Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of MRI

  • Diffusion-weight mri
  • brain mri
  • breast mri
  • cardiac mri
  • cerebral mri
  • child undergoing mri
  • cine mri
  • contrast mri
  • contrast-enhanced mri
  • conventional mri
  • cranial mri
  • diffusion mri
  • diffusion tensor mri
  • diffusion-weighted mri
  • dynamic contrast-enhanced mri
  • dynamic mri
  • enhanced mri
  • fetal mri
  • follow-up mri
  • functional mri
  • gadolinium-enhanced mri
  • high-field mri
  • high-resolution mri
  • lung mri
  • multiparametric mri
  • myocardial perfusion mri
  • normal mri
  • parallel mri
  • perfusion mri
  • phase contrast mri
  • phase-contrast mri
  • preoperative mri
  • proton mri
  • quantitative mri
  • real-time mri
  • resolution mri
  • routine mri
  • serial mri
  • sodium mri
  • spinal mri
  • structural mri
  • tensor mri
  • undergoing mri
  • used mri
  • vivo mri
  • weighted mri

  • Terms modified by MRI

  • mri abnormality
  • mri agent
  • mri alone
  • mri analysis
  • mri appearance
  • mri application
  • mri approach
  • mri assessment
  • mri biomarker
  • mri change
  • mri characteristic
  • mri contrast agent
  • mri data
  • mri detection
  • mri diagnosis
  • mri evaluation
  • mri evidence
  • mri examination
  • mri experiment
  • mri feature
  • mri finding
  • mri image
  • mri investigation
  • mri lesion
  • mri measure
  • mri measurement
  • mri method
  • mri methods
  • mri parameter
  • mri protocol
  • mri pulse sequence
  • mri scanner
  • mri scanners
  • mri scanning
  • mri score
  • mri sequence
  • mri shows
  • mri signal
  • mri studies
  • mri study
  • mri system
  • mri technique
  • mri techniques

  • Selected Abstracts

    Neuroimaging and Neurophysiology of Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges: Observations and Hypotheses

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2007
    Giridhar P. Kalamangalam
    Summary:,Purpose: We assessed neuroimaging lesion type and distribution in patients with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs), with a view to identifying electrographic differences between PLEDs associated with differing lesion locations. Our observations led us to consider a conceptual synthesis between PLEDs and periodic complexes (PCs). Methods: Retrospective review of acute neuroimaging results (CT/MRI) on patients identified to have EEG PLEDs, for the period 1999,2003 (n = 106). Blinded classification of original EEG recordings. Results: Neuroimaging abnormalities were classified as acute or chronic cortical, or acute or chronic subcortical. Seven out of 106 scans were classified nonlesional. Overall ,70% of scans had cortical abnormalities, whether acute or chronic; ,23% had subcortical abnormalities. "Cortical" PLEDs were significantly longer in duration (p < 0.05) and more variable in morphology (p < 0.01) than "subcortical" PLEDs. Conclusions: Structural brain disease commonly, but not invariably, underlies PLEDs; lesion type is spatiotemporally variable. Cortical and subcortical PLEDs have distinct EEG signatures. There is evidence that these may relate to mechanisms for other pathological large-scale oscillatory brain synchronies (e.g., PCs). [source]

    Extra temporal involvement in herpes simplex encephalitis

    M. Wasay
    Temporal lobe abnormalities on brain imaging have been described as strong evidence for herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in appropriate clinical settings. Extra temporal abnormalities are less well described in these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of HSE and found extra temporal involvement in 11 (55%) patients. Three patients (15 %) had pure extra temporal abnormalities. Twelve patients (60%) had temporal lobe involvement, four patients (20%) had pure temporal lobe involvement and five patients (25%) had normal CT/MRI scans. Our study suggests that extra temporal involvement on brain imaging is common in HSE and in a significant minority of the patients this can even be the sole abnormality. [source]

    Dynamic Registration of Preablation Imaging With a Catheter Geometry to Guide Ablation in a Swine Model: Validation of Image Integration and Assessment of Catheter Navigation Accuracy

    Image Integration with a Catheter Mapping System.,Background: Catheter ablation of atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmia involves anatomically based cardiac ablation strategies. CT and MRI images provide the most detailed cardiac anatomy available. Integration of these images into a mapping system should produce detailed and accurate models suitable to guide ablation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate and assess the accuracy of a novel CT and MRI image integration algorithm designed to facilitate catheter navigation and ablation. Methods: Using a lateral thoracotomy, markers were sutured to the epicardial surface of each cardiac chamber in 12 swine. Detailed CT/MRI anatomy was imported into the mapping system. The CT/MRI image was then integrated with a detailed catheter geometry of the relevant chamber using a new image integration algorithm. The epicardial markers, identified from the CT/MRI images, were then displayed on the surface of the integrated image. Guided only by the integrated CT/MRI, a single RF lesion was directed at the corresponding endocardial site for each epicardial marker. At autopsy, the distance from the endocardial RF lesion to the target site was assessed. Results: The mean position error (CT/MRI) for the left atrium was 2.5 ± 2.4 mm/5.1 ± 3.9 mm, for the right atrium 6.2 ± 6.5 mm/4.3 ± 2.2 mm, for the right ventricle 6.2 ± 4.3 mm/6.6 ± 5.3 mm, and for the left ventricle 4.7 ± 3.4 mm/3.1 ± 2.7 mm. There was no cardiac perforation or tamponade. Conclusion: CT and MRI images can be effectively utilized for catheter navigation when integrated into a mapping system. This novel registration module with dynamic registration provides effective guidance for ablation. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 21, pp. 81,87, January 2010) [source]

    Glossopharyngeal schwannomas: A 100 year review,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2009
    Nopawan Vorasubin BS
    Abstract Objectives: To review the literature on glossopharyngeal schwannomas with a focus on clinical presentation, radiologic/audiologic characteristics, and management options, and to propose a mechanism explaining the nature of vestibulocochlear dysfunction seen with these tumors. Study Design: Contemporary review. Methods: English literature search for cases of primary isolated glossopharyngeal schwannomas and chart review of two new cases. Results: A total of 42 glossopharyngeal schwannoma cases between 1908,2008 were reviewed. Of these 84% presented with vestibulocochlear symptoms whereas only 30% presented with glossopharyngeal symptoms. Tumors can occur anywhere along the CNIX; however, the majority of symptomatic cases are intracranial/intraosseous, which present with vestibulocochlear dysfunction. Reviewed cases typically described the caliber of CNVII and VIII on CT/MRI as normal. We present a case where notching and displacement of CNVIII by the tumor can be appreciated on MRI, allowing for the first correlation between clinical symptoms and imaging findings. Mid frequency SNHL was prevalent in contrast to the high-frequency pattern typical of vestibular schwannomas. Tonotopic studies of CNVIII mapped low-to-mid frequency fibers along the posterior medial surface corresponding to the area of greatest compression by glossopharyngeal schwannomas. Conclusion: Glossopharyngeal schwannomas usually present with vestibulocochlear rather than glossopharyngeal symptoms, likely due to CNVIII compression and displacement by tumor, which can be better appreciated with modern imaging. The tumor's location posterior and medial to CNVIII combined with the complex CNVIII tonotopic organization may account for the preferential mid-frequency hearing loss seen in these patients. Laryngoscope, 119:26,35, 2009 [source]

    Dizziness Presentations in U.S. Emergency Departments, 1995,2004

    Kevin A. Kerber MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to describe presentation characteristics and health care utilization information pertaining to dizziness presentations in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) from 1995 through 2004. Methods:, From the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), patient visits to EDs for "vertigo-dizziness" were identified. Sample data were weighted to produce nationally representative estimates. Patient characteristics, diagnoses, and health care utilization information were obtained. Trends over time were assessed using weighted least squares regression analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to control for the influence of age on the probability of a vertigo-dizziness visit during the study time period. Results:, Vertigo-dizziness presentations accounted for 2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4% to 2.6%) of all ED presentations during this 10-year period. From 1995 to 2004, the rate of visits for vertigo-dizziness increased by 37% and demonstrated a significant linear trend (p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for age (and other covariates), every increase in year was associated with increased odds of a vertigo-dizziness visit. At each visit, a median of 3.6 diagnostic or screening tests (95% CI = 3.2 to 4.1) were performed. Utilization of many tests increased over time (p < 0.01). The utilization of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) increased 169% from 1995 to 2004, which was more than any other test. The rate of central nervous system diagnoses (e.g., cerebrovascular disease or brain tumor) did not increase over time. Conclusions:, In terms of number of visits and important utilization measures, the impact of dizziness presentations on EDs is substantial and increasing. CT/MRI utilization rates have increased more than any other test. [source]

    New distal embolic protection device the FiberNet® 3 dimensional filter: First carotid human study

    Michel Henry
    Abstract Objective: Evaluate the performance and safety of the FiberNet® Embolic Protection System during carotid artery intervention. Background: Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting (CAS) can be proposed to treat the majority of carotid stenoses. Brain embolization takes place and routine use of Embolic Protection Devices (EPD) is warranted. Many EPDs have significant limitations, which may be addressed by a new EPD, the FiberNet® (Lumen Biomedical, Plymouth, MN). Methods: The system consists of a 3-dimensional expandable filter made of fibers, which expand radially, mounted onto a 0.014, wire and retrieval catheter. FiberNet can capture particles as small as 40 ,m without compromising flow. Results: 35 lesions treated in 34 patients. Male 67.6%. Age: 71.4 ± 8.8 (50,85). Average stenosis 84.5% ± 7.9 (70,99). 29.4% were symptomatic. Technical success: 34/35 (97%). No stroke or death within 30 days. Neurological events: two permanent amaurosis, one amaurosis fugax. All samples visually contained significant amounts of emboli. The mean surface area of debris caught was 63.8 mm2 (37.7,107.5). Comparisons were made with other EPDs. The mean surface area of debris caught was 12.2 mm2 (2.7,34.3). No changes were noted in CT/MRI at 30-day post procedure. Conclusion: The first human use of this new novel EPD in carotid artery stenting is encouraging. The FiberNet was easy to use and confirmed the ability to capture particles less than 100 ,m. The feasibility of the FiberNet has been demonstrated. Additional patients will demonstrate the overall safety and efficacy of this new EPD device. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    What steps should be considered in the patient who has had a negative cervical exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism?

    Barney Harrison
    Summary The key to cure of the patient with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism is a clear understanding of the investigations, operative procedure and pathology related to the initial procedure. Reinvestigation and subsequent surgery should be performed in a specialist unit. A logical pathway of increasingly sophisticated localization studies (MIBI, ultrasound, CT/MRI, selective venous catheterization for PTH) will usually guide the surgeon to the missing parathyroid gland/s. Improved preoperative localization can facilitate the use of a minimally invasive small incision approach. The surgeon must have a detailed knowledge of the nuances of parathyroid embryology and a meticulous surgical technique, not only to identify and safely remove the retained gland/s but also do so without causing unnecessary morbidity. Results of re-operation (84,98% cure) from centres of excellence are highly commendable, yet the use of ,new' technology (that includes intra-operative PTH) has not translated into improved outcomes in all cases. Some parathyroid glands are extremely difficult to find! Re-operative parathyroid surgery is a challenge, sometimes easy, and on other occasions extremely difficult. [source]

    Spectrum and Frequency of SLC26A4 Mutations Among Czech Patients with Early Hearing Loss with and without Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA)

    Radka Pourová
    Summary Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS) , hearing loss with goitre , or DFNB4 , non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) with inner ear abnormalities such as Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct (EVA) or Mondini Dysplasia (MD). We tested 303 unrelated Czech patients with early hearing loss (298 with NSHL and 5 with PS), all GJB2 -negative, for SLC26A4 mutations and evaluated their clinical and radiological phenotype. Among 115 available HRCT/MRI scans we detected three MD (2.6%), three Mondini-like affections (2.6%), 16 EVA (13 bilateral , 19.2% and 15.6% respectively) and 61 EVA/MD-negative scans (73.4%). We found mutation(s) in 26 patients (8.6%) and biallelic mutations in eight patients (2.7%) out of 303 tested. In 18 of 26 (69%) patients, no second mutation could be detected even using MLPA. The spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations in Czech patients is broad without any prevalent mutation. We detected 21 different mutations (four novel). The most frequent mutations were p.Val138Phe and p.Leu445Trp (18% and 8.9% of pathogenic alleles respectively). Among 13 patients with bilateral EVA, six patients (50%) carry biallelic mutations. In EVA -negative patients no biallelic mutations were found but 4.9% had monoallelic mutations. SLC26A4 mutations are present mostly in patients with EVA/MD and/or progressive HL and those with affected siblings. [source]

    Dynamic range expansion of receiver by using optimized gain adjustment for high-field MRI

    C.H. Oh
    Abstract In high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, the signal-to-noise ratio of MR signal is so high that the receiver frequently cannot cover the full dynamic range of the MR signal. Although this problem can be overcome by using a compander (compressor and expander) composed of logarithmic amplifiers and a ROM table to retrieve the nonlinearity of the logarithmic amplifiers or by simply increasing the number of bits of analog-to-digital converter, the methods can be costly and complex or even impossible for most commercial systems. In addition, the spectrometer has to be specifically designed to operate in those modes. In this article, we developed a simple dynamic range improvement method using a receiver with optimized variable gain control in which function can be implemented without any hardware modification to the spectrometer, if the spectrometer can do gain control during a scan. Simulations as well as experiments for the brain and resolution phantom have been performed, and the results demonstrate the utility of the proposed method. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 243,254, 2010. [source]

    A graphical generalized implementation of SENSE reconstruction using Matlab

    Hammad Omer
    Abstract Parallel acquisition of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has the potential to significantly reduce the scan time. SENSE is one of the many techniques for the reconstruction of parallel MRI images. A generalized algorithm for SENSE reconstruction and theoretical background is presented. This algorithm can be used for SENSE reconstruction for any acceleration factor between 2 and 8, for any Phase Encode direction (Horizontal or Vertical), with or without Regularization. The user can select a particular type of Regularization. A GUI based implementation of the algorithm is also given. Signal-to-noise ratio, artefact power, and g -factor map are used to quantify the quality of reconstruction. The effects of different acceleration factors on these parameters are also discussed. The GUI based implementation of SENSE reconstruction provides an easy selection of various parameters needed for reconstruction of parallel MRI images and helps in an efficient reconstruction and analysis of the quality of reconstruction. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 178,186, 2010. [source]

    Proposing magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia in low-field MRI

    Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy
    Abstract This work examines feasibility, practical advantages, and disadvantages of a combined MRI/magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) system for cancerous tumor treatment in low perfusion tissue. Although combined MRI/hyperthermia systems have been proposed and constructed, the current proposal differs because the hyperthermia system would be specifically designed to interact with the magnetic nanoparticles injected at the tumor site. The proposal exploits the physical similarities between the magnetic nanoparticles currently employed for MPH and those used as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents in MR imaging. The proposal involves the addition of a rotating magnetic field RF hyperthermia source perpendicular to the MRI B0 field which operates in a similar manner to the MRI RF excitation field, B1, but at significantly higher frequency and field strength such that the magnetic nanoparticles are forced to rotate in its presence. This rotation is the source of increases in temperature which are of therapeutic benefit in cancer therapy. For rotating magnetic fields with amplitudes much smaller than B0, the nanoparticles' suspension magnetization rapidly saturates with increasing B0. Therefore, the proposal is best suited to low-field MRI systems when magnetic saturation is incomplete. In addition, careful design of the RF hyperthermia source is required to ensure no physical or RF interference with the B1 field used for MRI excitation. Notwithstanding these caveats, the authors have shown that localized steady-state temperature rises in small spherical tumors of up to 10°C are conceivable with careful selection of the nanoparticle radius and concentration, RF hyperthermia field amplitude and frequency. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 36,47, 2010. [source]

    Toward portable nuclear magnetic resonance devices using atomic magnetometers

    Dindi Yu
    Abstract The motivation for developing alternative detection techniques for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to overcome some of the limitations associated with high-field NMR/MRI instruments. The limitations include poor portability, cryogenic requirements, and high costs. To achieve this goal, a low magnetic field is preferred. Since the sensitivity of inductive detection for conventional NMR and MRI scales linearly with the magnetic field strength, it is not optimal for low-field detection. In this contribution, we describe the concept of using atomic magnetometers as an alternative detection method. Atomic magnetometers possess an ultrahigh sensitivity that is independent of the magnetic field strength, which makes them viable for low-field detection in NMR and MRI. We first introduce the principle of atomic magnetometry and follow this with a discussion of recent progress in the field. To compare the sensitivities of atomic magnetometers of diverse sizes, we define a signal-to-noise ratio for a fixed detection volume to normalize the sensitivity with regard to the cell size. We then focus on two coupling schemes for NMR and MRI detection using atomic magnetometers. Finally, we discuss the challenges involved in implementing this alternative detection technique for NMR and MRI. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 34A: 124,132, 2009. [source]

    Visualizing feedback-enhanced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging

    Susie Y. Huang
    Abstract A new approach to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement has recently been developed that exploits nonlinear feedback interactions to amplify contrast arising from small variations in the underlying MRI parameters. A unified framework for understanding feedback-enhanced contrast is presented here based on the concepts of instability and positive feedback. The specific mechanisms governing contrast enhancement under the feedback interactions of radiation damping, the distant dipolar field, and their joint effect are elucidated through numerical simulations illustrating the involved spin dynamics. Experimental demonstrations of feedback-enhanced contrast are shown on samples of in vitro human brain tissue, and applications to improving lesion detection in disease states such as epilepsy and cancer are discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 378,393, 2007. [source]

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and its application in Alzheimer's disease

    Pravat K. Mandal
    Abstract Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive tool to measure the chemical composition of tissues (in vivo) and characterize functional metabolic processes in different parts of the human organs. It provides vital biological information at the molecular level. Combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an integrated MRI/MRS examination provides anatomical structure, pathological function, and biochemical information about a living system. MRS provides a link between the biochemical alterations and the pathophysiology of disease. This article provides a comprehensive description of the MRS technique and its application in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. This review is a primer for students and researchers seeking a firm theoretical understanding of MRS physics as well as its application in clinical AD research. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 40,64, 2007. [source]

    A simple method to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of a circular-shaped coil for MRI

    K. Ocegueda
    Abstract The introduction of the ultrafast imaging sequences has renewed the interest in development of RF coils. The theoretical frame of the SNR of MRI coils is a challenge because it requires a deep mathematical background to master the associated concepts. Here, a simpler method is proposed based on Legendre polynomials. This approximation method, together with a quasi-static approach, was used to derive a signal-to-noise ratio expression for a circular-shaped coil. Legendre polynomials were used instead of a weighting function to simplify the vector potential of the power loss, and an SNR formula was then derived. The simplified version of the SNR formula of a circular coil was compared with the weighting function-derived SNR expression using the quasi-static approach. SNR-vs.-depth plots were computed to theoretically compare both SNR formulas. Results showed a strong agreement between SNR values for the circular-shaped coil. This approach can be used as a tool to derive SNR expressions for more complex geometries. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 28A: 422,429, 2006 [source]

    Introduction to diffusion tensor imaging mathematics: Part III.

    Tensor calculation, noise, optimization, simulations
    Abstract The mathematical aspects of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI, or DTI), the measurement of the diffusion tensor by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are discussed in this three-part series. Part III begins with a comparison of different ways to calculate the tensor from diffusion-weighted imaging data. Next, the effects of noise on signal intensities and diffusion tensor measurements are discussed. In MRI signal intensities as well as DTI parameters, noise can introduce a bias (systematic deviation) as well as scatter (random deviation) in the data. Propagation-of-error formulas are explained with examples. Step-by-step procedures for simulating diffusion tensor measurements are presented. Finally, methods for selecting the optimal b factor and number of b = 0 images for measuring several properties of the diffusion tensor, including the trace (or mean diffusivity) and anisotropy, are presented. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 28A: 155,179, 2006 [source]

    Dynamic study of cerebral bioenergetics and brain function using in vivo multinuclear MRS approaches

    Wei Chen
    Abstract One of the greatest merits of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodology used in biomedical research and clinical settings is its capability of measuring various physiological parameters in vivo. Besides MR imaging (MRI), which has been routinely applied to obtain vital information in living organs at normal and diseased states, in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates, bioenergetics, and their dynamic changes in the human and animals noninvasively. These MRS capabilities are further enhanced at high/ultrahigh magnetic fields because of significant gain in NMR detection sensitivity and improvement in the spectral resolution. Recent progress has shown that in vivo MRS holds great promise in many biomedical research areas,in particular, brain research. This article provides a broad review of (i) in vivo multinuclear MRS approaches, (ii) advanced MRS methodologies, and (iii) MRS applications for determining cerebral metabolism as well as bioenergetics at resting brain state and their dynamic changes in response to brain activation. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 27A: 84-121, 2005 [source]

    Perfusion-based functional magnetic resonance imaging,

    Afonso C. Silva
    Abstract The measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a very important way of assessing tissue viability, metabolism, and function. CBF can be measured noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using arterial water as a perfusion tracer. Because of the tight coupling between neural activity and CBF, functional MRI (fMRI) techniques are having a large impact in defining regions of the brain that are activated due to specific stimuli. Among the different fMRI techniques, CBF-based fMRI has the advantages of being specific to tissue signal change, a critical feature for quantitative measurements within and across subjects, and for high-resolution functional mapping. Unlike the conventional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) technique, the CBF change is an excellent index of the magnitude of neural activity change. Thus, CBF-based fMRI is the tool of choice for longitudinal functional imaging studies. A review of the principles and theoretical backgrounds of both continuous and pulsed arterial spin labeling methods for measuring CBF is presented, and a general overview of their current applications in the field of functional brain mapping is provided. In particular, examples of the use of CBF-based fMRI to investigate the fundamental hemodynamic responses induced by neural activity and to determine the signal source of the most commonly used BOLD functional imaging are reviewed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 16A: 16,27, 2003 [source]

    Current density mapping approach for design of clinical magnetic resonance imaging magnets

    Stuart Crozier
    Abstract Novel current density mapping (CDM) schemes are developed for the design of new actively shielded, clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. This is an extended inverse method in which the entire potential solution space for the superconductors has been considered, rather than single current density layers. The solution provides an insight into the required superconducting coil pattern for a desired magnet configuration. This information is then used as an initial set of parameters for the magnet structure, and a previously developed hybrid numerical optimization technique is used to obtain the final geometry of the magnet. The CDM scheme is applied to the design of compact symmetric, asymmetric, and open architecture 1.0,1.5 T MRI magnet systems of novel geometry and utility. A new symmetric 1.0-T system that is just 1 m in length with a full 50-cm diameter of the active, or sensitive, volume (DSV) is detailed, as well as an asymmetric system in which a 50-cm DSV begins just 14 cm from the end of the coil structure. Finally a 1.0-T open magnet system with a full 50-cm DSV is presented. These new designs provide clinically useful homogeneous regions and have appropriately restricted stray fields but, in some of the designs, the DSV is much closer to the end of the magnet system than in conventional designs. These new designs have the potential to reduce patient claustrophobia and improve physician access to patients undergoing scans. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts in Magnetic Resonance (Magn Reson Engineering) 15: 208,215, 2002 [source]

    Perfusion MR imaging with pulsed arterial spin-labeling: Basic principles and applications in functional brain imaging

    Yihong Yang
    Abstract Basic principles of the arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI are described, with focus on a brain perfusion model with pulsed labeling. A multislice perfusion imaging sequence with adiabatic inversion and spiral scanning is illustrated as an example. The mechanism of the perfusion measurement, the quantification of cerebral blood flow, and the suppression of potential artifacts are discussed. Applications of the perfusion imaging in brain activation studies, including simultaneous detection of blood flow and blood oxygenation, are demonstrated. Important issues associated with the applications such as sensitivity, quantification, and temporal resolution are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 14: 347,357, 2002 [source]

    Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2000
    AM Valkama
    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting neuromotor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age <34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuromotor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100% sensitivity and 79% specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67% and 85%, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 97%, the corresponding figures for US being 58% and 100%, respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extracerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP. [source]

    Isolated levocardia: Prenatal diagnosis and management

    Satoko Katsuya
    ABSTRACT Isolated levocardia (IL) is a rare condition of situs anomaly in which there is a normal left-sided heart (levocardia) with dextro position of the abdominal viscera. IL has been reported in children and adults with complex cardiac defects, whereas there are only few published reports regarding the prenatal diagnosis of IL. We report two prenatal cases of IL diagnosed by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both cases, fetal cardiac function remained within the normal range throughout pregnancy, and no treatment for the heart was required after birth. For the dextro position of abdominal viscera, one case was followed without any surgical procedure, but the other case required prophylactic operation due to malrotation of the small intestine. Although the prognosis of IL largely depends on the severity of associated cardiac anomaly, future bowel obstruction caused by intestinal malrotation may also be life-threatening. In this respect, prenatal diagnosis of IL is important, even when there is no associated cardiac structural anomaly. If IL is suspected in routine fetal ultrasonography, MRI may be recommended to obtain more detailed information on the anatomy of abdominal viscerae, and careful observation for bowel problems is required, especially after oral nutrition is started. [source]

    Novel MRI and fluorescent probes responsive to the Factor XIII transglutaminase activity

    Lorenzo Tei
    Abstract Transglutaminases, including factor XIII and tissue transglutaminase, participate in multiple extracellular processes associated with remodeling of the extracellular matrix during wound repair, blood clotting, tumor progression and fibrosis of ischemic injuries. The aim of this work was to evaluate a novel substrate analog for transglutaminase optimized by molecular modeling calculations (DCCP16), which can serve for molecular imaging of transglutaminase activity by magnetic resonance imaging and by near-infrared imaging. Experimental data showed covalent binding of Gd,DCCP16 and DCCP16-IRIS Blue to human clots, to basement membrane components and to casein in purified systems as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. In vivo, DCCP16 showed enhancement with a prolonged retention in clots and tumors, demonstrating the ability to detect both factor XIII and tissue transglutaminase mediated covalent binding of the contrast material. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Improved synthesis of DOTA tetraamide ligands for lanthanide(III) ions: A tool for increasing the repertoire of potential PARACEST contrast agents for MRI and/or fluorescent sensors

    Luis M. De León-Rodríguez
    Abstract The synthesis of new DOTA tetraamide (DOTAMR4) compounds is of great interest given their application in the formation of Ln(III) complexes as potential PARACEST contrast agents in MRI or fluorescent molecular probes. In this context amino acid and peptide DOTAMR4 derivatives are particularly attractive since the amino-acid and/or peptide moiety can show responsive properties dependent on a given stimuli which might translate to changes in water exchange rates of the corresponding Ln(III) complex. Current synthesis of DOTAMR4 derivatives is typically carried out by reacting haloacetamide intermediates with cyclen. However, this method fails to generate the tetra-substituted products when bulky substituents are present in the haloacetamide and in some cases this intermediate cannot be prepared by conventional acylation procedures limiting the number of DOTAMR4 compounds available for study. As a solution to these limitations, an improved methodology for the synthesis of DOTAMR4 by coupling DOTA to an appropriate amine containing reagent (i.e. protected amino-acids with the , -amino group free) is presented in this work. Several DOTAMR4 derivatives which are difficult or impossible to prepare with the traditional methodologies were easily obtained starting with DOTA. A new protocol was derived using this methodology for the solution-phase synthesis of DOTA peptide derivatives. With this methodology, many other DOTAMR4 peptide and non-peptide derivatives have been prepared in our laboratories with several of these new compounds showing interesting properties for molecular imaging. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bifunctional Eu3+ -doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles as a luminescent and T1 contrast agent for stem cell labeling

    Zhilong Shi
    Abstract Magnetic resonance tracking of stem cells has recently become an emerging application for investigating cell,tissue interactions and guiding the development of effective stem cell therapies for regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. In this work, anionic Eu3+ -doped Gd2O3 hybrid nanoparticles were applied as a contrast agent both for fluorescence microscopy and T1 -weighted MRI. The nanoparticles were synthesized through the polyol method and further modified with citric acid to obtain anionic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were internalized into human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified by inductively coupled plasma,mass spectrometry. MTT assay of the labeled cells showed that the nanoparticles did not possess significant cytotoxicity. In addition, the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of the hMSCs was not influenced by the labeling process. With MRI, the in vitro detection threshold of cells after incubation with nanoparticles at a Gd concentration of 0.5,mMfor 2,h was estimated to be about 10 000 cells. The results from this study indicate that the biocompatible anionic Gd2O3 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ show promise both as a luminescent and T1 contrast agent for use in visualizing hMSCs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    CMR2009: 5.03: Comparison of gadolinium concentrations in fresh skin and blood samples from patients with normal renal function after contrast-enhanced MRI and from patients on hemodialysis

    K. N. Christensen
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Study of the MR relaxation of microglia cells labeled with Gd-DTPA-bearing nanoparticles

    Emeline Julie Ribot
    Abstract Therapies involving cells as vehicles need to visualize in situ the trafficking of the cells concerned. This cellular imaging can be driven by cell contrast agent-based nanoparticle internalization and non-invasive MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) detection. Here, microglial cells, that would transport a suicide gene to a glioma, were incubated for different times, with various concentrations of silica nanoparticles on which numerous Gd-DTPA were grafted. The goal of this study was to investigate the repartition of cell-associated particles. MRI was used to quantitatively follow the particle uptake process. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that, although most of the nanoparticles were internalized, some remained adsorbed on the extracellular membrane surface. The cells were then submitted to various treatments: glycine to release bound nanoparticles and/or ultrasound to destroy the cell membranes. The R1 relaxation rates were measured at 4.7 T. R1 was maximal for 4,h of incubation, decreased after 8,h and remained stable for the 24 following hours. The magnetic resonance signal of ultrasonicated and glycine-treated cells made it possible to quantify the loss of bound nanoparticles after 8,h. Nevertheless, this release did not prevent cell detection since the internalized nanoparticles are enough concentrated to visualize the labeled cells even after 4 days of cell growth. These results highlight the compartmentalization of nanoparticles in microglia and the evolution of the MR signal of the labeled cells. This study could be of importance to interpret in vivo the MR signal changes that could occur after administration of such nanoparticle-labeled cells in therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Aerosols and gaseous contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging of the lung

    Karim Mosbah
    Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging of lungs and the investigation of pulmonary pathologies with this technique are limited by low proton spin density, degraded magnetic homogeneity and motion. Inhaled contrast agents (gases or aerosols) can improve the diagnostic value of MRI for lung. Paramagnetic contrast agents such as gadolinium chelates aerosol or dioxygen gas increase the relaxivity of proton in lung parenchyma and can be used to assess the ventilated fraction of the bronchoalveolar space. Similarly, inhalation of non proton-MRI nuclei such as perfluorinated gas or hyperpolarized gases (3He or 129Xe) can provide functional ventilation image. In this review paper, the principles, the practical implementation, the limitations and possible safety issues of these different techniques are summarized. The main pre-clinical and clinical applications of these approaches based on oral contrast agents are reviewed and illustrated with cutting-edge lung MRI studies. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Manganese cell labeling of murine hepatocytes using manganese(III)-transferrin,

    Christopher H. Sotak
    Abstract Manganese(III)-transferrin [Mn(III),Tf] was investigated as a way to accomplish manganese-labeling of murine hepatocytes for MRI contrast. It is postulated that Mn(III),Tf can exploit the same transferrin-receptor-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways used by hepatocytes to transport the iron analog Fe(III),Tf. More specifically, it was investigated whether manganese delivered by transferrin could give MRI contrast in hepatocytes. Comparison of the T1 and T2 relaxation times of Mn(III),Tf and Fe(III),Tf over the same concentration range showed that the r1 relaxivities of the two metalloproteins are the same in vitro, with little contribution from paramagnetic enhancement. The degree of manganese cell labeling following incubation for 2,7,h in 31.5,µm Mn(III),Tf was comparable to that of hepatocytes incubated in 500,µm Mn2+ for 1,h. The intrinsic manganese tissue relaxivity between Mn(III),Tf-labeled and Mn2+ -labeled cells was found to be the same, consistent with Mn(III) being released from transferrin and reduced to Mn2+. For both treatment regimens, manganese uptake by hepatocytes appeared to saturate in the first 1,2,h of the incubation period and may explain why the efficiency of hepatocyte cell labeling by the two methods appeared to be comparable in spite of the ,16-fold difference in effective manganese concentration. Hepatocytes continuously released manganese, as detected by MRI, and this was the same for both Mn2+ - and Mn(III),Tf-labeled cells. Manganese release may be the result of normal hepatocyte function, much in the same way that hepatocytes excrete manganese into the bile in vivo. This approach exploits a biological process,namely receptor binding, endocytosis and endosomal acidification,to initiate the release of an MRI contrast agent, potentially conferring more specificity to the labeling process. The ubiquitous expression of transferrin receptors by eukaryotic cells should make Mn(III),Tf particularly useful for manganese labeling of a wide variety of cells both in culture and in vivo. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of vascular,extravascular exchanges during liver carcinogenesis: application to MRI contrast agents

    Muriel Mescam
    Abstract The extraction of physiological parameters by non-invasive imaging techniques such as dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography requires a knowledge of molecular distribution and exchange between microvascularization and extravascular tissues. These phenomena not only depend on the physicochemical characteristics of the injected molecules but also the pathophysiological state of the targeted organ. We developed a five-compartment physiologically based pharmacokinetic model focused on hepatic carcinogenesis and MRI contrast agents. This model includes physical characteristics of the contrast agent, dual specific liver supply, microvessel wall properties and transport parameters that are compatible with hepatocarcinoma development. The evolution of concentrations in the five compartments showed significant differences in the distribution of three molecules (differentiated by their diameters and diffusion coefficients ranging, respectively, from 0.9 to 62,nm and from 68.10,9 to 47.10,7,cm2,s,1) in simulated regeneration nodules and dysplastic nodules, as well as in medium- and poorly differentiated hepatocarcinoma. These results are in agreement with known vascular modifications such as arterialization that occur during hepatocarcinogenesis. This model can be used to study the pharmacokinetics of contrast agents and consequently to extract parameters that are characteristic of the tumor development (like permeability), after fitting simulated to in vivo data. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]