MRI Signal (mri + signal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Influence of the position of the foot on MRI signal in the deep digital flexor tendon and collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in the standing horse

Summary Reasons for performing study: Hyperintense signal is sometimes observed in ligaments and tendons of the equine foot on standing magnetic resonance examination without associated changes in size and shape. In such cases, the presence of a true lesion or an artifact should be considered. A change in position of a ligament or tendon relative to the magnetic field can induce increased signal intensity due to the magic angle effect. Objectives: To assess if positional rotation of the foot in the solar plane could be responsible for artifactual changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint and in the deep digital flexor tendon. Methods: Six isolated equine feet were imaged with a standing equine magnetic resonance system in 9 different positions with different degrees of rotation in the solar plane. Results: Rotation of the limb induced a linear hyperintense signal on all feet at the palmar aspect of one of the lobes of the deep digital flexor tendon and at the dorsal aspect of the other lobe. Changes in signal intensity in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint occurred with rotation of the limb only in those feet where mediolateral hoof imbalance was present. Conclusions: The position and conformation of the foot influence the signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint. Potential relevance: The significance of increased signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon and in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint should be interpreted with regard to the position and the conformation of the foot. [source]

T2-Weighted and T2 Relaxometry Images in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Ana Carolina Coan MD
ABSTRACT Purpose. Quantification of increased T2-weighted MRI signal that is associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) can be performed through (1) mean of hippocampal signal in single-echo T2 MRI and (2) hippocampal T2 relaxometry. It is not clear whether these two techniques are equivalent. In this study, we compare the hippocampal signal, detected by single-echo T2 quantification and by T2 relaxometry, in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Methods. We studied magnetic resonance images from 50 MTLE patients and 15 healthy subjects. We compared the quantification of a T2 signal from single echo images to T2 relaxometry, both obtained from a manually traced region of interest (ROI) in coronal slices involving the whole hippocampus. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in the distribution of the Z -scores from single-echo T2 quantification and T2 relaxometry within subjects. Results. We observed a significant difference between the measurements obtained from single-echo T2 quantification and T2 relaxometry (P < .001). Measurements from head, body, and tail of the hippocampus were different (P=.04), with a significant interaction between anatomic location and type of measurement used (P= .008). Post hoc paired comparisons revealed that T2 relaxometry yielded greater Z -scores for the body (P= .002) and tail (P < .0001). Conclusions. For each subject with MTLE, T2 relaxometry was able to detect a higher signal in the body and tail of the hippocampus compared to single-echo T2. This is a possible indicator that T2 relaxometry is more sensitive in detecting T2 abnormalities within the body and tail of the hippocampus in patients with MTLE. [source]

Modeling dynamic cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation on the basis of the blood-nulled functional MRI signal

Changwei W. Wu
Abstract Recently, vascular space occupancy (VASO) based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was proposed to detect dynamic cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes using the blood-nulled non-selective inversion recovery (NSIR) sequence. However, directly mapping the dynamic CBV change by the NSIR signal change is based on the assumption of slow water exchange (SWE) around the capillary regime without cerebral blood flow (CBF) effects. In the present study, a fast water exchange (FWE) model incorporating with flow effects was derived from the Bloch equations and implemented for the quantification of dynamic CBV changes using VASO-fMRI during brain activation. Simulated results showed that only subtle differences in CBV changes estimated by these two models were observed on the basis of previously published VASO results. The influence of related physiological and biophysical factors within typical ranges was evaluated in steady-state simulations. It was revealed that in the transient state the CBV curves could be delayed in comparison with measured NSIR curves owing to the imbalance between the inflowing and outflowing blood signals. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Improved spatial localization based on flow-moment-nulled and intra-voxel incoherent motion-weighted fMRI

Allen W. Song
Abstract Functional MRI signal based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast can reveal brain vascular activities secondary to neuronal activation. It could, however, arise from vascular compartments of all sizes, and in particular, be largely influenced by contributions of large vein origins that are distant from the neuronal activities. Alternative contrasts can be generated based on the cerebral blood flow or volume changes that would provide complementary information to help achieve more accurate localization to the small vessel origins. Recent reports also indicated that apparent diffusion coefficient-based contrast using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) weighting could be used to efficiently detect synchronized signal changes with the functional activities. It was found that this contrast has significant arterial contribution where flow changes are more dominant. In this study, a refined approach was proposed that incorporated the flow-moment-nulling (FMN) strategy to study signal changes from the brain activation. The results were then compared with those from conventional IVIM- and BOLD-weighted acquisitions. It was shown that the activated region using the new acquisition strategy had smaller spatial extent, which was contained within the activated areas from the other two methods. Based on the known characteristics of the conventional IVIM and BOLD contrasts, it was inferred that the FMN,IVIM acquisition had improved selective sensitivity towards smaller vessels where volume changes were prevalent. Therefore, such an acquisition method may provide more specific spatial localization closely coupled to the true neuronal activities. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Brain Apparent Water Diffusion Coefficient Magnetic Resonance Image During a Prolonged Visual Aura

HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
Robert Belvís MD
(Headache 2010;50:1045-1049) Background., Reversible changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) weighted in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent water diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps have been reported in acute stroke, epilepsy, eclampsia, and hypoglycemia, but they are contradictory regarding to migraine aura. Objective., A 41-year-old woman with known basilar migraine for 5 years consulted about a persistent visual aura (visual snow phenomenon) plus bilateral paresthesias in the extremities for 4 days. The headache was treated with success with 10 mg of wafer rizatriptan and 600 mg of ibuprophen. Methods., The neurologic and ophthalmologic examination were normal. An urgent brain MRI detected no lesions in T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and DWI, but an abnormal signal appeared in the left occipital lobe in ADC and (r)ADC maps. The brain MRI angiography, carotid ultrasound study, transesophageal echocardiography, 24-hour cardiac Holter monitoring, and thrombophilia study were normal. Results., A new brain MRI 8 days after did not show any previous lesion in the same sequences. Conclusions., We present a patient with migraine and transitory abnormal signals in the ADC map of an occipital region during persistent visual aura. The clinical-radiological relationship is congruent. Some similar cases have showed these MRI signals during the aura, suggesting cytotoxic edema, without ischemic lesions in the MRI controls. Theses ADC images probably appear in complex auras. [source]

Collagen structure: The molecular source of the tendon magic angle effect

Gary D. Fullerton PhD
Abstract This review of tendon/collagen structure shows that the orientational variation in MRI signals from tendon, which is referred to as the "magic angle" (MA) effect, is caused by irreducible separation of charges on the main chain of the collagen molecule. These charges are held apart in a vacuum by stereotactic restriction of protein folding due in large part to a high concentration of hydroxyproline ring residues in the amino acids of mammalian collagen. The elevated protein electrostatic energy is reduced in water by the large dielectric constant of the highly polar solvent (, , 80). The water molecules serve as dielectric molecules that are bound by an energy that is nearly equivalent to the electrostatic energy between the neighboring positive and negative charge pairs in a vacuum. These highly immobilized water molecules and secondary molecules in the hydrogen-bonded water network are confined to the transverse plane of the tendon. Orientational restriction causes residual dipole coupling, which is directly responsible for the frequency and phase shifts observed in orientational MRI (OMRI) described by the MA effect. Reference to a wide range of biophysical measurements shows that native hydration is a monolayer on collagen hm = 1.6 g/g, which divides into two components consisting of primary hydration on polar surfaces hpp = 0.8 g/g and secondary hydration hs = 0.8 g/g bridging over hydrophobic surface regions. Primary hydration further divides into side-chain hydration hpsc = 0.54 g/g and main-chain hydration hpmc = 0.263 g/g. The main-chain fraction consists of water that bridges between charges on the main chain and is responsible for almost all of the enthalpy of melting ,H = 70 J/g-dry mass. Main-chain water bridges consist of one extremely immobilized Ramachandran water bridge per tripeptide hRa = 0.0658 g/g and one double water bridge per tripeptide hdwb = 0.1974 g/g, with three water molecules that are sufficiently slowed to act as the spin-lattice relaxation sink for the entire tendon. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]