MRI Scanners (mri + scanners)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of MRI Scanners

  • clinical mri scanners

  • Selected Abstracts

    Magnetic resonance microscopy of the equine hoof wall: a study of resolution and potential

    M. D. KELLER
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Obtaining magnetic resonance images of the inner hoof wall tissue at the microscopic level would enable early accurate diagnosis of laminitis and therefore more effective therapy. Objectives: To optimise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in order to obtain the highest possible resolution of the structures beneath the equine hoof wall. Methods: Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was performed in front feet from 6 cadaver horses using T2 -weighted fast spin echo (FSE-T2), and T1 -weighted gradient echo (GRE-T1) sequences. Results: In T2 weighted FSE images most of the stratum medium showed no signal, however the coronary, terminal and sole papillae were visible. The stratum lamellatum was clearly visible and primary epidermal lamellae could be differentiated from dermal lamellae. Conclusion: Most structures beneath the hoof wall were differentiated. Conventional scanners for diagnostic MRI in horses are low or high field. However this study used ultra-high field scanners currently not available for clinical use. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) increases as a function of field strength. An increase of spatial resolution of the image results in a decreased S/N. S/N can also be improved with better coils and the resolution of high field MRI scanners will increase as technology develops and surface array coils become more readily available. Potential relevance: Although MR images with microscopic resolution were obtained ex vivo, this study demonstrates the potential for detection of lamellar pathology as it occurs. Early recognition of the development of laminitis to instigate effective therapy at an earlier stage and may improve the outcome for laminitic horses. Clinical MR is now readily available at 3 T, while 4 T, 7 T and 9 T systems are being used for human whole body applications. [source]

    Computer-aided detection of brain tumor invasion using multiparametric MRI

    Todd R. Jensen PhD
    Abstract Purpose To determine the potential of using a computer-aided detection method to intelligently distinguish peritumoral edema alone from peritumor edema consisting of tumor using a combination of high-resolution morphological and physiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques available on most clinical MRI scanners. Materials and Methods This retrospective study consisted of patients with two types of primary brain tumors: meningiomas (n = 7) and glioblastomas (n = 11). Meningiomas are typically benign and have a clear delineation of tumor and edema. Glioblastomas are known to invade outside the contrast-enhancing area. Four classifiers of differing designs were trained using morphological, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted features derived from MRI to discriminate tumor and edema, tested on edematous regions surrounding tumors, and assessed for their ability to detect nonenhancing tumor invasion. Results The four classifiers provided similar measures of accuracy when applied to the training and testing data. Each classifier was able to identify areas of nonenhancing tumor invasion supported with adjunct images or follow-up studies. Conclusion The combination of features derived from morphological and physiological imaging techniques contains the information necessary for computer-aided detection of tumor invasion and allows for the identification of tumor invasion not previously visualized on morphological, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted images and maps. Further validation of this approach requires obtaining spatially coregistered tissue samples in a study with a larger sample size. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:481,489. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Simple anatomical measurements do not correlate significantly to individual peripheral nerve stimulation thresholds as measured in MRI gradient coils

    Blaine A. Chronik PhD
    Abstract Purpose To examine peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) thresholds for normal human subjects in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient coils, and determine if observed thresholds could be predicted based on gross physiologic measurements. Materials and Methods PNS thresholds for 21 healthy normal subjects were measured using a whole-body gradient coil. Subjects were exposed to a trapezoidal echo-planar imaging (EPI) gradient waveform and the total change in gradient strength (,G) required to cause PNS as a function of the duration of the gradient switching time (,) were measured. Correlation coefficients and corresponding P values were calculated for the PNS threshold measurements against simple physiologic measurements taken of the subjects, including weight, height, girth, and average body fat percentage, in order to determine if there were any easily observable dependencies. Results No convincing correlations between threshold parameters and gross physiologic measurements were observed. Conclusion These results suggest it is unlikely that a simple physiologic measurement of subject anatomy can be used to guide the operation of MRI scanners in a subject-specific manner in order to increase gradient system performance while avoiding PNS. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2003;17:716,721. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Compressed sensing MRI with multichannel data using multicore processors

    Ching-Hua Chang
    Abstract Compressed sensing (CS) is a promising method to speed up MRI. Because most clinical MRI scanners are equipped with multichannel receive systems, integrating CS with multichannel systems may not only shorten the scan time but also provide improved image quality. However, significant computation time is required to perform CS reconstruction, whose complexity is scaled by the number of channels. In this article, we propose a reconstruction procedure that uses ubiquitously available multicore central processing unit to accelerate CS reconstruction from multiple channel data. The experimental results show that the reconstruction efficiency benefits significantly from parallelizing the CS reconstructions and pipelining multichannel data into multicore processors. In our experiments, an additional speedup factor of 1.6,2.0 was achieved using the proposed method on a quad-core central processing unit. The proposed method provides a straightforward way to accelerate CS reconstruction with multichannel data for parallel computation. Magn Reson Med, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Imaging single mammalian cells with a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner

    Paula Foster-Gareau
    Abstract In the present work, we demonstrate that the steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging pulse sequence FIESTA (fast imaging employing steady state acquisition) used in conjunction with a custom-built insertable gradient coil and customized RF coils can be used to detect individual SPIO-labeled cells using a commonly available 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. This work provides the first evidence that single-cell tracking will be possible using clinical MRI scanners, opening up new possibilities for cell tracking and monitoring of cellular therapeutics in vivo in humans. Magn Reson Med 49:968,971, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    In vivo measurement of brain metabolites using two-dimensional double-quantum MR spectroscopy,exploration of GABA levels in a ketogenic diet

    Zhiyue J. Wang
    Abstract A localized proton 2D double-quantum (DQ) spin-echo spectroscopy technique was implemented on 1.5 T clinical MRI scanners for the detection of ,-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the brain. The 2D approach facilitates separation of peaks overlapping with GABA in 1D DQ-filtered (DQF) spectra. This technique was applied to four normal adult volunteers and four children with intractable epilepsy. The coefficient of variation of the level of GABA and overlapping macromolecules at F2 = 3.0 ppm and F1 = 4.8 ppm was 0.08 in normal subjects. Three patients received 2D MRS scans before and after initiation of the ketogenic diet (KD): one patient showed a trend of decreasing GABA throughout the study, and two patients showed low initial GABA levels that increased over time. In addition to major metabolites and GABA, low-level metabolites (valine, leucine, and glutathione) were also identified in the 2D spectra. Magn Reson Med 49:615,619, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall

    Rebecca M. Smith
    Abstract Mapping the myocardial fiber organization is important for assessing the electrical and mechanical properties of normal and diseased hearts. Current methods to determine the fiber organization have several limitations: histological sectioning mechanically distorts the tissue and is labor-intensive, while diffusion tensor imaging has low spatial resolution and requires expensive MRI scanners. Here, we utilized optical clearing, a fluorescent dye, and confocal microscopy to create three-dimensional reconstructions of the myocardial fiber organization of guinea pig and mouse hearts. We have optimized the staining and clearing procedure to allow for the nondestructive imaging of whole hearts with a thickness up to 3.5 mm. Myocardial fibers could clearly be identified at all depths in all preparations. We determined the change of fiber orientation across strips of guinea pig left ventricular wall. Our study confirms the qualitative result that there is a steady counterclockwise fiber rotation across the ventricular wall. Quantitatively, we found a total fiber rotation of 105.7 14.9 (mean standard error of the mean); this value lies within the range reported by previous studies. These results show that optical clearing, in combination with a fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy, is a practical and accurate method for determining myocardial fiber organization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pacemaker Reed Switch Behavior in 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Units: Are Reed Switches Always Closed in Strong Magnetic Fields?

    LUECHINGER, R., et al.: Pacemaker Reed Switch Behavior in 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Units: Are Reed Switches Always Closed in Strong Magnetic Fields? MRI is established as an important diagnostic tool in medicine. However, the presence of a cardiac pacemaker is usually regarded as a contraindication for MRI due to safety reasons. The aim of this study was to investigate the state of a pacemaker reed switch in different orientations and positions in the main magnetic field of 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3.0-T MRI scanners. Reed switches used in current pacemakers and ICDs were tested in 0.5-, 1.5-, and 3.0-T MRI scanners. The closure of isolated reed switches was evaluated for different orientations and positions relative to the main magnetic field. The field strengths to close and open the reed switch and the orientation dependency of the closed state inside the main magnetic field were investigated. The measurements were repeated using two intact pacemakers to evaluate the potential influence of the other magnetic components, like the battery. If the reed switches were oriented parallel to the magnetic fields, they closed at 1.0 0.2 mT and opened at 0.7 0.2 mT. Two different reed switch behaviors were observed at different magnetic field strengths. In low magnetic fields (< 50 mT), the reed switches were closed. However, in high magnetic fields (> 200 mT), the reed switches opened in 50% of all tested orientations. No difference between the three scanners could be demonstrated. The reed switches showed the same behavior whether they were isolated or an integral part of the pacemakers. The reed switch in a pacemaker or an ICD does not necessarily remain closed in strong magnetic fields at 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0 T and the state of the reed switch may not be predictable with certainty in clinical situations. [source]