MRI Sequence (mri + sequence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

3 Tesla and 7 Tesla MRI of multiple sclerosis cortical lesions

Emma C. Tallantyre BM
Abstract Cortical lesions are prevalent in multiple sclerosis but are poorly detected using MRI. The double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence is increasingly used to explore the clinical relevance of cortical demyelination. Here we evaluate the agreement between imaging sequences at 3 Tesla (T) and 7T for the presence and appearance of individual multiple sclerosis cortical lesions. Eleven patients with demyelinating disease and eight healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging at 3T (fluid attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR], DIR, and T1 -weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo [MP-RAGE] sequences) and 7T (T1 -weighted MP-RAGE). There was good agreement between images for the presence of mixed cortical lesions (involving both gray and white matter). However, agreement between imaging sequences was less good for purely intracortical lesions. Even after retrospective analysis, 25% of cortical lesions could only be visualized on a single MRI sequence. Several DIR hyperintensities thought to represent cortical lesions were found to correspond to signal arising from extracortical blood vessels. High-resolution 7T imaging appeared useful for confidently classifying the location of lesions in relation to the cortical/subcortical boundary. We conclude that DIR, FLAIR, and MP-RAGE imaging sequences appear to provide complementary information during the detection of multiple sclerosis cortical lesions. High resolution 7T imaging may facilitate anatomical localization of lesions in relation to the cortical boundary. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;32:971,977. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comparison of ferucarbotran-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery echo-planar, T2-weighted turbo spin-echo, T2*-weighted gradient-echo, and diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging for detection of malignant liver lesions

Yoshihiko Fukukura MD
Abstract Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery echo-planar imaging (FLAIR EPI) for malignant liver tumors with that of T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), and diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW EPI). Materials and Methods: SPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included FLAIR EPI, T2-weighted TSE, T2*-weighted GRE, and DW EPI sequences was performed using a 3 T system in 54 consecutive patients who underwent surgical exploration with intraoperative ultrasonography. A total of 88 malignant liver tumors were evaluated. Images were reviewed independently by two blinded observers who used a 5-point confidence scale to identify lesions. Results were correlated with results of histopathologic findings and surgical exploration with intraoperative ultrasonography. The accuracy of each MRI sequence was measured with jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. The sensitivity of each observer with each MRI sequence was compared with McNemar's test. Results: Accuracy values were significantly higher with FLAIR EPI sequence (0.93) than with T2*-weighted GRE (0.80) or DW EPI sequences (0.80) (P < 0.05). Sensitivity was significantly higher with the FLAIR EPI sequence than with any of the other sequences. Conclusion: SPIO-enhanced FLAIR EPI sequence was more accurate in the diagnosis of malignant liver tumors than T2*-weighted GRE and DW EPI sequences. SPIO-enhanced FLAIR EPI sequence is helpful for the detection of malignant liver tumors. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:607,616. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessing arterial blood flow and vessel area variations using real-time zonal phase-contrast MRI

Markus Oelhafen PhD
Abstract Purpose To measure peripheral artery function using a real-time phase-contrast (PC)-MRI sequence with tailored image-processing algorithms for flow computation. Materials and Methods An approach to real-time flow measurements was developed based on two-dimensional spatially selective excitation pulses and consecutive tailored processing of the data to derive blood flow and vessel area variations. The data acquisition strategy allows for flow measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions of 1 mm2 and 50 msec, respectively. In postprocessing the vessel area is automatically extracted using correlation measures in conjunction with morphological image operators. By means of in vitro and in vivo validations, it is shown that the current methods provide accurate and reproducible measurements of flow and vessel area variations. Results In vitro the comparison between the lumen area measured with the presented method and the values obtained by calliper gauge measurement showed a difference of 3.4% 3.4% (mean 2 SD). Similarly, the comparison between the stroke volumes determined with the presented method and by stopwatch and bucket measurements yielded a difference of 6.1% 2.1%. In vivo the results from the real-time measurements for lumen area and stroke volume were compared with those from a gated PC-MRI technique with differences of 4.8% 14% and 3.0% 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion The presented method constitutes a reliable tool set for quantifying the variations of blood flow and lumen area in the superficial femoral artery during reactive hyperemia and for studying their correlation with cardiovascular risk factors. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Undersampled radial MRI with multiple coils.

Iterative image reconstruction using a total variation constraint
Abstract The reconstruction of artifact-free images from radially encoded MRI acquisitions poses a difficult task for undersampled data sets, that is for a much lower number of spokes in k-space than data samples per spoke. Here, we developed an iterative reconstruction method for undersampled radial MRI which (i) is based on a nonlinear optimization, (ii) allows for the incorporation of prior knowledge with use of penalty functions, and (iii) deals with data from multiple coils. The procedure arises as a two-step mechanism which first estimates the coil profiles and then renders a final image that complies with the actual observations. Prior knowledge is introduced by penalizing edges in coil profiles and by a total variation constraint for the final image. The latter condition leads to an effective suppression of undersampling (streaking) artifacts and further adds a certain degree of denoising. Apart from simulations, experimental results for a radial spin-echo MRI sequence are presented for phantoms and human brain in vivo at 2.9 T using 24, 48, and 96 spokes with 256 data samples. In comparison to conventional reconstructions (regridding) the proposed method yielded visually improved image quality in all cases. Magn Reson Med 57:1086,1098, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Diploic venous anatomy studied in-vivo by MRI

Khalil Jivraj
Abstract Calvarial diploic venous anatomy has been studied post-mortem, but few studies have addressed these venous structures in-vivo. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that intraosseous infusion through the skull diploic space near the diploic veins in animals and humans does access the superior sagittal sinus and the systemic venous system. We developed a volumetric method of imaging the diploic veins in-vivo using MRI, intravenous gadolinium, and digital subtraction to provide for three-dimensional depiction and exact localization of these veins. We hypothesized that this technique would allow for an assessment of the probability of existence, distribution, and concentration of diploic veins in the skull. We scanned 31 neurosurgical patients, and were able to create 3D diploic venous maps in 74% of them. These maps were processed using Adobe Photoshop CS2. Mathworks MatLab 6.5, once customized, counted the number of pixels occupied by the diploic veins in the processed image. The probability of veins was highest in the occipital regions (100%). The inferior occipital (4.1%) and posterior parietal (4.1%) regions had the highest concentrations of diploic veins. Digital subtraction venography using a volumetric MRI sequence can demonstrate the diploic veins in-vivo. The inferior occipital region may be the best area for an intraosseous infusion device because it has the greatest likelihood of containing a vein and also has the highest concentration of veins. Clin. Anat. 22:296,301, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sensorimotor network rewiring in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

Federica Agosta
Abstract This study aimed at elucidating whether (a) brain areas associated with motor function show a change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), (b) such change is linear over the course of the disease, and (c) fMRI changes in aMCI and AD are driven by hippocampal atrophy, or, conversely, reflect a nonspecific neuronal network rewiring generically associated to brain tissue damage. FMRI during the performance of a simple motor task with the dominant right-hand, and structural MRI (i.e., dual-echo, 3D T1-weighted, and diffusion tensor [DT] MRI sequences) were acquired from 10 AD patients, 15 aMCI patients, and 11 healthy controls. During the simple-motor task, aMCI patients had decreased recruitment of the left (L) inferior frontal gyrus compared to controls, while they showed increased recruitment of L postcentral gyrus and head of L caudate nucleus, and decreased activation of the cingulum compared with AD patients. Effective connectivity was altered between primary sensorimotor cortices (SMC) in aMCI patients vs. controls, and between L SMC, head of L caudate nucleus, and cingulum in AD vs. aMCI patients. Altered fMRI activations and connections were correlated with the hippocampal atrophy in aMCI and with the overall GM microstructural damage in AD. Motor-associated functional cortical changes in aMCI and AD mirror fMRI changes of the cognitive network, suggesting the occurrence of a widespread brain rewiring with increasing structural damage rather than a specific response of cognitive network. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Routine clinical brain MRI sequences for use at 3.0 Tesla

Hanzhang Lu PhD
Abstract Purpose To establish image parameters for some routine clinical brain MRI pulse sequences at 3.0 T with the goal of maintaining, as much as possible, the well-characterized 1.5-T image contrast characteristics for daily clinical diagnosis, while benefiting from the increased signal to noise at higher field. Materials and Methods A total of 10 healthy subjects were scanned on 1.5-T and 3.0-T systems for T1 and T2 relaxation time measurements of major gray and white matter structures. The relaxation times were subsequently used to determine 3.0-T acquisition parameters for spin-echo (SE), T1 -weighted, fast spin echo (FSE) or turbo spin echo (TSE), T2 -weighted, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequences that give image characteristics comparable to 1.5 T, to facilitate routine clinical diagnostics. Application of the routine clinical sequences was performed in 10 subjects, five normal subjects and five patients with various pathologies. Results T1 and T2 relaxation times were, respectively, 14% to 30% longer and 12% to 19% shorter at 3.0 T when compared to the values at 1.5 T, depending on the region evaluated. When using appropriate parameters, routine clinical images acquired at 3.0 T showed similar image characteristics to those obtained at 1.5 T, but with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), which can be used to reduce the number of averages and scan times. Recommended imaging parameters for these sequences are provided. Conclusion When parameters are adjusted for changes in relaxation rates, routine clinical scans at 3.0 T can provide similar image appearance as 1.5 T, but with superior image quality and/or increased speed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005;22:13,22. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

In-vivo visualization of phagocytotic cells in rat brains after transient ischemia by USPIO

M. Rausch
Abstract Cerebral ischemia provokes tissue damage by two major patho-physiological mechanisms. Direct cell necrosis is induced by diminished access of neurons and glia to essential nutrients such as glucose and oxygen leading to energy failure. A second factor of cellular loss is related to the activation of immune-competent cells within and around the primary infarct. While granulocytes and presumably monocytes are linked to the no-reflow phenomenon, activated microglia cells and monocytes can release cytotoxic substrates, which cause delayed cell death. As a consequence the infarct volume will increase, despite restoration of cerebral perfusion. In the past, visualization of immune competent cells was only possible by histological analysis of post-mortem tissue. However, contrast agents based on small particles of iron oxide are known to accumulate in organs rich in cells with phagocytotic function. These particles can be tracked in vivo by MRI methods based on their relaxation properties. In the present study, the spatio-temporal distribution of USPIO particles was monitored in a rat model of transient cerebral infarction using T1 - and T2 -weighted MRI sequences. USPIO were detected in vessels at 24,h after administration. At later time points specific accumulation of USPIO was observed within the infarcted hemisphere, with maximal signal enhancement on day 2. Their detectability based on T1 -contrast disappeared between day 4 and day 7. Immuno-histochemically (IHC) stains confirmed the presence of macrophages, presumably blood-derived monocytes within areas of T1 signal enhancement. Direct visualization of iron-burdened macrophages by IHC was only possible later than day 3 after occlusion. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The value of conventional high-field MRI in MS in the light of the McDonald criteria: a literature review

L. S. Lunde Larsen
Lunde Larsen LS, Larsson HBW, Frederiksen JL. The value of conventional high-field MRI in MS in the light of the McDonald criteria: a literature review. Acta Neurol Scand: 122: 149,158. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. The diagnosis of MS is based on the revised McDonald criteria and is multidisciplinary. Both clinical and paraclinical measures are included. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available and it is therefore necessary to clarify possible advantages of high-field MRI in MS. The aim of this paper was to review MRI studies in MS where a direct comparison of MRI at high field with MRI at 1,1.5 tesla (T) had been performed. The studies evaluated were found by searching Pubmed with relevant terms including MeSH terms. The reviewed studies all found the conspicuity of lesions to be better at high field. Of the seven studies, six found more and bigger lesions at high-field MRI. In the present paper, the relevant MRI sequences are evaluated in detail. The detection of more lesions at high-field strength did not seem to lead to earlier diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Further larger studies of patients with clinically isolated syndromes are needed to settle the question of a diagnostic consequence of high-field imaging in MS. We suggest that the next revision of the McDonald diagnostic criteria include a recommendation of field strength. [source]