Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analyses of gibberellins in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by partial filling-micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry with reversal of electroosmotic flow

Liya Ge
Abstract In this paper, we present the results of simultaneous screening of eight gibberellins (GAs) in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by MEKC directly coupled to ESI-MS detection. During the development of MEKC-MS, partial filling (PF) was used to prevent the micelles from reaching the mass spectrometer as this is detrimental to the MS signal, and a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, was added to the electrolyte to reverse the EOF. On the basis of the resolution of the neighboring peaks, different parameters (i.e., the pH and concentration of buffer, surfactant concentrations, length of the injected micellar plug, organic modifier, and applied separation voltage) were optimized to achieve a satisfactory PF-MEKC separation of eight GA standards. Under optimum conditions, a baseline separation of GA standards, including GA1, GA3, GA5, GA6, GA7, GA9, GA12, and GA13, was accomplished within 25,min. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of precision (RSD of migration time below 0.9%), sensitivity (LODs in the range of 0.8,1.9,,M) and linearity (R2 between 0.981 and 0.997). MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection was carried out to obtain sufficient selectivity. PF-MEKC-MS/MS allowed the direct identification and confirmation of the GAs presented in coconut water (CW) sample after SPE, while, the quantitative analysis of GAs was performed by PF-MEKC-MS approach. GA1 and GA3 were successfully detected and quantified in CW. It is anticipated that the current PF-MEKC-MS method can be applicable to analyze GAs in a wide range of biological samples. [source]

Magnetic resonance microscopy of the equine hoof wall: a study of resolution and potential

Summary Reasons for performing study: Obtaining magnetic resonance images of the inner hoof wall tissue at the microscopic level would enable early accurate diagnosis of laminitis and therefore more effective therapy. Objectives: To optimise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in order to obtain the highest possible resolution of the structures beneath the equine hoof wall. Methods: Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was performed in front feet from 6 cadaver horses using T2 -weighted fast spin echo (FSE-T2), and T1 -weighted gradient echo (GRE-T1) sequences. Results: In T2 weighted FSE images most of the stratum medium showed no signal, however the coronary, terminal and sole papillae were visible. The stratum lamellatum was clearly visible and primary epidermal lamellae could be differentiated from dermal lamellae. Conclusion: Most structures beneath the hoof wall were differentiated. Conventional scanners for diagnostic MRI in horses are low or high field. However this study used ultra-high field scanners currently not available for clinical use. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) increases as a function of field strength. An increase of spatial resolution of the image results in a decreased S/N. S/N can also be improved with better coils and the resolution of high field MRI scanners will increase as technology develops and surface array coils become more readily available. Potential relevance: Although MR images with microscopic resolution were obtained ex vivo, this study demonstrates the potential for detection of lamellar pathology as it occurs. Early recognition of the development of laminitis to instigate effective therapy at an earlier stage and may improve the outcome for laminitic horses. Clinical MR is now readily available at 3 T, while 4 T, 7 T and 9 T systems are being used for human whole body applications. [source]

Diagnosis and Treatment of the Menstrual Migraine Patient

HEADACHE, Issue 2008
Stephen D. Silberstein MD
Women presenting with recurrent disabling headache frequently have migraine; but physicians need to rule out other headache disorders before they reach a diagnosis of migraine with or without aura. Many women who experience migraine in close association to their menstrual cycle may meet the diagnostic criteria for either menstrually related migraine (MRM), or pure menstrual migraine (PMM). Once an accurate diagnosis is made, treatment may be established to best suit the individual needs of that patient. Most women will find that migraine associated with hormone fluctuations respond well to standard treatment approaches including pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments. Pharmacological approaches include acute, preventive, and short-term prophylaxis. Herein we review the difference between non-menstrual migraine, PMM, and MRM and identify effective treatment strategies for appropriate management of migraine associated with hormonal fluctuations. [source]

Characteristics of Migraine Attacks and Responses to Almotriptan Treatment: A Comparison of Menstrually Related and Nonmenstrually Related Migraines

HEADACHE, Issue 2 2008
Merle L. Diamond MD
Objectives., To compare the clinical characteristics of menstrually related migraines (MRMs) and nonmenstrually related migraines (nonMRMs) and to investigate the efficacy of almotriptan in the treatment of these migraine subtypes. Design/Methods., These are post hoc analyses of data from the AXERT® Early miGraine Intervention Study (AEGIS), a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group trial that evaluated adults with IHS-defined migraine with and without aura. Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to treat 3 consecutive headaches with almotriptan 12.5 mg or matching placebo at the first sign of headache typical of their usual migraine, at any level of pain intensity but within 1 hour of onset. MRMs were defined as those occurring ±2 days of the first day of menstrual flow. Post hoc analyses to describe headache characteristics pooled all migraine attacks experienced by patients who reported ,1 menses during the study regardless of assigned treatment group. The post hoc efficacy analyses included outcomes of almotriptan treatment compared with placebo treatment for all migraines in patients with a menstrual record. Results., Of the 275 women in the AEGIS intent-to-treat population, 190 (69.1%; 97 almotriptan, 93 placebo; aged 18-54 years) reported ,1 menses during the trial. Of the 506 migraines reported by these patients, 95 (18.8%) occurred ±2 days of the first day of menstrual flow and were defined as MRM. Aura was associated with 11.7% of MRM and 15.0% of nonMRM. Allodynia-associated symptoms were present with 62.8% of MRM and 57.0% of nonMRM. Prior to treatment, 19.1% of MRM were associated with normal functional ability, 68.1% with disturbed functional ability, and 12.8% required bed rest compared with 18.9%, 68.8%, and 12.3%, respectively, of nonMRM. Pretreatment pain intensity was mild in 40.0%, moderate in 47.4%, and severe in 12.6% of MRM compared with 43.6%, 47.2%, and 9.2%, respectively, of nonMRM. Almotriptan treatment efficacy outcomes for MRM vs nonMRM, respectively, were: 2-hour pain relief, 77.4% vs 68.3%; 2-hour pain free, 35.4% vs 35.9%; and sustained pain free, 22.9% vs 23.8%. Almotriptan was similarly effective in relieving migraine-associated symptoms and improving functional disability associated with both MRM and nonMRM. Conclusions., Prior to treatment, the presence of migraine-associated characteristics including aura, allodynia-associated symptoms, photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea were similar for both MRM and nonMRM attacks. The pretreatment levels of pain intensity and functional disability were likewise similar across the migraine subtypes. Almotriptan was equally effective in the treatment of both MRM and nonMRM attacks and was associated with an adverse event profile that was similar to placebo treatment. [source]

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of flocoumafen and brodifacoum in whole blood

Mi-cong Jin
Abstract A high-performance liquid chromatographic,tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC,MS,MS) assay was developed and validated to determine quantitatively flocoumafen and brodifacoum in whole blood using warfarin as an internal standard (IS). Liquid,liquid extraction, using ethyl acetate, was used to isolate flocoumafen, brodifacoum and the IS from the biological matrix. Detection was performed on a mass spectrometer by negative electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves were linear (r2 > 0.998) in the concentration range of 0.1,100.0 ng ml,1 with a lower limit of quantification of 0.05 ng ml,1 for flocoumafen, and 0.1 ng ml,1 for brodifacoum in whole blood. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 8.0% and 10.8%, respectively. Recoveries of flocoumafen and brodifacoum ranged from 78.0% to 83.7%. This assay can be used to determine trace flocoumafen and brodifacoum in whole blood to investigate suspected poisoning of human and animals. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Magnetic resonance microscopy at 17.6-Tesla on chicken embryos in vitro

Bianca Hogers PhD
Abstract The non-destructive nature and the rapid acquisition of a three-dimensional image makes magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) very attractive and suitable for functional imaging investigations. We explored the use of an ultra high magnetic field for MRM to increase image quality per image acquisition time. Improved image quality was characterized by a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), better image contrast, and higher resolution compared to images obtained at lower magnetic field strengths. Fixed chicken embryos at several stages of development were imaged at 7.0-T (300 MHz) and at 17.6-T (750 MHz). Maximum intensity projection resulted in three-dimensional vascular images with ample detail of the embryonic vasculature. We showed that at 750 MHz frequency, an image with approximately three times better SNR can be obtained by T1 -weighting using a standard gadolinium contrast agent, compared to the same measurement at 300 MHz. The image contrast improved by around 20 percent and the contrast-to-noise ratio improved by almost a factor of 3.5. Smaller blood vessels of the vascular system were identified at the high field, which indicates a better image resolution. Thus, ultra high field is beneficial for MRM and opens new areas for functional imaging research, in particular when SNR, resolution, and contrast are limited by acquisition time. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;14:83,86. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/positive ion tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of cimetropium in human plasma by liquid,liquid extraction

Heon-Woo Lee
Abstract We have developed and validated a simple detection system with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for determining cimetropium levels in human plasma using scopolamine butyl bromide as an internal standard (I.S.). The acquisition was performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, by monitoring the transitions: m/z 357.9 > 103.1 for cimetropium and m/z 359.9 > 103.1 for butyl-scopolamine. The method involves a simple single-step liquid,liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The analyte was chromatographed on an YMC C18 reversed-phase chromatographic column by isocratic elution with 10 mM ammonium formate buffer,methanol (19 : 81, v/v; adjusted to pH 4.0 with formic acid). The results were linear over the studied range (0.2,100 ng ml,1), with r2 = 1.0000, and the total analysis time for each run was 2 min. Intra- and interassay precisions were 0.70,8.54% and 1.08,4.85%, respectively, and intra- and interassay accuracies were 97.56,108.23% and 97.48,103.91%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.2 ng ml,1. At this concentration, mean intra- and interassay precisions were 8.54% and 4.85%, respectively, and mean intra- and interassay accuracies were 97.56% and 98.91%, respectively. The mean recovery ranged from 62.71 ± 4.06 to 64.23 ± 2.32%. Cimetropium was found to be stable in plasma samples under typical storage and processing conditions. The devised assay was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of cimetropium bromide administered as a single oral dose (150 mg) to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Defines Ethanol-Induced Brain Abnormalities in Prenatal Mice: Effects of Acute Insult on Gestational Day 7

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2010
Elizabeth A. Godin
Background:, This magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM)-based report is the second in a series designed to illustrate the spectrum of craniofacial and central nervous system (CNS) dysmorphia resulting from single- and multiple-day maternal ethanol treatment. The study described in this report examined the consequences of ethanol exposure on gestational day (GD) 7 in mice, a time in development when gastrulation and neural plate development begins; corresponding to the mid- to late third week postfertilization in humans. Acute GD 7 ethanol exposure in mice has previously been shown to result in CNS defects consistent with holoprosencephaly (HPE) and craniofacial anomalies typical of those in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). MRM has facilitated further definition of the range of GD 7 ethanol-induced defects. Methods:, C57Bl/6J female mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered vehicle or 2 injections of 2.9 g/kg ethanol on day 7 of pregnancy. Stage-matched control and ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses selected for imaging were immersion fixed in a Bouins/Prohance solution. MRM was conducted at either 7.0 Tesla (T) or 9.4 T. Resulting 29 ,m isotropic spatial resolution scans were segmented and reconstructed to provide 3D images. Linear and volumetric brain measures, as well as morphological features, were compared for control and ethanol-exposed fetuses. Following MRM, selected specimens were processed for routine histology and light microscopic examination. Results:, Gestational day 7 ethanol exposure resulted in a spectrum of median facial and forebrain deficiencies, as expected. This range of abnormalities falls within the HPE spectrum; a spectrum for which facial dysmorphology is consistent with and typically is predictive of that of the forebrain. In addition, other defects including median facial cleft, cleft palate, micrognathia, pituitary agenesis, and third ventricular dilatation were identified. MRM analyses also revealed cerebral cortical dysplasia/heterotopias resulting from this acute, early insult and facilitated a subsequent focused histological investigation of these defects. Conclusions:, Individual MRM scans and 3D reconstructions of fetal mouse brains have facilitated demonstration of a broad range of GD 7 ethanol-induced morphological abnormality. These results, including the discovery of cerebral cortical heterotopias, elucidate the teratogenic potential of ethanol insult during the third week of human prenatal development. [source]

Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Defines Ethanol-Induced Brain Abnormalities in Prenatal Mice: Effects of Acute Insult on Gestational Day 8

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
Scott E. Parnell
Background:, Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microscopic levels, provides unprecedented opportunities to aid in defining the full spectrum of ethanol's insult to the developing brain. This is the first in a series of reports that, collectively, will provide an MRM-based atlas of developmental stage-dependent structural brain abnormalities in a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) mouse model. The ethanol exposure time and developmental stage examined for this report is gestational day (GD) 8 in mice, when the embryos are at early neurulation stages; stages present in humans early in the fourth week postfertilization. Methods:, For this study, pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were administered an ethanol dosage of 2.8 g/kg intraperitoneally at 8 days, 0 hour and again at 8 days, 4 hours postfertilization. On GD 17, fetuses that were selected for MRM analyses were immersion fixed in a Bouin's/Prohance® solution. Control fetuses from vehicle-treated dams were stage-matched to those that were ethanol-exposed. The fetal mice were scanned ex vivo at 7.0 T and 512 × 512 × 1024 image arrays were acquired using 3-D spin warp encoding. The resulting 29 ,m (isotropic) resolution images were processed using ITK-SNAP, a 3-D segmentation/visualization tool. Linear and volume measurements were determined for selected brain, head, and body regions of each specimen. Comparisons were made between control and treated fetuses, with an emphasis on determining (dis)proportionate changes in specific brain regions. Results:, As compared with controls, the crown-rump lengths of stage-matched ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses were significantly reduced, as were brain and whole body volumes. Volume reductions were notable in every brain region examined, with the exception of the pituitary and septal region, and were accompanied by increased ventricular volumes. Disproportionate regional brain volume reductions were most marked on the right side and were significant for the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum; the latter being the most severely affected. Additionally, the septal region and the pituitary were disproportionately large. Linear measures were consistent with those of volume. Other dysmorphologic features noted in the MR scans were choanal stenosis and optic nerve coloboma. Conclusions:, This study demonstrates that exposure to ethanol occurring in mice at stages corresponding to the human fourth week postfertilization results in structural brain abnormalities that are readily identifiable at fetal stages of development. In addition to illustrating the utility of MR microscopy for analysis of an FASD mouse model, this work provides new information that confirms and extends human clinical observations. It also provides a framework for comparison of structural brain abnormalities resulting from ethanol exposure at other developmental stages and dosages. [source]

Automated determination of venlafaxine in human plasma by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS.

Application to a bioequivalence study
Abstract A new automated SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify venlafaxine in human plasma using fluoxetine as an internal standard. The analytes were automatically extracted from plasma by C18 SPE cartridges, separated on a C8 RP column and analyzed by MS in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode. The method has a chromatographic run time of 4.0 min and a linear calibration curve over the range of 0.25,200 ng/mL (r >0.997). The between-run precisions, based on the percent RSD for replicate quality controls (0.75; 80, and 200 ng/mL), were < 8.5% for all concentrations. The between-run accuracies, based on the percent relative error, were < 4.0%. This method was successfully employed in a bioequivalence study of two venlafaxine capsule formulations (test formulation from Eurofarma (Brazil) and Efexor XR, reference formulation, from Wyeth-Whitehall, Brazil) in 48 healthy volunteers of both sexes who received a single 150 mg dose of each formulation. More than 3000 samples were analyzed eliminating the analyst's exposure to hazardous organic solvents normally employed in off-line liquid,liquid extractions. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the individual ratio geometric mean for Test/Reference was 91.6,103.4% for AUC0,48 h and 102.2,112.6% for Cmax. Since both 90% CI for AUC0,48 h and Cmax were included in the 80,125% interval proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), the test formulation was considered bioequivalent to Efexor XR according to both the rate and extent of absorption. [source]

HPLC-MS of anthraquinoids, flavonoids, and their degradation products in analysis of natural dyes in archeological objects

Izabella Surowiec
Abstract LC with MS detection was optimized for sensitive and selective analysis of main classes of natural dyes used in ancient times for dyeing textiles , red anthraquinoids, yellow flavonoids, and known degradation products of flavonols , hydroxybenzoic acids. Fragmentation patterns of both negative and positive molecular ions for the above mentioned compounds were investigated. Three acquisition modes of MS analysis: scanning, SIM, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in both positive and negative ion modes were optimized and compared with each other and with the UV-Vis diode-array detection. Even though in the applied chromatographic system formic acid was used in the mobile phase, SIM in the negative ion mode was the most selective and sensitive detection for all the investigated compounds when both mixtures of standards and analysis of extracts from archeological samples were concerned, with one exception , alizarin, for which MS detection in positive ion mode was more sensitive. Detection limits obtained with MS detection for all investigated compounds except quinizarin were lower than the ones obtained with the diode-array UV-Vis detection, making MS detection the most suitable tool for the analysis of natural dyes and their degradation products in extracts from archeological samples. [source]

MRM: The twenty-fifth anniversary

Michael B. Smith Editor-in-Chief
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Reconstruction of MR images from data acquired on an arbitrary k -space trajectory using the same-image weight

Yongxian Qian
Abstract A sampling density compensation function denoted "same-image (SI) weight" is proposed to reconstruct MR images from the data acquired on an arbitrary k -space trajectory. An equation for the SI weight is established on the SI criterion and an iterative scheme is developed to find the weight. The SI weight is then used to reconstruct images from the data calculated on a random trajectory in a numerical phantom case and from the data acquired on interleaved spirals in an in vivo experiment, respectively. In addition, Pipe and Menon's weight (MRM 1999;41:179,186) is also used in the reconstructions to make a comparison. The images obtained with the SI weight were found to be slightly more accurate than those obtained with Pipe's weight. Magn Reson Med 48:306,311, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Glutathione- S -transferase pi as a model protein for the characterisation of chemically reactive metabolites

Rosalind E. Jenkins Dr.
Abstract Chemically reactive metabolites (CRMs) are thought to be responsible for a number of adverse drug reactions through modification of critical proteins. Methods that defined the chemistry of protein modification at an early stage would provide invaluable tools for drug safety assessment. Here, human GST pi (GSTP) was exploited as a model target protein to determine the chemical, biochemical and functional consequences of exposure to the hepatotoxic CRM of paracetamol (APAP), N -acetyl- p -benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI). Site-specific, dose-dependent modification of Cys47 in native and His-tagged GSTP was revealed by MS, and correlated with inhibition of glutathione (GSH) conjugating activity. In addition, the adaptation of iTRAQ labelling technology to define precisely the quantitative relationship between covalent modification and protein function is described. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-MS of GSTP allowed high sensitivity detection of modified peptides at physiological levels of exposure. Finally, a bioengineered mutant cytochrome P450 with a broad spectrum of substrate specificities was used in an in vitro reaction system to bioactivate APAP: in this model, GSTP trapped the CRM and exhibited both reduced enzyme activity and site-specific modification of the protein. These studies provide the foundation for the development of novel test systems to predict the toxicological potential of CRMs produced by new therapeutic agents. [source]

Proteomics cataloging analysis of human expressed prostatic secretions reveals rich source of biomarker candidates

Runsheng Li
Abstract Expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) contain proteins of prostate origin that may reflect the health status of the prostate and be used as diagnostic markers for prostate diseases including prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. Despite their importance and potential applications, a complete catalog of EPS proteins is not yet available. We, therefore, undertook a comprehensive analysis of the EPS proteome using 2-D micro-LC combined with MS/MS. Using stringent filtering criteria, we identified a list of 114 proteins with at least two unique-peptide hits and an additional 75 proteins with only a single unique-peptide hit. The proteins identified include kallikrein 2 (KLK2), KLK3 (prostate-specific antigen), KLK11, and nine cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules including CD10, CD13, CD14, CD26, CD66a, CD66c, CD 143, CD177, and CD224. To our knowledge, this list represents the first comprehensive characterization of the EPS proteome, and it provides a candidate biomarker list for targeted quantitative proteomics analysis using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. To help prioritize candidate biomarkers, we constructed a protein,protein interaction network of the EPS proteins using Cytoscape (, and overlaid the expression level changes from the Oncomine database onto the network. [source]

High-throughput metabolic stability studies in drug discovery by orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (OATOF) with analogue-to-digital signal capture (ADC)

David G. Temesi
Screening assays capable of performing quantitative analysis on hundreds of compounds per week are used to measure metabolic stability during early drug discovery. Modern orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (OATOF) mass spectrometers equipped with analogue-to-digital signal capture (ADC) now offer performance levels suitable for many applications normally supported by triple quadruple instruments operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Herein the merits of MRM and OATOF with ADC detection are compared for more than 1000 compounds screened in rat and/or cryopreserved human hepatocytes over a period of 3 months. Statistical comparison of a structurally diverse subset indicated good agreement for the two detection methods. The overall success rate was higher using OATOF detection and data acquisition time was reduced by around 20%. Targeted metabolites of diazepam were detected in samples from a CLint determination performed at 1,µM. Data acquisition by positive and negative ion mode switching can be achieved on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak widths as narrow as 0.2,min (at base), thus enabling a more comprehensive first pass analysis with fast HPLC gradients. Unfortunately, most existing OATOF instruments lack the software tools necessary to rapidly convert the huge amounts of raw data into quantified results. Software with functionality similar to open access triple quadrupole systems is needed for OATOF to truly compete in a high-throughput screening environment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A semi-automated solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol and metabolites in whole blood,

Eshwar Jagerdeo
Marijuana is one of the most commonly abused illicit substances in the USA, making cannabinoids important to detect in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. Historically, cannabinoids in biological fluids have been derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). There has been a gradual shift in many laboratories towards liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for this analysis due to its improved sensitivity and reduced sample preparation compared with GC/MS procedures. This paper reports a validated method for the analysis of ,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its two main metabolites, 11-nor-9-carboxy-,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and 11-hydroxy-,9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), in whole blood samples. The method has also been validated for cannabinol (CBD) and cannabidiol (CDN), two cannabinoids that were shown not to interfere with the method. This method has been successfully applied to samples both from living people and from deceased individuals obtained during autopsy. This method utilizes online solid-phase extraction (SPE) with LC/MS. Pretreatment of samples involves protein precipitation, sample concentration, ultracentrifugation, and reconstitution. The online SPE procedure was developed using Hysphere C8-EC sorbent. A chromatographic gradient with an Xterra MS C18 column was used for the separation. Four multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were monitored for each analyte and internal standard. Linearity generally fell between 2 and 200,ng/mL. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.5 to 3,ng/mL and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 2 to 8,ng/mL. The bias and imprecision were determined using a simple analysis of variance (ANOVA: single factor). The results demonstrate bias as <7%, and imprecision as <9%, for all components at each quantity control level. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

False-positive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric confirmation of sebuthylazine residues using the identification points system according to EU directive 2002/657/EC due to a biogenic insecticide in tarragon

Andreas Schürmann
In pesticide residue analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) the confirmation of a sebuthylazine finding in a tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus) sample was demonstrated to be false positive. A coeluting interfering matrix compound produced product ions in MS/MS analysis, perfectly corresponding to the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two sebuthylazine transitions. Using the EU directive 2002/657/EC which regulates the confirmation of suspected positive findings would have resulted in a false-positive finding. A third LC/MS/MS transition with a deviant ion ratio and a gas chromatography (GC)/MS/MS analysis revealed the false-positive results. With optimized high resolving ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) conditions it was possible to separate spiked sebuthylazine from the interfering matrix compound. Using its exact mass and isotope ratios from LC/time-of-flight (TOF) MS measurements, the compound was identified as nepellitorine, a , not surprising , endogenous alkamide in tarragon (Arthemisia dranunculus). False-positive results, especially in heavy matrix samples such as herbs, can be dealt with by further confirmatory analysis, e.g. a third transition, GC analysis if possible or more advantageous by an orthogonal criterion like exact mass. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine in hair by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Da-Kong Huang
A fast and sensitive liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM), cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Pulverized hair samples were extracted with methanol, and a 50,µL supernatant aliquot was injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatography was performed with an XBridgeÔ phenyl column (3.5,µm particle size, 4.6,×,150,mm), and the mobile phase was composed of methanol and 10,mM ammonium acetate adjusted to pH 4.00 with 99% formic acid (95:5, v/v). A separation run with isocratic elution was completed in 10,min at a flow rate of 500,µL/min. Positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition were used for the identification of each analyte. Deuterated analogues as internal standards were used for quantification and qualification. Linearity was established in the concentration range of 100,3000,pg/mg. The limits of detection were 10,pg/mg for morphine, codeine and 6-AM; and 1,pg/mg for cocaine and BE. The precision and accuracy were determined by spiking hair samples at six concentration levels. For all analytes, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were 0.1,6.3% and 1.5,10.6%, respectively. The accuracy ranged from 92.7 to 109.7%. The validated LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 79 authentic hair samples. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Isobaric metabolite interferences and the requirement for close examination of raw data in addition to stringent chromatographic separations in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric analysis of drugs in biological matrix

Zhengyin Yan
In addition to matrix effects, common interferences observed in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analyses can be caused by the response of drug-related metabolites to the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) channel of a given drug, as a result of in-source reactions or decomposition of either phase I or II metabolites. However, it has been largely ignored that, for some drugs, metabolism can lead to the formation of isobaric or isomeric metabolites that exhibit the same MRM transitions as parent drugs. The present study describes two examples demonstrating that interference caused by isobaric or isomeric metabolites is a practical issue in analyzing biological samples by LC/MS/MS. In the first case, two sequential metabolic reactions, demethylation followed by oxidation of a primary alcohol moiety to a carboxylic acid, produced an isobaric metabolite that exhibits a MRM transition identical to the parent drug. Because the drug compound was rapidly metabolized in rats and completely disappeared in plasma samples, the isobaric metabolite appeared as a single peak in the total ion current (TIC) trace and could easily be quantified as the drug since it was eluted at a retention time very close to that of the drug in a 12-min LC run. In the second example, metabolism via the ring-opening of a substituted isoxazole moiety led to the formation of an isomeric product that showed an almost identical collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS spectrum as the original drug. Because two components were co-eluted, the isomeric product could be mistakenly quantified and reported by data processing software as the parent drug if the TIC trace was not carefully inspected. Nowadays, all LC/MS data are processed by computer software in a highly automated fashion, and some analysts may spend much less time to visually examine raw TIC traces than they used to do. Two examples described in this article remind us that quality data require both adequate chromatographic separations and close examination of raw data in LC/MS/MS analyses of drugs in biological matrix. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Plasma free fatty acid profiling in a fish oil human intervention study using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Nicole Zehethofer
A rapid method was developed for the simultaneous profiling of 29 free fatty acids in plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Barium acetate was used as the cationization agent in the positive ion mode for sensitive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments. The cis- and trans -C18:1 and -C18:2 isomers were baseline-separated using two tandem reversed-phase C18 UPLC columns, while identification of two pairs of positional isomers of C18:3 and C20:3 required isomer-specific product ions, as the analytes were not chromatographically resolved. The assay linearity was greater than three orders of magnitude and correlation coefficients were >0.99; the limits of detections were typically less than 0.2,µM. The method was successfully applied to plasma free fatty acid profiling of samples from volunteers who participated in a randomized crossover study involving the administration of either placebo or fish oil capsules. The results clearly indicate the ability to measure the time profiles of the n -3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma for the volunteers given fish oil capsules while the concentrations of the other free fatty acids and the total free fatty acid concentration in plasma remained virtually constant. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring for optimal selection of transitions to evaluate nutraceuticals from olive-tree materials

Rafael Japón Luján
Optimal transitions have been selected for the identification and quantitation of the most interesting hydrophilic biophenols in extracts from olive-tree materials, which are of interest because of their nutraceutical properties. The tested materials were extra virgin olive oil, waste from oil production (known as alperujo), and olive-tree materials such as leaves, small branches and fruit stones. The identification and determination steps of the target biophenols are based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with a triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass detector. The interface between the chromatograph and the QQQ was an electrospray ionization source operated in the negative ion mode. Highly selective identification of the biophenols was confirmed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the most representative transitions from the precursor ion to the different product ions. Quantitative MS/MS analysis was carried out by optimization and selection of the most sensitive transition for each analyte, which resulted in estimated detection limits of 5.10 to 11.65,ng/mL for the extracts. The biophenols were extracted from the tested samples by different methods: liquid-liquid extraction for virgin olive oil, microwave-assisted leaching for olive leaves, branches and stones, and pressurized liquid leaching for alperujo. This study provides valuable information about the most suitable source for the isolation of each nutraceutical biophenol and enables us to obtain a complete profile of them in Olea Europaea. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry validated method for the simultaneous quantification of sibutramine and its primary and secondary amine metabolites in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study

Deepak S. Jain
A high-throughput and sensitive bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) has been developed for the estimation of sibutramine and its two metabolites (M1 and M2). The extraction of sibutramine, its metabolites and imipramine (internal standard (IS)) from the plasma involved treatment with phosphoric acid followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced HLB cartridge. The SPE eluate without drying and reconstitution was analyzed by LC/MS/MS, equipped with a with turbo ion spray (TIS) source, operating in the positive and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition mode. Sample preparation by this method yielded extremely clean extracts with quantitative and consistent mean recoveries; 95.12% for sibutramine, 92.74% for M1, 95.97% for M2 and 96.60% for the IS. The total chromatographic run time was 3.0,min with retention times of 2.51, 2.13, 2.09,min for sibutramine, M1, M2 and imipramine, respectively. The developed method was validated in human plasma matrix, with a sensitivity of 0.1,ng/mL (coefficient of variance (CV), 2.07%) for sibutramine, 0.1,ng/mL (CV, 3.59%) for M1 and 0.2,ng/mL (CV, 4.93%) for M2. Validation of the method for its accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability was carried out especially with regard to real subject sample analysis. The response was linear over the dynamic range 0.1 to 8.0,ng/mL for sibutramine and M1, and 0.2 to 16.0,ng/mL for M2 with correlation coefficients of r,,,0.9959 (sibutramine), 0.9935 (M1) and 0.9943 (M2). The method was successfully applied for bioequivalence studies in 40 human subjects with 15,mg capsule formulations. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Detection of 28 neurotransmitters and related compounds in biological fluids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

Sophie Bourcier
This work presents two liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) acquisition modes: multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and neutral loss scan (NL), for the analysis of 28 compounds in a mixture. This mixture includes 21 compounds related to the metabolism of three amino acids: tyrosine, tryptophan and glutamic acid, two pterins and five deuterated compounds used as internal standards. The identification of compounds is achieved using the retention times (RT) and the characteristic fragmentations of ionized compounds. The acquisition modes used for the detection of characteristic ions turned out to be complementary: the identification of expected compounds only is feasible by MRM while expected and unexpected compounds are detected by NL. In the first part of this work, the fragmentations characterizing each molecule of interest are described. These fragmentations are used in the second part for the detection by MRM and NL of selected compounds in mixture with and without biological fluids. Any preliminary extraction precedes the analysis of compounds in biological fluids. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Targeted comparative proteomics by liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry,

Jeremy E. Melanson
Here we report the first application of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer for targeted proteomics. Employing an amine-specific isotopic labelling approach, the technique was validated using five randomly selected bovine serum albumin peptides differentially labelled at known ratios. An indirect benefit of the isotopic labelling technique is a significant enhancement of the a1 ion in tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of all peptides studied. Therefore, the a1 ion was selected as the fragment ion for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in all cases, eliminating tedious method development and optimization. Accurate quantification was achieved with an average relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5% (n,=,5) and a detection limit of 14,amol. The technique was then applied to validate an important virulence biomarker of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which was not accurately quantified using global proteomics experiment employing two-dimensional liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC/ESI)-MS/MS. Using LC/MALDI-MRM analysis of five tryptic peptides, the protein PHR1 was found to be upregulated in the hyphal (pathogenic) form of C. albicans by a factor of 7.7,±,0.8. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pharmacokinetic measurements of IDN 5390 using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: structure characterization and quantification in dog plasma

Liguo Song
In this report, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for a pharmacokinetic study of IDN 5390, a novel C- seco taxane derivative, which is under preclinical evaluation, has been investigated. Our results showed that IDN 5390 and other taxanes including paclitaxel and IDN 5109 could ionize well in not only positive-, but also in negative-ion mode. Under collision-induced dissociation (CID) conditions, these compounds could fragment into similar M- (molecular), T- (taxane ring) and S- (side chain) series ions. In positive-ion ESI, the formation of both T- and S-series ions involved the breaking of the C-13 ester bond. In negative-ion ESI, however, while the formation mechanism of S-series ions remained the same, the breaking of the C-1, carboxylic ester bond resulted in T-series ions. At optimum collision energy (CE) values, M-, T- and S-series ions of IDN 5390 in both positive- and negative-ion ESI-MS/MS spectra had good intensity. This phenomenon makes both positive- and negative-ion ESI-MS/MS good methods for IDN 5390 metabolite structural characterization, i.e. to reveal the location of modification groups in IDN 5390 metabolites versus IDN 5390 either on the side chain or the taxane ring. A liquid chromatography (LC)/ESI-MS/MS method using the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique was thereafter developed to quantify IDN 5390 in dog plasma using paclitaxel as internal standard. The method was validated using a concentration range between 5 and 1000,ng/mL and had a limit of detection of 1,ng/mL. The inter-day %CV (%coefficient of variation) of the calibration standards ranged between 4.36 and 9.64%, the intra-day %CV of the calibration standards between 0.61 and 13.44%, and the mean % accuracy of the quality control samples at the low, middle and high end of the concentration curves were 12.5, 6.8 and 9.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Analytical method for the quantitative determination of urinary ethylenethiourea by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Cristina Sottani
A direct, rapid and selective method for the quantitative determination of the ethylenethiourea (ETU) in human urine has been validated and is reported in the present study. It allows the accurate quantification of ETU in this complex matrix without the use of any internal standard as the sample cleanup is effective enough for the removal of interferences that could lead to ion suppression in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source. This simple and rapid purification system, based on the use of a Fluorosil phase of a BondElut® column followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, achieves mean extracted recoveries, assessed at three different concentrations (2.5, 10.0, and 25.0,,g/L), always more than 85%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, is used to quantify ETU in human urine. The assay is linear over the range 0,50,,g/L, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.5,,g/L and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.9%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) is assessed at 0.5,,g/L. The overall precision and accuracy were determined on three different days. The values for within- and between-day precision are ,,8.3 and 10.1%, respectively, and the accuracy is in the range 97,118%. The relative uncertainties for the LOQ and QC concentrations have been estimated to be 18 and 8%, respectively. The assay was applied to quantify ETU in human urine from growers that regularly handle ethylenebisdithiocarbamate pesticides in large crop plantations. The biological samples were collected at the start and end of the working day, and the ETU urine levels were found to vary between 1.9 and 8.2,,g/L. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the identification and determination of trichothecenes in maize

Aldo Laganŕ
A reliable, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed to determine four trichothecene mycotoxins (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol) in maize. Sample preparation was performed by extracting the analytes with a mixture of acetonitrile and water, followed by a solid-phase extraction with Carbograph-4 cartridges as the purification step. For the LC/MS/MS analysis two interfacing systems, Turbo IonSpray (TISP) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), were compared in both negative and positive ion modes. LC and MS parameters were optimized to achieve better results and sensitivity. The effect of mobile phase modifiers such as ammonium acetate and formic acid on the ionization yield was also evaluated. The best results were obtained using the electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in negative ion mode and the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) for the quantitation. The detection limits ranged between 10,ng/g for fusarenon X and 1.5,ng/g for deoxynivalenol. A linear working range was achieved with a standard deviation between 3 and 10% and recovery rates from the maize samples above 81%. The procedure was applied to the analysis of a set of maize samples collected from farms located in different areas of northern and central Italy. The investigated samples turned out to be contaminated primarily with deoxynivalenol and, to a minor extent, with its derivatives. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Direct tandem mass spectrometric analysis of amino acids in dried blood spots without chemical derivatization for neonatal screening

Kornél Nagy
Neonatal screening performed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful technique in clinical diagnostics. In the present paper an alternative to the widely accepted method involving butylation has been developed. In the new method butylation is not required, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used instead of constant neutral loss scanning. The method was optimized for detection of 23 L-amino acids in their native form. Quantitation was based on isotope-labeled internal standards, calibration curves were linear from 0 to 500,,mol/L, and detection limits were in the range 2,42,,mol/L. The utility of the present technique is illustrated in the case of one neonate suffering from citrullinaemia. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Quantification of clenbuterol in equine plasma, urine and tissue by liquid chromatography coupled on-line with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Fuyu Guan
Clenbuterol (CBL) is a potent ,2 -adrenoceptor agonist used for the management of respiratory disorders in the horse. The detection and quantification of CBL can pose a problem due to its potency, the relatively low dose administered to the horse, its slow clearance and low plasma concentrations. Thus, a sensitive method for the quantification and confirmation of CBL in racehorses is required to study its distribution and elimination. A sensitive and fast method was developed for quantification and confirmation of the presence of CBL in equine plasma, urine and tissue samples. The method involved liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), separation by liquid chromatography (LC) on a short cyano column, and pseudo multiple reaction monitoring (pseudo-MRM) by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). At very low concentrations (picograms of CBL/mL), LLE produced better extraction efficiency and calibration curves than solid-phase extraction (SPE). The operating parameters for electrospray QTOF and yield of the product ion in MRM were optimized to enhance sensitivity for the detection and quantification of CBL. The quantification range of the method was 0.013,10,ng of CBL/mL plasma, 0.05,20,ng/0.1,mL of urine, and 0.025,10,ng/g tissue. The detection limit of the method was 13,pg/mL of plasma, 50,pg/0.1,mL of urine, and 25,pg/g of tissue. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CBL in plasma, urine and various tissue samples, and in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of CBL in the horse. CBL was quantified for 96,h in plasma and 288,h in urine post-administration of CLB (1.6,µg/kg, 2,×,daily,×,7 days). This method is useful for the detection and quantification of very low concentrations of CBL in urine, plasma and tissue samples. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]