MRI Protocol (mri + protocol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Short/long heterozygotes at 5HTTLPR and white matter lesions in geriatric depression

David C. Steffens
Abstract Objective We examined the relationship between 5HTTLPR genotype and volume of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain lesions. Method We studied 217 older depressed patients and 141 individuals in the comparison group using a standard brain MRI protocol to calculate lesion volumes. Genotype at 5HTTLPR was determined for each subject. Results In age-adjusted models, the l/s genotype was associated with increased volume of total and white-matter lesions among depressed patients. This relationship lost significance in models controlling for reported hypertension. Conclusions The finding that 5HTTLPR heterozygotes have higher vascular lesion volumes may be related to development of hypertension. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pharmacokinetic mapping for lesion classification in dynamic breast MRI

Matthias C. Schabel PhD
Abstract Purpose: To prospectively investigate whether a rapid dynamic MRI protocol, in conjunction with pharmacokinetic modeling, could provide diagnostically useful information for discriminating biopsy-proven benign lesions from malignancies. Materials and Methods: Patients referred to breast biopsy based on suspicious screening findings were eligible. After anatomic imaging, patients were scanned using a dynamic protocol with complete bilateral breast coverage. Maps of pharmacokinetic parameters representing transfer constant (Ktrans), efflux rate constant (kep), blood plasma volume fraction (vp), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (ve) were averaged over lesions and used, with biopsy results, to generate receiver operating characteristic curves for linear classifiers using one, two, or three parameters. Results: Biopsy and imaging results were obtained from 93 lesions in 74 of 78 study patients. Classification based on Ktrans and kep gave the greatest accuracy, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915, sensitivity of 91%, and specificity of 85%, compared with values of 88% and 68%, respectively, obtained in a recent study of clinical breast MRI in a similar patient population. Conclusion: Pharmacokinetic classification of breast lesions is practical on modern MRI hardware and provides significant accuracy for identification of malignancies. Sensitivity of a two-parameter linear classifier is comparable to that reported in a recent multicenter study of clinical breast MRI, while specificity is significantly higher. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:1371,1378. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of (deep infiltrating) endometriosis: The value of diffusion-weighted imaging

M.P.H. Busard MD
Abstract Purpose To assess the value of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Materials and Methods In a prospective single-center study, DWI was added to the standard MRI protocol in 56 consecutive patients with known or suspected endometriosis. Endometriotic lesions as well as (functional) ovarian cysts were analyzed for location, size, and signal intensity on T1, T2, and DWI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated using b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1200 s/mm2. Statistical analysis included the Spearman correlation coefficient, Mann,Whitney U, and Kruskal,Wallis tests. Results A total of 112 lesions (62 endometrial cysts and 48 DIE) were detected, 60 of which were large enough to analyze. Mean ADC values of endometrial cysts and functional ovarian cysts were 1.11 × 10,3/mm2/s and 2.14 × 10,3/mm2/s, respectively. Mean ADC values of DIE retrocervical, infiltrating the colon, and bladder were 0.70 × 10,3/mm2/s, 0.79 × 10,3/mm2/s, and 0.76 × 10,3/mm2/s, respectively. ADC values of DIE did not show a significant difference between varying pelvic locations (P = 0.63). Conclusion Results of our study suggest that ADC values of DIE are consistently low, without significant difference between pelvic locations. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2010;31:1117,1123. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI): MRI methods

Clifford R. Jack Jr. MD
Abstract The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a longitudinal multisite observational study of healthy elders, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), urine serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as well as clinical/psychometric assessments are acquiredat multiple time points. All data will be cross-linked and made available to the general scientific community. The purpose of this report is to describe the MRI methods employed in ADNI. The ADNI MRI core established specifications thatguided protocol development. A major effort was devoted toevaluating 3D T1 -weighted sequences for morphometric analyses. Several options for this sequence were optimized for the relevant manufacturer platforms and then compared in a reduced-scale clinical trial. The protocol selected for the ADNI study includes: back-to-back 3D magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans; B1 -calibration scans when applicable; and an axial proton density-T2 dual contrast (i.e., echo) fast spin echo/turbo spin echo (FSE/TSE) for pathology detection. ADNI MRI methods seek to maximize scientific utility while minimizing the burden placed on participants. The approach taken in ADNI to standardization across sites and platforms of the MRI protocol, postacquisition corrections, and phantom-based monitoring of all scanners could be used as a model for other multisite trials. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of ozone exposure in rat lungs investigated with hyperpolarized 3He MRI

Yannick Crémillieux PhD
Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of subchronic ozone exposure on rat lung ventilation using hyperpolarized (HP) 3He MRI. Materials and Methods A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats, distributed in one control group and four groups exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone concentration for two days or six days, either continuously (22 hours/day) or alternatingly (12 hours/day). A three-step MRI protocol was designed and applied to each animal, including: 1) 3He gas distribution images acquired at inspiratory capacity, 2) measurements of intrapulmonary 3He diffusion coefficients, and 3) dynamic ventilation acquisitions performed during lung filling with 3He. Results No differentiation between animals exposed to ozone and control animals was observed from the ventilation images obtained at inspiratory capacity. The 3He diffusion coefficients were not statistically different from one group to another. Ventilation defects, appearing as delayed lung filling regions and heterogeneous lung filling, were observed in the dynamic lung ventilation image series. The percentage of animals with ventilation defects in the control, two-day, and six-day exposed groups were equal to 20%, 43% and 75%, respectively. In the subgroup of the animals exposed six days for 12 hours per day, the percentage of animals exhibiting ventilation defects was equal to 85%. Conclusion Heterogeneous obstructive patterns in an experimental animal model of subchronic ozone exposure were observed using HP 3He MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:771,776. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sliding multislice MRI for abdominal staging of patients with pelvic malignancies: A pilot study

Gregor Sommer MS
Abstract Purpose To integrate SMS (sliding multislice imaging technique for acquiring axial images during continuous table motion) into a high-resolution pelvic MRI protocol for additional staging of the entire abdomen within one examination. Materials and Methods Axial two-dimensional images were acquired during continuous table motion using a fat-saturated contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo sequence. Patients held their breath during the first 20 s of the examination and breathed normally afterward while data acquisition continued. Measurement parameters were adjusted to optimize image quality throughout the total field of view. The method was investigated in 22 patients with pelvic malignancies. Two readers independently compared SMS image quality to conventional abdominal MR images, generated by a stationary multi-breath-hold gradient echo sequence. Results Qualitative evaluation yielded high diagnostic value of SMS data in body regions with no or minor breathing motion, and in those acquired during the initial breath-hold. Image quality in the upper abdomen, retroperitoneum, and pelvis is reproducible and equivalent to stationary MRI. Interfering artifacts are related to the intestine in the mid-abdomen. Conclusion SMS is a promising technique that may have the potential for a first-line abdominal staging tool in patients with pelvic malignancies. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:666,672. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MRI of early- and late-stage arterial remodeling in a low-level cholesterol-fed rabbit model of atherosclerosis

John A. Ronald MS
Abstract Purpose To monitor early- and late-stage arterial remodeling following low-level cholesterol (CH) feeding in rabbits using a standardized MRI protocol. Materials and Methods New Zealand White rabbits were fed a CH diet (0.25% w/w) (n = 15) or normal chow (n = 6) and imaged either at 0, 2, 6, 8, and 11 months ("early-stage") or 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 months ("late-stage"). T2-weighted fast-spin-echo images (,200 ,m in-plane resolution) of aortic lesions were collected using either a 1.5 or 3.0T MR scanner interfaced with a customized surface RF coil. Luminal (LA), outer vessel wall boundary (OVBA), and vessel wall areas (VWA) were assessed. Results Among CH-fed animals in the early-stage group, increased VWA associated with decreased OVBA and a more pronounced decrease in LA was first detectable at 8 months. These changes became more evident between 8 and 11 months. In the late-stage group, lesions continued to grow in response to CH-feeding, as VWA significantly increased at regular 2-month intervals. Beyond 16 months, signal intensity differences (reflecting increased lesion complexity) within the vessel wall were noted. Conclusion This often-overlooked rabbit model combined with customized MR technology holds tremendous promise for studying the natural progression, regression, and remodeling of atherosclerotic lesions. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007;26:1010,1019. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Improvements in parallel imaging accelerated functional MRI using multiecho echo-planar imaging,

Heiko Schmiedeskamp
Abstract Multiecho echo-planar imaging (EPI) was implemented for blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional MRI at 1.5 T and compared to single-echo EPI with and without parallel imaging acceleration. A time-normalized breath-hold task using a block design functional MRI protocol was carried out in combination with up to four echo trains per excitation and parallel imaging acceleration factors R = 1,3. Experiments were conducted in five human subjects, each scanned in three sessions. Across all reduction factors, both signal-to-fluctuation-noise ratio and the total number of activated voxels were significantly lower using a single-echo EPI pulse sequence compared with the multiecho approach. Signal-to-fluctuation-noise ratio and total number of activated voxels were also considerably reduced for nonaccelerated conventional single-echo EPI when compared to three-echo measurements with R = 2. Parallel imaging accelerated multiecho EPI reduced geometric distortions and signal dropout, while it increased blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal sensitivity all over the brain, particularly in regions with short underlying T*2. Thus, the presented method showed multiple advantages over conventional single-echo EPI for standard blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional MRI experiments. Magn Reson Med 63:959,969, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Auditory Brainstem Response versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Evaluation of Asymmetric Sensorineural Hearing Loss,

Roberto A. Cueva MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are compared for the evaluation of patients with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). MRI with gadolinium administration is the current gold standard for identifying retrocochlear lesions causing asymmetric SNHL. The study seeks to determine the sensitivity and specificity of ABR in screening for possible retrocochlear pathology. Most important among SNHL etiologies are neoplastic lesions such as vestibular schwannomas, cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors, as well as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or other rare nonneoplastic causes. The study results will allow the author to recommend a screening algorithm for patients with asymmetric SNHL. Study Design: The study is a multi-institutional, institutional review board approved, prospective, nonrandomized comparison of ABR and MRI for the evaluation of patients with asymmetric SNHL. Methods: Three hundred twelve patients (between the ages of 18 and 87) with asymmetric SNHL completed the study. Asymmetric SNHL was defined as 15 dB or greater asymmetry in two or more frequencies or 15% or more asymmetry in speech discrimination scores (SDS). These patients prospectively underwent both ABR and MRI. The ABR and MRI were interpreted independently in a blinded fashion. In addition to the ABR and MRI results, a variety of clinical and demographic data were collected. Results: Thirty-one (9.94%) patients of the study population of 312 were found on MRI to have lesions causing their SNHL. Of the 31 patients with causative lesions on MRI there were 24 vestibular schwannomas, 2 glomus jugulare tumors, 2 ectatic basilar arteries with brainstem compression, 1 petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, 1 case of possible demyelinating disease, and 1 parietal lobe mass. Twenty-two of the 31 patients had abnormal ABRs, whereas 9 patients (7 with small vestibular schwannomas) had normal ABRs. This gives an overall false-negative rate for ABR of 29%. The false-positive rate was found to be 76.84%. Sensitivity of ABR as a screening test was 71%, and specificity was 74%. Conclusions: Ten percent of patients with asymmetric SNHL (by this study's criteria) are likely to have causative lesions found on MRI. Although the recently reported annual incidence of vestibular schwannoma in the general population is 0.00124%, for patients with asymmetric SNHL in this study, the incidence was 7.7% (nearly 4 orders of magnitude higher). ABR has been demonstrated to have low sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of these patients and cannot be relied on as a screening test for patients with asymmetric SNHL. Keeping the use of MRI conditional on the results of ABR will annually result in missed or delayed diagnosis of causative lesions in 29 patients per 1,000 screened. The author recommends abandoning ABR as a screening test for asymmetric SNHL and adoption of a focused MRI protocol as the screening test of choice (within certain guidelines). [source]

An immunohistochemical study of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist: regional variations in cartilage phenotype

S. Milz
Abstract The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) transmits load from the wrist to the ulna and stabilizes the distal radioulnar joint. Damage to it is a major cause of wrist pain. Although its basic structure is well established, little is known of its molecular composition. We have analysed the immunohistochemical labelling pattern of the extracellular matrix of the articular disc and the meniscal homologue of the TFCC in nine elderly individuals (age range 69,96 years), using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Although many of the molecules (types I, III and VI collagen, chondroitin 4 sulphate, dermatan sulphate and keratan sulphate, the oversulphated epitope of chondroitin 6 sulphate, versican and COMP) were found in all parts of the TFCC, aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen were restricted to the articular disc and to entheses. They were thus not a feature of the meniscal homologue. The shift in tissue phenotype within the TFCC, from a fibrocartilaginous articular disc to a more fibrous meniscal homologue, correlates with biomechanical data suggesting that the radial region is stiff and subject to considerable stress concentration. The presence of aggrecan, link protein and type II collagen in the articular disc could explain why the TFCC is destroyed in rheumatoid arthritis, given that it has been suggested that autoimmunity to these antigens results in the destruction of articular cartilage. The differential distribution of aggrecan within the TFCC is likely to be reflected by regional differences in water content and mobility on the radial and ulnar side. This needs to be taken into account in the design of improved MRI protocols for visualizing this ulnocarpal complex of the wrist. [source]

Clinical,Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlations in Multiple Sclerosis

Robert Zivadinov MD
ABSTRACT Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has routinely been used to improve the accuracy of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis and monitoring, detect the effects of diseasemodifying therapy, and refine the utility of clinical assessments. However, conventional MRI measures, such as the use of lesion volume and count of gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions, have insufficient sensitivity and specificity to reveal the true degree of pathological changes occurring in MS. Newer metrics of MRI analysis, including T1-weighted hypointense lesions (black holes) and central nervous system (CNS) atrophy measures, are able to capture a more global picture of the range of tissue alterations caused by inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss, and neurodegeneration. There is mounting evidence that these MRI measures correlate well with existing and developing neurological impairment and disability. In so doing, these MRI techniques can help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and natural history of MS. The current understanding is that T1 black holes and CNS atrophy more accurately reflect the neurodegenerative and destructive components of the MS disease process. Therefore, the shortand long-term studies that aim to measure the degree and severity of the neurodegenerative MS disease process should incorporate these MRI metrics as part of their standard routine MRI protocols. [source]

Water diffusion in the different microenvironments of breast cancer

Yael Paran
Abstract The parameters that characterize the intricate water diffusion in tumors may serve to reveal their distinct pathology. Specifically, the application of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid in characterizing breast cancer, as well as monitoring response to therapy. We present here a non-invasive, quantitative MRI investigation, at high spatial resolution, of water diffusion in hormonal dependent MCF7 breast tumors implanted orthotopically in immunodeficient mice. Distinctive MRI protocols were designed in this study, utilizing a broad range of diffusion times and diffusion gradient strengths. Application of these protocols allowed water diffusion in the tissue extracellular and intracellular compartments to be distinguished, and the effect of restricted diffusion and water exchange on the water diffusion in these compartments to be evaluated. Pixel-by-pixel analysis yielded parametric maps of the estimated volume fraction and apparent diffusion coefficient of each compartment. The diffusion of the water in the extracellular microenvironment was approximately two fold slower than that of free water, and in the intracellular compartment was about one order of magnitude slower than that of free water and demonstrated restriction of water diffusion at long diffusion times. Mapping of the water fraction in each compartment was further employed to monitor changes during tumor progression and to assess tumor response to hormonal manipulation with a new antiestrogenic drug, tamoxifen methiodide (TMI). It was found that, in parallel to the growth arrest by this drug, the volume fraction of the slowly diffusing water increased, suggesting a TMI-induced cell swelling. This study can serve as a basis for extending diffusion breast MRI in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]