Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by MRS

  • mrs broth
  • mrs data
  • mrs examination
  • mrs finding
  • mrs studies
  • mrs study

  • Selected Abstracts

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and its application in Alzheimer's disease

    Pravat K. Mandal
    Abstract Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive tool to measure the chemical composition of tissues (in vivo) and characterize functional metabolic processes in different parts of the human organs. It provides vital biological information at the molecular level. Combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an integrated MRI/MRS examination provides anatomical structure, pathological function, and biochemical information about a living system. MRS provides a link between the biochemical alterations and the pathophysiology of disease. This article provides a comprehensive description of the MRS technique and its application in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. This review is a primer for students and researchers seeking a firm theoretical understanding of MRS physics as well as its application in clinical AD research. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 40,64, 2007. [source]

    Dynamic study of cerebral bioenergetics and brain function using in vivo multinuclear MRS approaches

    Wei Chen
    Abstract One of the greatest merits of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology used in biomedical research and clinical settings is its capability of measuring various physiological parameters in vivo. Besides MR imaging (MRI), which has been routinely applied to obtain vital information in living organs at normal and diseased states, in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates, bioenergetics, and their dynamic changes in the human and animals noninvasively. These MRS capabilities are further enhanced at high/ultrahigh magnetic fields because of significant gain in NMR detection sensitivity and improvement in the spectral resolution. Recent progress has shown that in vivo MRS holds great promise in many biomedical research areas,in particular, brain research. This article provides a broad review of (i) in vivo multinuclear MRS approaches, (ii) advanced MRS methodologies, and (iii) MRS applications for determining cerebral metabolism as well as bioenergetics at resting brain state and their dynamic changes in response to brain activation. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 27A: 84-121, 2005 [source]

    Signal de-noising in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using wavelet transforms

    Hector F. Cancino-De-Greiff
    Abstract Computer signal processing is used for quantitative data analysis (QDA) in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The main difficulty in QDA is that MRS signals appear to be contaminated with random noise. Noise reduction can be achieved by coherent averaging, but it is not always possible to average many MRS waveforms. Wavelet shrinkage de-noising (WSD) is a technique that can be employed in this case. The potentialities of WSD in MRS, alone and combined with the Cadzow algorithm, are analyzed through computer simulations. The results can facilitate an appropriate application of WSD, as well as a deeper understanding of this technique. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 14: 388,401, 2002 [source]

    Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome

    B. K. Puri
    Puri BK, Counsell SJ, Zaman R, Main J, Collins AG, Hajnal JV, Davey NJ. Relative increase in choline in the occipital cortex in chronic fatigue syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002: 106: 224,226. Blackwell Munksgaard 2002. Objective:,To test the hypothesis that chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with altered cerebral metabolites in the frontal and occipital cortices. Method:,Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) was carried out in eight CFS patients and eight age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Spectra were obtained from 20 20 20 mm3 voxels in the dominant motor and occipital cortices using a point-resolved spectroscopy pulse sequence. Results:,The mean ratio of choline (Cho) to creatine (Cr) in the occipital cortex in CFS (0.97) was significantly higher than in the controls (0.76; P=0.008). No other metabolite ratios were significantly different between the two groups in either the frontal or occipital cortex. In addition, there was a loss of the normal spatial variation of Cho in CFS. Conclusion:,Our results suggest that there may be an abnormality of phospholipid metabolism in the brain in CFS. [source]

    Insights into the acute cerebral metabolic changes associated with childhood diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
    F. J. Cameron
    Abstract Aims Type 1 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease in childhood with the commonest single cause of death being cerebral oedema in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nature of the alterations in cerebral metabolism that may result in vulnerability to neuronal injury remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain data from eight children with diabetes following acute presentation with hyperglycaemia with or without ketoacidosis, to determine the nature and timing of any alterations in cerebral structure and metabolism. Methods This study used MRI and MRS to investigate regional cerebral abnormalities in a small series of diabetic patients with and without DKA. Changes were compared with the clinical and biochemical features of the patients studied. Results Our small series of patients all demonstrated abnormal signal changes in the frontal region on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, suggestive of oedema, and spectroscopic abnormalities of increased taurine, myoinositol and glucose levels. The MR abnormalities varied in severity but did not correlate with any clinical or biochemical parameters. Conclusions These changes indicate that many diabetic children, particularly at presentation, may have alterations in cerebral metabolism with implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of the cerebral complications of DKA. In addition, our findings suggest that increased taurine may be one of the important differentiating factors in the response of the brain of diabetic children to DKA that may reflect an increase in their vulnerability to cerebral oedema compared with diabetic adults. [source]

    Further studies on the interaction of loperamide with capacitative calcium entry in Leukemic HL-60 cells,

    John W. Daly
    Abstract Loperamide at 3,10,M has augmentative effects on calcium levels elevated by capacitative calcium entry (CCE) in leukemic HL-60 cells after release of intracellular calcium by ATP or thapsigargin (Harper et al. [1997] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14912,14917). The effect of loperamide on calcium levels was absent at a pH value of 6.8, a pH at which CCE is not active in HL-60 cells. Further investigations of HL-60 cells in recent years revealed a great reduction in the magnitude of the loperamide response. However, when preceded by a CCE blocker, namely N-methylnitrendipine (MRS 1844) or N-propargylnitrendipine (MRS 1845), loperamide caused a significant reversal of the blockade. Six structural analogs of loperamide were synthesized, but only two showed loperamide-like activity. Drug Dev. Res. 67:842,851, 2006. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Adenosine A3 receptors in the rat hippocampus: Lack of interaction with A1 receptors

    Lusa V. Lopes
    Abstract Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator in the hippocampus essentially through activation of inhibitory A1 receptors. Using single-cell PCR analysis, we found that CA1 pyramidal cells coexpress A1 receptor mRNA together with that of another adenosine receptor, the A3 receptor. As occurs for the A1 receptor, Western blot analysis indicated that the A3 receptor is also located in hippocampal nerve terminals. However, activation of A3 receptors with its purportedly selective agonist Cl-IBMECA (0.1,10 M) failed to affect hippocampal synaptic transmission or to modify the evoked release of glutamate or GABA. Also, blockade of A3 receptors with MRS 1191 (5 M) failed to affect either hypoxia- or ischemia-induced depression of hippocampal synaptic transmission. Activation of A3 receptors also failed to control A1 receptor function, as Cl-IBMECA (100 nM) did not modify the ability of CPA to displace [3H]DPCPX binding to hippocampal membranes or the A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of hippocampal synaptic transmission. However, ligand binding studies revealed that Cl-IBMECA displaced the binding of an A1 receptor agonist ([3H]R-PIA, Ki=47 nM) or antagonist ([3H]DPCPX, Ki=130 nM), which suggests that A3 receptor ligands also act on native A1 receptors. We believe that A3 receptors are expressed in hippocampal neurons and are located in hippocampal nerve terminals, though their function remains elusive. Drug Dev. Res. 58:428,438, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Severe Epilepsy in X-Linked Creatine Transporter Defect (CRTR-D)

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2007
    Maria Margherita Mancardi
    Disorders of creatine synthesis or its transporter resulting in neurological impairment with mental retardation and epilepsy have only been recognized in recent years. To date, the epileptic disorder observed in creatine transporter deficiency (CRTR-D) has been described as a mild phenotype with infrequent seizures and favorable response to common antiepileptic drugs. We report on a 5 year-old boy with known speech delay who presented with severe and refractory epilepsy. After extensive investigations, metabolite analysis and brain 1H-MRS suggested CRTR-D, which was confirmed by the detection of a known pathogenic mutation in the SLC6A8 gene (c.1631C>T; p.Pro544Leu). [source]

    Correlation between 1H MRS and Memory before and after Surgery in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2004
    Ltf Hano
    Summary: Purpose: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), which can demonstrate neuronal loss and gliosis, may be used as a sensitive tool for lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although the correlation between the memory functions and 1H MRS has been investigated, its predictive value after surgery has not been studied previously. This study evaluated memory and 1H MRS values of medically intractable patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) before and after selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Methods: Twenty-two patients underwent memory tests and 1H MRS investigation before and 6 months after SAH and were compared with nine control subjects. Results: The 1H MRS scores were found to be significantly low on the pathological side of the patients. Both right-sided 1H MRS of right TLE and left-sided 1H MRS values of left TLE patients were correlated only with verbal memory scores. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significance for nonverbal memory scores for both TLE groups on either side, which showed no significant correlation between material specificity and 1H MRS findings. Conversely, regression analyses demonstrated that high right- and low left-sided 1H MRS values obtained before surgery may predict a decline in verbal learning scores after surgery. Conclusions:1H MRS can be considered as a useful tool to determine the lateralization in patients with MTLE-HS before the surgery. Although only a weak relation exists between the MRS values and memory scores, presurgical MRS scores may be predictive for a possible deterioration in verbal memory after surgery. However, further studies with higher numbers of cases are needed for confirmation of the results. [source]

    A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Metabolites in the Occipital Lobes in Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2003
    Robert J. Simister
    Summary: ,Purpose: ,-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively the principal inhibitory and excitatory neurochemicals in the brain, are visible to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We report a study of GABA+ (GABA plus homocarnosine) and GLX (glutamate plus glutamine) concentrations in the occipital lobes in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) and in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE). Methods: Fifteen patients with IGE, 15 patients with OLE, and 15 healthy volunteers were studied. A single voxel was prescribed in the occipital lobes for each subject. PRESS localised short-echo-time MRS was performed to measure GLX by using LCModel. A double quantum GABA filter was used to measure GABA+. Segmented T1 -weighted images gave the tissue composition of the prescribed voxel. Results: Grey-matter proportion, GLX, and GABA+ were all elevated in IGE. However, analysis using grey-matter proportion as a covariable showed no significant group differences. No correlation was observed between GABA+ concentration and either seizure frequency or time since last seizure. Conclusions: GLX and GABA+ were elevated in IGE. Elevated grey-matter content in the IGE group despite normal MRI appearance can be expected to account for some or all of this observed elevation of GLX and GABA+. GABA+ concentration did not correlate with seizure control or duration since most recent seizure. [source]

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following low-dose oral methotrexate

    S. Raghavendra
    Leukoencephalopathy is a recognized complication with intrathecal or intravenous methotrexate (MTX). We report a 59-year-old lady who developed MTX leukoencephalopathy with long-term low-dose oral MTX. She developed posterior leukoencephalopathy (PLE) that initially was reversible on discontinuation of oral MTX. Four months later, she developed disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy (DNL), and was left with devastating neurological deficits. The sequential conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), MR perfusion (MRP) and MR spectroscopic (MRS) changes are highlighted in this report. MRP and MRS showed more wide spread abnormalities than DWI. Stereotactic biopsy from the lesion revealed demyelination with macrophagic infiltration, pericapillary lymphomononucear aggregation, fibrinoid changes in the capillaries and neovascularization. Of the two cases of PLE with oral MTX reported in literature, one reversed clinically and radiologically with the discontinuation of MTX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DNL following oral MTX in the world literature. [source]

    Linking structural, metabolic and functional changes in multiple sclerosis

    Massimo Filippi
    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has markedly improved our ability to detect the macroscopic abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord. New quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) approaches with increased sensitivity to subtle normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter changes and increased specificity to the heterogeneous pathological substrates of MS may give information complementary to conventional MRI. Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have the potential to provide important information on the structural changes occurring within and outside T2-visible lesions. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) adds information on the biochemical nature of such changes. Functional MRI might quantify the efficiency of brain plasticity in response to MS injury and improve our understanding of the link between structural damage and clinical manifestations. The present review summarizes how the application of these MR techniques to the study of MS is dramatically changing our understanding of how MS causes irreversible neurological deficits. [source]

    Magnetic Resonance Sounding: New Method for Ground Water Assessment

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2004
    M. Lubczynski
    The advantage of magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) as compared to other classical geophysical methods is in its water selective approach and reduced ambiguity in determination of subsurface free water content and hydraulic properties of the media due to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principle applied. Two case examples are used to explain how hydrogeological parameters are obtained from an MRS survey. The first case example in Delft (the Netherlands) is a multiaquifer system characterized by large signal to noise ratio (S/N = 73), with a 24 m thick, shallow sand aquifer, confined by a 15 m thick clay layer. For the shallow aquifer, a very good match between MRS and borehole data was obtained with regard to effective porosity nc,28% and specific drainage Sd,20%. The MRS interpretation at the level deeper than 39 m was disturbed by signal attenuation in the low resistivity (,10 ,m) media. The second case of Serowe (Botswana) shows a fractured sandstone aquifer where hydrogeological parameters are well defined at depth >74 m below ground surface despite quite a low S/N = 0.9 ratio, thanks to the negligible signal attenuation in the resistive environment. Finally, capabilities and limitations of the MRS technology are reviewed and discussed. MRS can contribute to subsurface hydrostratigraphy description, hydrogeological system parameterization, and improvement of well siting. The main limitations are survey dependence upon the value of the S/N ratio, signal attenuation in electrically conductive environments, nonuniformity of magnetic field, and some instrumental limitations. At locations sufficiently resistive to disregard the signal attenuation problems, the MRS S/N ratio determines how successfully MRS data can be acquired. Both signal and noise vary spatially; therefore, world scale maps providing guidelines on spatial variability of signal and noise are presented and their importance with respect to the MRS survey results is discussed. The noise varies also temporally; therefore, its diurnal and seasonal variability impact upon the MRS survey is covered as well. [source]

    Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Nathan A. Johnson
    Weight loss remains the most common therapy advocated for reducing hepatic lipid in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Yet, reduction of body weight by lifestyle intervention is often modest, and thus, therapies which effectively modulate the burden of fatty liver but are not contingent upon weight loss are of the highest practical significance. However, the effect of aerobic exercise on liver fat independent of weight loss has not been clarified. We assessed the effect of aerobic exercise training on hepatic, blood, abdominal and muscle lipids in 19 sedentary obese men and women using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Four weeks of aerobic cycling exercise, in accordance with current physical activity guidelines, significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue volume by 12% (P < 0.01) and hepatic triglyceride concentration by 21% (P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant (14%) reduction in plasma free fatty acids (P < 0.05). Exercise training did not alter body weight, vastus lateralis intramyocellular triglyceride concentration, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, 1H-MRS,measured hepatic lipid saturation, or HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; P > 0.05). Conclusion: These data provide the first direct experimental evidence demonstrating that regular aerobic exercise reduces hepatic lipids in obesity even in the absence of body weight reduction. Physical activity should be strongly promoted for the management of fatty liver, the benefits of which are not exclusively contingent upon weight loss. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    A review of the possible relevance of inositol and the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle) to psychiatric disorders,focus on magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies

    Hyeonjin Kim
    Abstract Myo -inositol is an important part of the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle). Abnormalities in nerve cell myo -inositol levels and/or PI-cycle regulation has been suggested as being involved in the pathophysiology and/or treatment of many psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and schizophrenia. This review examines the metabolism and biochemical importance of myo -inositol and the PI-cycle. It relates this to the current in vivo evidence for myo -inositol and PI-cycle involvement in these psychiatric disorders, particularly focusing upon the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings in patient studies to date. From this review it is concluded that while the evidence suggests probable relevance to the pathophysiology and/or treatment of bipolar disorder, there is much less support for a significant role for the PI-cycle or myo -inositol in any other psychiatric disorder. More definitive investigation is required before PI-cycle dysfunction can be considered specific to bipolar disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term oral tacrolimus therapy in refractory to infliximab fistulizing Crohn's disease.

    A Pilot Study
    Abstract Aims: To evaluate efficacy and safety of oral tacrolimus in cases of fistulizing Crohn's disease (FCD), which is refractory to conventional therapy including infliximab. Methods: Patients with fistulas, previously and unsuccessfully treated with all conventional therapy (i.e., antibiotics, azathioprine, or 6-mercaptopurine and infliximab), were enrolled in a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study of long-term treatment with oral tacrolimus (0.05 mg/kg every12 h). The evaluation of the clinical response was complemented by use of the perianal Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI) and magnetic resonance imaging-based score (MRS) with determined periodicity. Results: Ten patients were included in the study (enterocutaneous fistula, 3 patients; perianal fistula, 4 patients; rectovaginal fistula, 3 patients) with 6 to 24 months of follow-up. Five patients were steroid-dependent, and 4 patients needed maintenance treatment with immunosuppressant agents. Four patients (40%) achieved complete clinical responses, which were verified by PCDAI and MRS. Five patients (50%) achieved partial responses (i.e., important decreases in fistula drainage, size, discomfort, and PCDAI/MRS values). Decreases in both the PCDAI and MRS were statistically significant (P < 0.05). All steroid-dependent patients stopped therapy with prednisone, and concomitant immunosuppressive therapy was tapered. The response was maintained, and no new flare-up of the disease was observed. Only mild adverse events were detected (1 patient withdrew from treatment due to headache), and no case of nephrotoxicity or diabetes was detected. One patient had received no benefit from therapy after 6 months. Conclusions: Oral tacrolimus could be an effective and safe treatment for patients with FCD, even if there has been no response to infliximab treatment. Randomized studies are needed to compare oral tacrolimus with infliximab in terms of efficacy, safety, and costs. [source]

    pH-dependent antitumor activity of proton pump inhibitors against human melanoma is mediated by inhibition of tumor acidity

    Angelo De Milito
    Abstract Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis and still limited therapeutic options. An innovative treatment approach for this disease is represented by targeting acidosis, a feature characterizing tumor microenvironment and playing an important role in cancer malignancy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole (ESOM) are prodrugs functionally activated by acidic environment, fostering pH neutralization by inhibiting proton extrusion. We used human melanoma cell lines and xeno-transplated SCID mice to provide preclinical evidence of ESOM antineoplastic activity. Human melanoma cell lines, characterized by different mutation and signaling profiles, were treated with ESOM in different pH conditions and evaluated for proliferation, viability and cell death. SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma were used to study ESOM administration effects on tumor growth and tumor pH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ESOM inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro and induced a cytotoxicity strongly boosted by low pH culture conditions. ESOM-induced tumor cell death occurred via rapid intracellular acidification and activation of several caspases. Inhibition of caspases activity by pan-caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk completely abrogated the ESOM-induced cell death. ESOM administration (2.5 mg kg,1) to SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma reduced tumor growth, consistent with decrease of proliferating cells and clear reduction of pH gradients in tumor tissue. Moreover, systemic ESOM administration dramatically increased survival of human melanoma-bearing animals, in absence of any relevant toxicity. These data show preclinical evidence supporting the use of PPI as novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma, providing the proof of concept that PPI target human melanoma modifying tumor pH gradients. [source]

    Volume recovery, surface properties and membrane integrity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dehydrated in the presence of trehalose or sucrose

    E.E. Tymczyszyn
    Abstract Aims:, Although the practical importance of adding sugars before drying is well known, the mechanism of protection of bacteria by sugars is not clear. The response of the dehydrated micro-organisms to rehydration is analysed in terms of structural and functional changes, and correlated with their potentiality to grow in rich media. These aspects are related with the membrane integrity and the metabolic state of the rehydrated bacteria, measured by means of surface properties and permeability. To attain this objective, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was dehydrated in the presence and in the absence of sucrose and trehalose. The bacterial response upon rehydration was investigated by determining: (i) the lag time of the bacterial growing in rich media, (ii) the restoration of the surface properties and the cellular volume and (iii) the membrane integrity. Methods and Results:,Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was grown in MRS at 37C overnight [De Man et al. (1960)J Appl Bacteriol 23, 130] and then dehydrated for 10, 20 and 30 min at 70C in a vacuum centrifuge. The lag time of micro-organisms was determined by optical density changes after rehydration. The surface properties were determined by measuring the zeta potential of the bacteria suspended in aqueous solution. The cellular volume recovery was measured, after stabilization in saline solution, by light scattering and by the haematocrit method [Alemohammad and Knowles (1974)J Gen Microbiol 82, 125]. Finally, the membrane integrity has been determined by using specific fluorescent probes [SYTO 9 and propidium iodide, (PI)] that bind differentially depending on the integrity of the bacterial membrane. The lag time of Lact. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus, dehydrated by heat in the presence of sucrose or trehalose and after that rehydrated, was significantly shortened, when compared with that obtained for bacteria dried in the absence of sugars. In these conditions, trehalose and sucrose maintained the zeta potential and the cell volume close to the control (nondried) cells. However, the membrane integrity, measured with fluorescent probes, was maintained only when cells were dehydrated for 10 min in the presence of sugars. For larger times of dehydration, the membrane integrity was not preserved, even in the presence of sugars. Conclusions:, When the micro-organisms are dehydrated in the absence of protectants, the membrane damage occurs with a decrease in the absolute value of the zeta potential and a decrease in the cellular volume recovered after rehydration. In contrast, when the zeta potential and the cellular volume are restored after rehydration to that corresponding to nondried cells, the micro-organisms are able to recover and grow with a reduced lag time. This can only be achieved when the dehydration is carried out in the presence of sugars. At short dehydration times, the response is associated with the preservation of the membrane integrity. However, for longer times of dehydration the zeta potential and volume recovery occurs in the presence of sugars in spite of a severe damage at membrane level. In this condition, cells are also recovered. In conclusion, to predict the ability of growing after dehydration, other bacterial structural parameters besides membrane integrity, such as zeta potential and cellular volume, should be taken into account. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The correlation of the lag time with the surface and permeability properties is of practical importance because the correlation of these two parameters with cell viability, allow to determine the potential bacterial capacity to grow in a rich medium after the preservation procedure, without necessity of performing a kinetic curve of growth, which is certainly time-consuming. [source]

    Cell wall modifications during osmotic stress in Lactobacillus casei

    M. Piuri
    Abstract Aims:, To study the modification of the cell wall of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 grown in high salt conditions. Methods and Results:, Differences in the overall structure of cell wall between growth in high salt (MRS + 1 mol l,1 NaCl; N condition) and control (MRS; C condition) conditions were determined by transmission electronic microscopy and analytical procedures. Lactobacillus casei cells grown in N condition were significantly larger than cells grown under unstressed C condition. Increased sensitivity to mutanolysin and antibiotics with target in the cell wall was observed in N condition. Purified cell wall also showed the increased sensitivity to lysis by mutanolysin. Analysis of peptidoglycan (PG) from stressed cells showed that modification was at the structural level in accordance with a decreased PG cross-link involving penicillin-binding proteins (PBP). Nine PBP were first described in this species and these proteins were expressed in low percentages or presented a modified pattern of saturation with penicillin G (Pen G) during growth in high salt. Three of the essential PBP were fully saturated in N condition at lower Pen G concentrations than in C condition, suggesting differences in functionality in vivo. Conclusions:, The results show that growth in high salt modified the structural properties of the cell wall. Significance and Impact of Study:, Advances in understanding the adaptation to high osmolarity, in particular those involving sensitivity to lysis of lactic acid bacteria. [source]

    Bile salts and cholesterol induce changes in the lipid cell membrane of Lactobacillus reuteri

    M.P. Taranto
    Abstract Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bile salts and cholesterol in the lipid profile of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 and to determine the relationship existing between these changes: the in vitro removal of cholesterol and the tolerance of the cells to acid and cold stress. Methods and Results:Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 was grown in the following media: MRS (deMan Rogosa Sharpe; MC, control medium), MB (MC with bile salts), MCH (MC with sterile cholesterol) and MBCH (MC with bile salts and cholesterol). Fatty acids were determined by analytical gas,liquid chromatography, and phospholipids and glycolipids by colorimetric techniques. The cells from different culture media were subjected to cold and acid stress. The MB cultures displayed a decrease in phospholipids and a low ratio of saturated : unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of the unusual C18 : 0,10-OH and C18 : 0,10-oxo fatty acids was the prominent characteristic of the bile salts growing cells. The relative increase in glycolipids and the changes in the fatty acids profiles of the MB cells would be responsible for the cholesterol remotion. The changes induced by bile salts in the lipid profile did not improve the tolerance of L. reuteri CRL 1098 to freezing and acid stress. Conclusions: The changes in lipid profiles reported in this study would play a key role in the response of Lactobacilli to environmental stress. Significance and Impact of the Study: This work provides useful information about the effect of bile salts on the cell membrane of L. reuteri, a probiotic enterolactobacillus. The steady-state response of the cells subjected to bile stress seems to be the appropriate model for evaluating the bacterial behaviour in detergent-containing gastrointestinal tracts, where the bile salts stress would presumably be continuous. [source]

    Effect of various growth media upon survival during storage of freeze-dried Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans

    A.S. Carvalho
    Abstract Aims: The effects of three different growth media (MRS, M17 and Lee's) on survival during freeze-drying and subsequent storage of six strains of Enterococcus faecalis and two strains of E. durans were investigated. Methods and Results: Distinct Enterococcus spp. strains were grown on M17, MRS and Lee's broth, freeze-dried and stored at 20C in air under darkness. At regular intervals throughout storage, freeze-dried samples were rehydrated and then plated on M17 agar. Conclusions: A higher survival rate during storage of dried E. durans was obtained when growth occurred in MRS. The same effect was not observed, however, for the majority of E. faecalis strains, which clearly survived better in the dried state when this organism had been grown in M17 or Lee's medium. Significance and Impact of Study: The survival of the dried Enterococcus spp. tested during storage was shown to be strain-specific and dependent on the growth medium. [source]

    Effect of bile on the lipid composition and surface properties of bifidobacteria

    A. Gmez Zavaglia
    Aim: The changes produced on the bacterial surface of Bifidobacteria cells when they are grown in bile were compared with those provoked by bile added to bacteria grown in the absence of bile. Methods and Results: The adhesive properties, the zeta potential and the lipid composition of Bifidobacterial strains, isolated from human faeces and grown in MRS medium, were determined. Bacteria grown in MRS with bile showed a loss of adherence and autoaggregation in correlation with a decrease in the surface hydrophobicity in comparison to those grown in MRS without bile, concomitant with the absence of two glycolipids, the increase of sugar content and minor changes in fatty acid composition. The surface changes caused by bile shock on bacteria grown in bile-free medium were much less pronounced and, in addition, no effect on the lipid composition was apparent. Conclusions: The comparison of the results indicates that bile action on surface properties is related to metabolic changes. Significance and Impact of the Study: Long-term exposure of bacteria to bile may cause metabolic changes affecting their adhesive properties irreversibly. This may be taken as a criterion to define the probiotic properties of different strains. [source]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Quantitative assessment of liver fat content by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Liang ZHONG
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of imaging technology in the quantitative assessment of fatty liver with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR spectroscopy. METHODS: Overall 36 patients with diffuse fatty liver who had undertaken the computed tomography (CT) scan, MRI and proton MR spectroscopy (1H MRS) were analyzed. Their body mass index (BMI) was measured and their liver to spleen CT ratio (L/S) calculated on the plain CT scan. MR T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) was obtained with in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) images. T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was acquired with or without the fat-suppression technique. The liver fat content (LFC) was quantified as the percentage of relative signal intensity loss on T1WI or T2WI images. The intrahepatic content of lipid (IHCL) was expressed as the percentage of peak value ratio of lipid to water by 1H MRS. RESULTS: The results of BMI measurement, CT L/S ratio, LFC calculated from MR T1WI and T2WI images, as well as IHCL measured by 1H MRS were 27.26 3.01 kg/m2, 0.88 0.26, 13.80 9.92%, 40.67 16.04% and 30.98 20.43%, respectively. The LFC calculated from MR T1WI, T2WI images and IHCL measured by 1H MRS correlated significantly with the CT L/S ratio (r=,0.830, P= 0.000; r=,0.736, P= 0.000; r=,0.461, P= 0.005, respectively). BMI correlated significantly only with the liver fat contents measured by T1WI IP/OP and 1H MRS (r=,0.347, P= 0.038; r=,0.374, P= 0.025, respectively). CONCLUSION: CT, MR imaging and 1H MRS were effective methods for the quantitative assessment of LFC. The MR imaging, especially 1H MRS, would be used more frequently in the clinical evaluation of fatty liver and 1H MRS could more accurately reflect the severity of fatty liver. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2000
    ABSTRACT Agos-os, a fermented meat and sweetpotato mixture, was produced and analyzed for its microbial characteristics. pH decreased during fermentation. Mold and anaerobic bacterial counts increased while yeasts and aerobic bacterial counts decreased during the third and seventh day of fermentation. Six isolates with the widest zones of inhibition on the indicator lawn were selected for bacteriocin production. These isolates had exactly the same morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The ribosomal RNA sequence was 99.5% identical with Enterococcus faecalis VRE 1492. The identification was confirmed through DNA homology test by the EMBL Genbank, Canada. This bacterium produced the L-isomer lactic acid. The amount of bacteriocin produced by the bacterium was optimized by growing the bacterium at different growth media, initial pH and fermentation time. Maximum production of bacteriocin was achieved in MRS (De Man Rugosa and Sharpe) medium (with glucose) at pH 7.50. The crude bacteriocin inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria such as Lactobacillus sake 15521 and Listeria innocua. The gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli DH 5-alpha (with plasmid, PUC), Salmonella typhii and Staphylococcus aureus were weakly inhibited. Other microorganisms such as Lactobacillus curvatus D31685, Lactobacillus confusius M23036, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Leuconostoc paramesenteroides S67831, Pediococcus pentosaceus M58834, Saccharomyces cerevisiae SS553 (wild type) and Escherichia coli JM109 (no plasmid) were not inhibited. [source]

    Impact of cerebrospinal fluid contamination on brain metabolites evaluation with 1H-MR spectroscopy: A single voxel study of the cerebellar vermis in patients with degenerative ataxias

    Laura Guerrini MD PhD
    Abstract Purpose To investigate the impact of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contamination on metabolite evaluation in the superior cerebellar vermis with single-voxel 1H-MRS in normal subjects and patients with degenerative ataxias. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine healthy volunteers and 38 patients with degenerative ataxias and cerebellar atrophy were examined on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Proton spectra of a volume of interest placed in the superior vermis were acquired using a four TE PRESS technique. We calculated N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios, T2 relaxation times and concentrations of the same metabolites using the external phantom method. Finally, concentrations were corrected taking into account the proportion of nervous tissue and CSF, that was determined as Volume Fraction (VF). Results In healthy subjects, a significant difference was observed between metabolite concentrations with and without correction for VF. As compared to controls, patients with ataxias showed significantly reduced NAA/Cr and NAA concentrations, while only corrected Cr concentration was significantly increased. The latter showed an inverse correlation with VF. Conclusion CSF contamination has a not negligible effect on the estimation of brain metabolites. The increase of Cr concentration in patients with cerebellar atrophy presumably reflects the substitutive gliosis which takes place along with loss of neurons. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:11,17. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Quantification of hepatic steatosis with MRI: The effects of accurate fat spectral modeling

    Scott B. Reeder MD
    Abstract Purpose To develop a chemical-shift,based imaging method for fat quantification that accounts for the complex spectrum of fat, and to compare this method with MR spectroscopy (MRS). Quantitative noninvasive biomarkers of hepatic steatosis are urgently needed for the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods Hepatic steatosis was measured with "fat-fraction" images in 31 patients using a multiecho chemical-shift,based water-fat separation method at 1.5T. Fat-fraction images were reconstructed using a conventional signal model that considers fat as a single peak at ,210 Hz relative to water ("single peak" reconstruction). Fat-fraction images were also reconstructed from the same source images using two methods that account for the complex spectrum of fat; precalibrated and self-calibrated "multipeak" reconstruction. Single-voxel MRS that was coregistered with imaging was performed for comparison. Results Imaging and MRS demonstrated excellent correlation with single peak reconstruction (r2 = 0.91), precalibrated multipeak reconstruction (r2 = 0.94), and self-calibrated multipeak reconstruction (r2 = 0.91). However, precalibrated multipeak reconstruction demonstrated the best agreement with MRS, with a slope statistically equivalent to 1 (0.96 0.04; P = 0.4), compared to self-calibrated multipeak reconstruction (0.83 0.05, P = 0.001) and single-peak reconstruction (0.67 0.04, P < 0.001). Conclusion Accurate spectral modeling is necessary for accurate quantification of hepatic steatosis with MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1332,1339. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    MRI of late microstructural and metabolic alterations in radiation-induced brain injuries

    Kevin C. Chan BEng
    Abstract Purpose To evaluate the late effects of radiation-induced damages in the rat brain by means of in vivo multiparametric MRI. Materials and Methods The right hemibrains of seven Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a highly collimated 6 MV photon beam at a single dose of approximately 28 Gy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), T2-weighted imaging, and T1-weighted imaging were performed to the same animals 12 months after radiation treatment. Results Compared with the contralateral side, a significantly higher percentage decrease in fractional anisotropy was observed in the ipsilateral fimbria of hippocampus (29%) than the external capsule (8%) in DTI, indicating the selective vulnerability of fimbria to radiation treatment. Furthermore, in 1H-MRS, significantly higher choline, glutamate, lactate, and taurine peaks by 24%, 25%, 87%, and 58%, respectively, were observed relative to creatine in the ipsilateral brain. Postmortem histology confirmed these white matter degradations as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity increase in the ipsilateral brain. Conclusion The microstructural and metabolic changes in late radiation-induced brain injuries were documented in vivo. These multiparametric MRI measurements may help understand the white matter changes and neurotoxicity upon radiation treatment in a single setting. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1013,1020. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Selective maximization of 31P MR spectroscopic signals of in vivo human brain metabolites at 3T

    Rose-Ann M. Blenman PhD
    Abstract Purpose To develop a short TR, short TE, large flip angle (LFA), in vivo 31P MR spectroscopy (MRS) technique at 3T that selectively maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of long T1 human brain metabolites implicated in bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods Two pulse sequences were evaluated for efficiency. Slice profiles acquired with the scaled, sinc-shaped, radiofrequency (RF) LFA pulses were compared to those acquired with Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) RF LFA pulses. The SLR-based LFA pulse sequence was used to maximize the inorganic phosphate signal in a phantom, after which volunteer metabolite signals were selectively maximized and compared to their correlates acquired with conventional spin-echo methods. Results The comparison of slice profiles acquired with sinc-shaped RF LFA pulses vs. SLR RF LFA pulses showed that SLR-based pulse sequences, with their improved excitation and slice profiles, yield significantly better results. In vivo LFA spin-echo MRS implemented with SLR pulses selectively increased the 31P MRS signal, by as much as 93%, of human brain metabolites that have T1 times longer than the TR of the acquisition. Conclusion The data show that the LFA technique can be employed in vivo to maximize the signal of long T131P brain metabolites at a given TE and TR. LFAs ranging between 120 and 150 are shown to maximize the 31P signal of human brain metabolites at 3T. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Study of order and dynamic processes in tendon by NMR and MRI

    G. Navon PhD
    Abstract Tendons are composed of a parallel arrangement of densely packed collagen fibrils that results in unique biomechanical properties of strength and flexibility. In the present review we discuss several advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and imaging (MRI) techniques that have allowed us to better understand the biophysical properties of tendons and ligaments. The methods include multiple quantum and T2 filtering combined with NMR and MRI techniques. It is shown in detail how these techniques can be used to extract a number of useful parameters: 1) the 1H- 1H and 1H- 2H dipolar interactions; 2) the proton exchange rates between water and collagen, and between water molecules; 3) the distribution of fibril orientations; and 4) the anisotropy of diffusion. It is shown that relaxation data as a function of angular dependence can be obtained in vivo using mobile NMR sensors. Finally, this article describes how double quantum filtered (DQF) MRI can be used to image and monitor the healing process in injured tendons. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer: In vivo,ex vivo profiles and effect of tumor load

    Marrita M. Mahon PhD
    Abstract Purpose To compare in vivo 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectra of preinvasive and invasive cervical lesions with ex vivo magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra of intact biopsies from the same subjects and to establish the effects of tumor load in the tissue sampled on the findings. Materials and Methods A total of 51 subjects (nine with normal cervix, 10 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN], and 32 with cervical cancer) underwent endovaginal MR at 1.5 T. Single-voxel (3.4 cm3) 1H MR spectra were acquired and voxel tumor load was calculated (tumor volume within voxel as a percentage of voxel volume). Resonances from triglycerides ,CH2 and ,CH3 and choline-containing compounds (Cho) were correlated with voxel tumor load. Biopsies analyzed by 1H MAS-MR spectroscopy (MRS) had metabolite levels correlated with tumor load in the sample at histology. Results In vivo studies detected Cho in normal, CIN, and cancer patients with no significant differences in levels (P = 0.93); levels were independent of voxel tumor load. Triglyceride ,CH2 and ,CH3 signals in-phase with Cho were present in 77% and 29%, respectively, of cancer subjects (but not in normal women or those with CIN), but did not correlate with voxel tumor load. Ex vivo cancer biopsies showed levels of triglycerides ,CH2 and ,CH3 and of Cho that were significantly greater than in normal or CIN biopsies (P < 0.05); levels were independent of the tumor load in the sample. The presence of ,CH2 in vivo predicted the presence of cancer with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% and 93.8% respectively, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 96% and 68.2%; for ,CH2 ex vivo, sensitivity was 100%; specificity, 69%; PPV, 82%; and NPV, 100%. Conclusion Elevated lipid levels are detected by MRS in vivo and ex vivo in cervical cancer and are independent of tumor load in the volume of tissue sampled. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2004;19:356,364. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]