MRI System (mri + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A voxel-based morphometry study of frontal gray matter correlates of impulsivity,

Koji Matsuo
Abstract Impulsivity is a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals, but excessive impulsivity is associated with some mental disorders. Lesion and functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the ventromedial prefrontal region (VMPFC), including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala may modulate impulsivity and aggression. However, no morphometric study has examined the association between VMPFC and impulsivity. We hypothesized that healthy subjects with high impulsivity would have smaller volumes in these brain regions compared with those with low impulsivity. Sixty-two healthy subjects were studied (age 35.4 ± 12.1 years) using a 1.5-T MRI system. The Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS) was used to assess impulsivity. Images were processed using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol. We calculated the correlations between BIS scale scores and the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes of VMPFC and amygdala. GM volumes of the left and right OFC were inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Left ACC GM volumes had a tendency to be inversely correlated with the BIS total score (P = 0.05). Right OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with BIS nonplanning impulsivity, and left OFC GM volumes were inversely correlated with motor impulsivity. There were no significant WM volume correlations with impulsivity. The results of this morphometry study indicate that small OFC volume relate to high impulsivity and extend the prior finding that the VMPFC is involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Reproducibility of black blood dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in aortic plaques of atherosclerotic rabbits

Claudia Calcagno MD
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the short-term reproducibility of black-blood dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in atherosclerotic rabbits to evaluate the potential of this technique to be a reliable readout of plaque progression and/or regression upon therapeutic intervention. Materials and Methods: Atherosclerotic rabbits were imaged at baseline and 24 hours later with DCE-MRI on a 1.5T MRI system. DCE-MRI images were analyzed by calculating the area under the signal intensity versus time curve (AUC). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate interscan, intraobserver, and interobserver reproducibility. In addition, the test,retest coefficient of variation (CoV) was evaluated. Results: Statistical analyses showed excellent interscan, intraobserver, and interobserver agreement. All ICCs were greater than 0.75, P < 0.01 indicating excellent agreement between measurements. Conclusion: Experimental results show good interscan and excellent intra- and interobserver reproducibility, suggesting that DCE-MRI could be used in preclinical settings as a read-out for novel therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis. This preliminary work encourages investigating the reproducibility of DCE-MRI also in clinical settings, where it could be used for monitoring high-risk patients and in longitudinal clinical drug trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:191,198. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Image-guided and -monitored renal artery stenting using only MRI

Daniel R. Elgort PhD
Abstract Purpose To demonstrate the ability of a unique interventional MR system to be used safely and effectively as the only imaging modality for all phases of MR-guided stent-supported angioplasty. Materials and Methods An experimental disease model of renal stenosis was created in six pigs. An interventional MR system, which employed previously reported tools for real-time catheter tracking with automated scan-plane positioning, adaptive image parameters, and radial true,FISP imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP) imaging coupled with a high-speed reconstruction technique, was then used to guide all phases of the intervention, including: guidewire and catheter insertion, stent deployment, and confirmation of therapeutic success. Pre- and postprocedural X-ray imaging was used as a gold standard to validate the experimental results. Results All of the stent-supported angioplasty interventions were a technical success and were performed without complications. The average postoperative residual stenosis was 14.9%. The image guidance enabled the stents to be deployed with an accuracy of 0.98 ± 0.69 mm. Additionally, using this interventional MRI system to guide renal artery stenting significantly reduces the procedure time, as compared to using X-ray fluoroscopy. Conclusion This study has clearly demonstrated the first successful treatment of renal artery stenting in an experimental animal model solely under MRI guidance and monitoring. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MRI tissue characterization of experimental cerebral ischemia in rat

Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh PhD
Abstract Purpose To extend the ISODATA image segmentation method to characterize tissue damage in stroke, by generating an MRI score for each tissue that corresponds to its histological damage. Materials and Methods After preprocessing and segmentation (using ISODATA clustering), the proposed method scores tissue regions between 1 and 100. Score 1 is assigned to normal brain matter (white or gray matter), and score 100 to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Lesion zones are assigned a score based on their relative levels of similarities to normal brain matter and CSF. To evaluate the method, 15 rats were imaged by a 7T MRI system at one of three time points (acute, subacute, chronic) after MCA occlusion. Then they were killed and their brains were sliced and prepared for histological studies. MRI of two or three slices of each rat brain (using two DWI (b = 400, b = 800), one PDWI, one T2WI, and one T1WI) was performed, and an MRI score between 1 and 100 was determined for each region. Segmented regions were mapped onto the histology images and scored on a scale of 1,10 by an experienced pathologist. The MRI scores were validated by comparison with histology scores. To this end, correlation coefficients between the two scores (MRI and histology) were determined. Results Experimental results showed excellent correlations between MRI and histology scores at different time points. Depending on the reference tissue (gray matter or white matter) used in the standardization, the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 (P < 0.0001) to 0.78 (P < 0.0001) using the entire dataset, including acute, subacute, and chronic time points. This suggests that the proposed multiparametric approach accurately identified and characterized ischemic tissue in a rat model of cerebral ischemia at different stages of stroke evolution. Conclusion The proposed approach scores tissue regions and characterizes them using unsupervised clustering and multiparametric image analysis techniques. The method can be used for a variety of applications in the field of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment, including evaluation of response to treatment. For example, volume changes for different zones of the lesion over time (e.g., tissue recovery) can be evaluated. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003;17:398,409. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessment of the three-dimensional relationship of the ossific nuclei and cartilaginous anlagen in congenital clubfoot by 3-D MRI

Tomonobu Itohara
Abstract Purpose: Radiographic measurement is the usual method used to objectively determine the extent of a congenital clubfoot deformity. Although radiographs have been used clinically to estimate the size and location of tarsal bones through measurements of the ossific nuclei, it is not clear to what extent these relationships are actually reflected in these measurements. So, we used a 3-D MRI system that could more objectively estimate sizes and positional relationships. Material and method: We evaluated 5 patients with unilateral congenital clubfoot deformity. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed of both feet using 1.5-T magnet. Based on the resulting magnetic resonance imaging volume data, a three-dimensional surface bone model was reconstructed by the Marching Cubes method. We used this model to perform a comparative analysis of the volume and volume ratio of each cartilaginous anlage and ossific nucleus, the length of the talus and the calcaneus, and the position of the center of gravity of ossific nuclei within the cartilaginous anlagen. We measured the relationship between the ossific nuclei and cartilaginous anlagen in the talus and calcaneus of patients with unilateral clubfoot deformity. Result: In clubfeet talus volume was reduced by 20.1% and calcaneal volume was reduced by 15.7%. Furthermore, the volume of the talar ossific nucleus was reduced by 42.6% and that of the calcaneal ossific nucleus was reduced by 12.1%. The length of the clubfoot talus was 8.2% shorter than normal, and that of the calcaneus was 4.8% shorter. Conclusion: The assessment technique presented herein was shown to be useful in ascertaining the various pathological characteristics associated with clubfoot. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Visualization of active devices and automatic slice repositioning ("SnapTo") for MRI-guided interventions

Ashvin K. George
Abstract The accurate visualization of interventional devices is crucial for the safety and effectiveness of MRI-guided interventional procedures. In this paper, we introduce an improvement to the visualization of active devices. The key component is a fast, robust method ("CurveFind") that reconstructs the three-dimensional trajectory of the device from projection images in a fraction of a second. CurveFind is an iterative prediction-correction algorithm that acts on a product of orthogonal projection images. By varying step size and search direction, it is robust to signal inhomogeneities. At the touch of a key, the imaged slice is repositioned to contain the relevant section of the device ("SnapTo"), the curve of the device is plotted in a three-dimensional display, and the point on a target slice, which the device will intersect, is displayed. These features have been incorporated into a real-time MRI system. Experiments in vitro and in vivo (in a pig) have produced successful results using a variety of single- and multichannel devices designed to produce both spatially continuous and discrete signals. CurveFind is typically able to reconstruct the device curve, with an average error of approximately 2 mm, even in the case of complex geometries. Magn Reson Med 63:1070,1079, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Development of a compact MRI system for trabecular bone microstructure measurements of the distal radius

Shinya Handa
Abstract A compact MRI system for trabecular bone (TB) microstructure measurements of the distal radius was developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet and a compact MRI console. TB microstructure of the distal radius was clearly visualized using a three-dimensional (3D) driven equilibrium spin-echo (DESE) sequence in 23 min. The image obtained had a sufficient spatial resolution (150 ,m × 150 ,m × 500 ,m) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) (approximately 10) for 3D bone microstructure analysis. The system demonstrated the feasibility of using a permanent magnet compact MRI system as a clinical instrument for bone microstructure measurements of the distal radius. Magn Reson Med 58:225,229, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Radio frequency magnetic field mapping of a 3 Tesla birdcage coil: Experimental and theoretical dependence on sample properties ,

Marcello Alecci
Abstract The RF B1 distribution was studied, theoretically and experimentally, in phantoms and in the head of volunteers using a 3 T MRI system equipped with a birdcage coil. Agreement between numerical simulation and experiment demonstrates that B1 distortion at high field can be explained with 3D full-Maxwell calculations. It was found that the B1 distribution in the transverse plane is strongly dependent on the dielectric properties of the sample. We show that this is a consequence of RF penetration effects combined with RF standing wave effects. In contrast, along the birdcage coil z-axis the B1 distribution is determined mainly by the coil geometry. In the transverse plane, the region of B1 uniformity (within 10% of the maximum) was 15 cm with oil, 6 cm with distilled water, 11 cm with saline, and 10 cm in the head. Along z the B1 uniformity was 9 cm with phantoms and 7 cm in the head. Magn Reson Med 46:379,385, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

4352: Retrobulber imag,ng in glaucoma w,th d,ffus,on tensor MRI/opt,c tractography and fMRI: structural and funct,onal analys,s

Purpose Evidences today proves that, glaucomateus damage proceeds from retinal ganglion cells to brain. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the structural and functional eye-brain connection in glaucoma, to develop favourable clinical methods for both glaucoma follow ups and large clinical trials, and finally, to establish a reference for further studies regarding pathogenesis, evaluation and treatment of glaucoma. Methods Four glaucoma cases with symetrical (n=2) and asymetrical (n=2) involvement and 1 healthy subject are included in this study. Glaucoma analysis with optic coherens tomography (OCT) and central visual field (CVF) results of the subjects were recorded. By using diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) technique, 3D-T1 weighted images of the optic nerves and optic tracts were taken with optic tractography (OT). Then DT-MRI parameters obtained from each patient were compared with the fellow eye and the healthy subject. Retinotopic Organizations (RO) of primary visual cortexes were produced from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images and BOLD signals were evaluated with reciprocal CVF defects. All images were taken with 1,5T MRI system. Results In DT-MRI analysis, optic nerve volume, FA were found to be decreased in the eyes with severe RNFL loss. Optic nerve and tract deformation were showed with both OT and B0 coronal plane images. Lower bold signals were detected in the eyes of asymetric patients with severe glaucoma and in quadrants with large CVF defects. Conclusion Strategies concerning beyond optic nerve head are needed in glaucoma. Structural and functional analysis can be made by taken together the OCT and DT-MRI findings and CVF and fMRI findings, respectively. [source]

Proposing magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia in low-field MRI

Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy
Abstract This work examines feasibility, practical advantages, and disadvantages of a combined MRI/magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) system for cancerous tumor treatment in low perfusion tissue. Although combined MRI/hyperthermia systems have been proposed and constructed, the current proposal differs because the hyperthermia system would be specifically designed to interact with the magnetic nanoparticles injected at the tumor site. The proposal exploits the physical similarities between the magnetic nanoparticles currently employed for MPH and those used as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents in MR imaging. The proposal involves the addition of a rotating magnetic field RF hyperthermia source perpendicular to the MRI B0 field which operates in a similar manner to the MRI RF excitation field, B1, but at significantly higher frequency and field strength such that the magnetic nanoparticles are forced to rotate in its presence. This rotation is the source of increases in temperature which are of therapeutic benefit in cancer therapy. For rotating magnetic fields with amplitudes much smaller than B0, the nanoparticles' suspension magnetization rapidly saturates with increasing B0. Therefore, the proposal is best suited to low-field MRI systems when magnetic saturation is incomplete. In addition, careful design of the RF hyperthermia source is required to ensure no physical or RF interference with the B1 field used for MRI excitation. Notwithstanding these caveats, the authors have shown that localized steady-state temperature rises in small spherical tumors of up to 10°C are conceivable with careful selection of the nanoparticle radius and concentration, RF hyperthermia field amplitude and frequency. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 36,47, 2010. [source]

Prospects for progress in diagnostic imaging

E. J. Potchen
Abstract. Potchen EJ (Michigan State University, Michigan, USA). Prospects for progress in diagnostic imaging (Internal Medicine in the 21st Century). J Intern Med 2000; 247: 411,424. New fast-imaging MRI systems designed specifically for cardiac magnetic resonance enable new applications of noninvasive vascular imaging. The use of functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to map brain function and structure offers a new dimension to an understanding of the human condition. Clinical applications of functional MRI will influence many specialties including surgery, education, and rehabilitation. Functional imaging has the potential to visualize the regional concentration of specific proteins. This imaging at the level of molecules may be possible by use of a contrast material whose signal is changed by local enzymatic activity. The three-dimensional digital data collected in modern imaging techniques allow for virtual endoscopy in the respiratory, alimentary, and cardiovascular systems. Virtual endoscopy may replace many of the more invasive diagnostic methods in the near future. The measurement of clinical decision-making through observer performance studies better informs both the physician and the patient on how to improve upon the quality of clinical practice. These prospects for progress reinforce diagnostic imaging as a cornerstone in medical informatics. The history of creating images used in medicine reveals the invention of diagnostic tools which may provide new information but premature use can result in improper application of a poorly understood technology. Research into the use of new technology may be as important as the technology itself in improving the human condition. [source]

Improved homogeneity of the transmit field by simultaneous transmission with phased array and volume coil

Nikolai I. Avdievich PhD
Abstract Purpose: To improve the homogeneity of transmit volume coils at high magnetic fields (,4 T). Due to radiofrequency (RF) field/tissue interactions at high fields, 4 T to 8 T, the transmit profile from head-sized volume coils shows a distinctive pattern with relatively strong RF magnetic field B1 in the center of the brain. Materials and Methods: In contrast to conventional volume coils at high field strengths, surface coil phased arrays can provide increased RF field strength peripherally. In theory, simultaneous transmission from these two devices could produce a more homogeneous transmission field. To minimize interactions between the phased array and the volume coil, counter rotating current (CRC) surface coils consisting of two parallel rings carrying opposite currents were used for the phased array. Results: Numerical simulations and experimental data demonstrate that substantial improvements in transmit field homogeneity can be obtained. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the feasibility of using simultaneous transmission with human head-sized volume coils and CRC phased arrays to improve homogeneity of the transmit RF B1 field for high-field MRI systems. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:476,481. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Diffusion time dependence of the apparent diffusion tensor in healthy human brain and white matter disease

Chris A. Clark
Abstract The diffusion time dependence of the brain water diffusion tensor provides information regarding diffusion restriction and hindrance but has received little attention, primarily due to limitations in gradient amplitude available on clinical MRI systems, required to achieve short diffusion times. Using new, more powerful gradient hardware, the diffusion time dependence of tensor-derived metrics were studied in human brain in the range 8,80 ms, which encompasses the shortest diffusion times studied to date. There was no evidence for a change in mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, or in the eigenvalues with diffusion time in healthy human brain. The findings are consistent with a model of unrestricted, but hindered water diffusion with semipermeable membranes, likely originating from the extracellular space in which the average extracellular separation is less than 7 microns. Similar findings in two multiple sclerosis plaques indicated that the size of the water diffusion space in the lesion did not exceed this dimension. Magn Reson Med 45:1126,1129, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of strong static magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging on insulin-secreting cells

Tomonori Sakurai
Abstract The magnetic flux density of MRI for clinical diagnosis has been steadily increasing. However, there remains very little biological data regarding the effect of strong static magnetic fields (SMFs) on human health. To evaluate the effects of strong SMFs on biological systems, we cultured insulin-secreting cells under exposure to sham and SMF conditions (3,10 T of magnetic flux density, and 0,41.7 T/m of magnetic field gradient) for 0.5 or 1 h, and analyzed insulin secretion, mRNA expression, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin content, cell proliferation and cell number. Exposure to SMF with a high magnetic field gradient for 1 h significantly increased insulin secretion and insulin 1 mRNA expression. Exposure to SMF with a high magnetic flux density for 0.5 h significantly enhanced responsiveness to glucose stimulation. Exposure to SMF did not affect the insulin content, cell proliferation or cell number. Our results suggested that MRI systems with a higher magnetic flux density might not cause cell proliferative or functional damages on insulin-secreting cells, and that SMF with a high magnetic field gradient might be used clinically after thorough in vivo investigations are conducted. Bioelectromagnetics 30:1,8, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]