrations were compared between patient diagnostic categories and tissue histology using independent samples t tests. Comparisons based on patient category at diagnosis showed significantly higher estimated concentrations of choline (P,=,0.0001) and phosphocholine (P,=,0.002) in tissue from patients with cancer than from patients with high-grade dyskaryosis, but no differences between non-cancer groups. Division by histology of the sample also showed increases in choline (P,=,0.002) and phosphocholine (P,=,0.002) in cancer compared with high-grade CIN tissue. Phosphoethanolamine was increased in cancer compared with normal tissue (P,=,0.0001). Estimated concentrations of alanine (P,=,0.01) and creatine (P,=,0.008) were significantly reduced in normal tissue from cancer patients compared with normal tissue from non-cancer patients. The estimated concentration of choline was significantly increased in CIN tissue from cancer patients compared with CIN tissue from non-cancer patients (P,=,0.0001). Estimated concentrations of choline-containing metabolites increased from pre-invasive to invasive cervical cancer. Concurrent metabolite depletion occurs in normal tissue adjacent to cancer tissue. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantitative ATP synthesis in human liver measured by localized 31P spectroscopy using the magnetization transfer experiment

A. I. Schmid
Abstract The liver plays a central role in intermediate metabolism. Accumulation of liver fat (steatosis) predisposes to various liver diseases. Steatosis and abnormal muscle energy metabolism are found in insulin-resistant and type-2 diabetic states. To examine hepatic energy metabolism, we measured hepatocellular lipid content, using proton MRS, and rates of hepatic ATP synthesis in vivo, using the 31P magnetization transfer experiment. A suitable localization scheme was developed and applied to the measurements of longitudinal relaxation times (T1) in six healthy volunteers and the ATP-synthesis experiment in nine healthy volunteers. Liver 31P spectra were modelled and quantified successfully using a time domain fit and the AMARES (advanced method for accurate, robust and efficient spectral fitting of MRS data with use of prior knowledge) algorithm describing the essential components of the dataset. The measured T1 relaxation times are comparable to values reported previously at lower field strengths. All nine subjects in whom saturation transfer was measured had low hepatocellular lipid content (1.5,,0.2% MR signal; mean,,SEM). The exchange rate constant (k) obtained was 0.30,,0.02,s,1, and the rate of ATP synthesis was 29.5,,1.8,mM/min. The measured rate of ATP synthesis is about three times higher than in human skeletal muscle and human visual cortex, but only about half of that measured in perfused rat liver. In conclusion, 31P MRS at 3,T provides sufficient sensitivity to detect magnetization transfer effects and can therefore be used to assess ATP synthesis in human liver. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Alterations in inorganic phosphate in mouse hindlimb muscles during limb disuse,

Neeti Pathare
Abstract Muscle disuse induces a wide array of structural, biochemical, and neural adaptations in skeletal muscle, which can affect its function. We recently demonstrated in patients with an orthopedic injury that cast immobilization alters the resting Pi content of skeletal muscle, which may contribute to loss of specific force. The goal of this study was to determine the direct effect of disuse on the basal phosphate content in skeletal muscle in an animal model, avoiding the confounding effects of injury/surgery. 31P and 1H MRS data were acquired from the gastrocnemius muscle of young adult mice (C57BL6 female, n,=,8), at rest and during a reversible ischemia experiment, before and after 2 weeks of cast immobilization. Cast immobilization resulted in an increase in resting Pi content (75%; p,<,0.001) and the Pi to phosphocreatine (PCr) ratio (Pi/PCr; 80%, p,<,0.001). The resting concentrations of ATP, PCr and total creatine (PCr,+,creatine) and the intracellular pH were not significantly different after immobilization. During ischemia (30,min), PCr concentrations decreased to 54,,2% and 52,,6% of the resting values in pre-immobilized and immobilized muscles, respectively, but there were no detectable differences in the rates of Pi increase or PCr depletion (0.55,,0.01,mM min,1 and 0.52,,0.03,mM min,1 before and after immobilization, respectively; p,=,0.78). At the end of ischemia, immobilized muscles had a twofold higher phosphorylation potential ([ADP][Pi]/[ATP]) and intracellular buffering capacity (3.38,,0.54 slykes vs 6.18,,0.57 slykes). However, the rate of PCr resynthesis (kPCr) after ischemia, a measure of in vivo mitochondrial function, was significantly lower in the immobilized muscles (0.31,,0.04,min,1) than in pre-immobilized muscles (0.43,,0.04,min,1). In conclusion, our findings indicate that 2 weeks of cast immobilization, independent of injury-related alterations, leads to a significant increase in the resting Pi content of mouse skeletal muscle. The increase in Pi with muscle disuse has a significant effect on the cytosolic phosphorylation potential during transient ischemia and increases the intracellular buffering capacity of skeletal muscle. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

MRI and 1H MRS of The Breast: Presence of a Choline Peak as Malignancy Marker is Related to k21 Value of the Tumor in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

Patricia R. Geraghty MD
Abstract:, To assess which specific morphologic features, enhancement patterns, or pharmacokinetic parameters on breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) could predict a false-negative outcome of Proton MR Spectroscopy (1H MRS) exam in patients with invasive breast cancer. Sixteen patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were prospectively included and underwent both, contrast-enhanced breast MRI and 1H MRS examination of the breast. The MR images were reviewed and the lesions morphologic features, enhancement patterns and pharmacokinetic parameters (k21-value) were scored according to the ACR BI-RADS-MRI lexicon criteria. For the in vivo MRS studies, each spectrum was evaluated for the presence of choline based on consensus reading. Breast MRI and 1H MRS data were compared to histopathologic findings. In vivo 1H MRS detected a choline peak in 14/16 (88%) cancers. A false-negative 1H MRS study occurred in 2/16 (14%) cancer patients. K21 values differed between both groups: the 14 choline positive cancers had k21 values ranging from 0.01 to 0.20/second (mean 0.083/second), whereas the two choline-negative cancers showed k21 values of 0.03 and 0.05/second, respectively (mean 0.040/second). Also enhancement kinetics did differ between both groups; typically both cancers that were choline-negative showed a late phase plateau (100%), whereas this was only shown in 5/14 (36%) of the choline positive cases. There was no difference between both groups with regard to morphologic features on MRI. This study showed that false-negative 1H MRS examinations do occur in breast cancer patients, and that the presence of a choline peak on 1H MRS as malignancy marker is related to the k21 value of the invasive tumor being imaged. [source]

In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of gynaecological tumours at 3.0 Tesla

SJ Booth
Background, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) uses the same hardware as MR imaging and allows us to analyse the biochemistry of tissues in vivo. Published data for gynaecological lesions are limited and are largely based on MRS carried out at the lower magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla (T). Objective, The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vivo proton MRS could be performed at the higher magnetic field strength of 3 T to characterise the spectra of a variety of benign and malignant gynaecological lesions. Design, Prospective, non-randomised study. Setting, MRI department within a tertiary referral centre for gynaecological cancers. Sample, All women with a pelvic mass under going 3T MRI. Methods, We carried out MRS on nonrandomised women undergoing routine 3 T MRI within our MRI department during investigation for gynaecological lesions from February 2006 to April 2008. Only those women for whom histopathological data were available were included. Main outcome measures, The presence of choline detected by in vivo 3T MRS. Results, Eighty-seven women underwent MRS, 57 of whom had newly diagnosed neoplasms. MRS data for 39 of these new women (18 were excluded because of technical errors or missing data) were used to detect the presence of choline, an indicator of basement membrane turnover. Overall, choline was present in 13 of the 14 ovarian cancers, 8 of the 11 cervical tumours and all 4 of the uterine cancers. There was no statistical significant difference between choline levels in various lesion types (P= 0.735) or between benign and malignant disease (P= 0.550). Conclusions,In vivo MRS can be performed at 3 T to provide biochemical information on pelvic lesions. The way in which this information can be utilised is less clear but may be incorporated into monitoring tissue response in cancer treatments. [source]