Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Terms modified by MMA

  • mma polymerization

  • Selected Abstracts

    Arsenic speciation in natural and contaminated waters using CZE with in situ derivatization by molybdate and direct UV-detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 6 2009
    Olga S. Koshcheeva
    Abstract A simple and sensitive procedure for simultaneous determination of arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate (DMA) ions in waters using CZE with chemical derivatization in situ and UV-detection at 250,nm was developed. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary using solution containing sodium molybdate and sodium perchlorate as electrolyte. Molybdate forms heteropolycomplexes with arsenic species in low acidic media, while sodium perchlorate masks silicate ion. The analysis conditions were optimized; the best results were achieved with the electrolyte consisting of 10,mM Na2MoO4 and 10,mM NaClO4 at pH 3.0 using negative voltage and pneumatic injection of the sample. Nevertheless, the signal of arsenite ion was not detected, probably because of its instability. Arsenite ion was quantified as a difference between arsenate ion contents after and before oxidation by bromine water. The detection limits for the fresh water at the level of 5.0,,g/L for AsIII and AsV, 16,,g/L for DMA and 20,,g/L for MMA were achieved. The reproducibility varied in the range of 0.06,0.25 relative units. To reduce the interferences of the sample salinity an addition of organic substances and isotachophoretic effect were used. [source]

    Assessment of protein-incorporated arginine methylation in biological specimens by CZE UV-detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 23 2007
    Angelo Zinellu Dr.
    Abstract Protein arginine methyltransferases methylate post-translationally arginine residues in proteins to synthesize monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), or symmetric dimethylarginine. Protein arginine methylation is involved in the regulation of signal transduction, RNA export, and cell proliferation. Moreover, upon proteolysis, arginines are released into the cytosol in which they exert important biological effects. Both MMA and ADMA are inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and especially elevated levels of ADMA are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Quantification of these analytes is commonly performed by HPLC after sample cleanup and derivatization. We propose a CE method in which these steps have been avoided and the procedure for sample preparation has been simplified. After acidic hydrolysis of proteins, samples were dried, resuspended in water, and directly injected in CE. A baseline separation of analytes was reached in a 60 cm75,,m id uncoated silica capillary, by using a Tris-phosphate run buffer at pH,2.15. This method allows an accurate assessment of protein arginine methylation degree in different biological samples such as whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, cultured cells, and tissue. Moreover, its good sensitivity permits to evaluate the methylation of a single protein type after the opportune purification steps. A method applicability concerns both clinical laboratories, where the evaluation of blood protein from numerous samples could be rapidly performed, and research laboratories where the factors affecting the arginine protein methylation degree could be easily studied. [source]

    Trace determination of arsenic species by capillary electrophoresis with direct UV detection using sensitivity enhancement by counter- or co-electroosmotic flow stacking and a high-sensitivity cell

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 12-13 2003
    Baoguo Sun
    Abstract Stacking techniques used independently and also with a high-sensitivity cell (HSC) were employed to optimise sensitivity and detection limits in the direct photometric detection of the following eight arsenic species by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE): arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone), p -aminophenylarsonic acid (p -ASA), 4-nitrophenylarsonic acid (4-NPAA), and phenylarsonic acid (PAA) (target analytes). The stacking mechanisms, optimised stacking and separation conditions, and concentration sensitivity enhancement factors were discussed and compared for (i) normal stacking mode (NSM, sometimes also referred to as field-amplified stacking) in an uncoated fused-silica capillary in the counter-electroosmotic flow (EOF) mode, (ii) large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching, and (iii) the less often applied stacking method of co-EOF NSM stacking with EOF reversal using a poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC)-coated capillary. The optimal injection volumes were 7.4, 60 and 17.2% of the total capillary volume, for the above three methods, respectively. LVSS with polarity switching gave the lowest limit of detection (LOD). The use of the HSC further reduced the LOD of each target analytes by a factor of 5,8 times. By combining LVSS and HSC, LODs of the target analytes could be reduced by a factor of 218,311, to 5.61, 9.15, 11.1, and 17.1 ,g/L for As(III), DMA, MMA, and As(V), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the target analytes in tap water and lake water, with recoveries in the range of 89.4,103.3%. [source]

    DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic in copper smelters

    Jadwiga Palus
    Abstract Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a known human carcinogen; however, humans continue to be exposed to i-As in drinking water and in certain occupational settings. In this study, we used the Comet assay to evaluate DNA damage in the somatic cells of workers from three Polish copper smelters who were occupationally exposed to i-As. Blood samples were collected from 72 male workers and 83 unexposed male controls and used for the detection of DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA damage after a 3-hr incubation in culture. Urine samples were collected to assess the level of exposure. The mean concentration of arsenic metabolites in urine [the sum of arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA)] and the concentrations of DMA (the main metabolite in urine) were higher in workers than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. By contrast, the level of DNA damage, expressed as the median tail moment, was significantly higher in the leukocytes of workers than in the controls. Comet assays conducted with formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) digestion to detect oxidative DNA damage indicated that oxidative lesions were present in leukocytes from both the exposed and control groups, but the levels of damage were significantly higher among the workers. Incubation of the cells in culture resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of DNA damage, especially among leukocytes from the workers, suggesting that the DNA damage was subject to repair. Our findings indicate that copper smelter workers have increased levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, suggesting a potential health risk for the workers. Although i-As was present in air samples from the smelters and in urine samples from workers, no clear association could be made between i-As exposure and the DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply

    Lixian Yao
    Abstract Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production. While an animal is fed with ROX, the As compounds in the manure primarily occur as ROX and its metabolites, including arsenate (As[V]), arsenite (As[III]), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous fertilizers in China. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability of ROX, As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), with the soil amended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0,g PO4/kg, respectively, plus 2% (w/w manure/soil) chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites. The results indicate that this species of water spinach cannot accumulate ROX and MMA at detectable levels, but As(V), As(III), and DMA were present in all plant samples. Increased phosphorous decreased the shoot As(V) and As(III) in water spinach but did not affect the root As(V). The shoot DMA and root As(III) and DMA were decreased/increased and then increased/decreased by elevated phosphorous. The total phosphorous content (P) in plant tissue did not correlate with the total As or the three As species in tissues. Arsenate, As(III), and DMA were more easily accumulated in the roots, and phosphate considerably inhibited their upward transport. Dimethylarsinic acid had higher transport efficiency than As(V) and As(III), but As(III) was dominant in tissues. Conclusively, phosphate had multiple effects on the accumulation and transport of ROX metabolites, which depended on their levels. However, proper utilization of phosphate fertilizer can decrease the accumulation of ROX metabolites in water spinach when treated with CM containing ROX and its metabolites. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:947,951. 2009 SETAC [source]

    Dose-dependent uptake, elimination, and toxicity of monosodium methanearsonate in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Courtney A. Albert
    Abstract Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), an arsenic-based pesticide, has been used for the past 10 years in attempts to suppress mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada. Previous studies have shown that cavity nesting forest birds such as woodpeckers forage and breed in MSMA treated pine stands. Here we examined the effects of MSMA in the laboratory using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), with the objective to examine tissue distribution and sublethal toxic effects in a model avian species. Zebra finches were exposed to this pesticide at doses similar to those found in bark beetle samples from MSMA stands of trees treated in the southern interior of British Columbia (8, 24, and 72 ,g/g/d and a control group). Results showed high excretion (>90%) of arsenic in all dose groups, as well as dose-dependent trends in accumulation of arsenic in the blood (p < 0.001) and specific tissues. Monomethylarsonic acid, MMA (V), was the predominant form of arsenic in the blood plasma. Dimethylarsinic acid was the major form of arsenic found in the liver (83%) and kidney (61%) tissues. The brain tissue contained primarily the MMA (V) form (57%). Significant weight loss occurred in the two highest dose groups (p < 0.05). Birds in the highest dose group lost up to 15% of initial body mass. [source]

    External skeletal fixation in the management of equine mandibular fractures: 16 cases (1988,1998)

    Summary Fifty-three cases of equine mandibular fractures were managed surgically from 1988,1998, of which 16 (30%) were repaired by external skeletal fixation (ESF). Three surgical methods were utilised: transmandibular 4.76 or 6.35 mm Steinmann pins incorporated into fibreglass casting material or nonsterile dental acrylic (methyl methacrylate - MMA) bars reinforced with steel; transmandibular 9.6 mm self-tapping threaded pins 4.76 or 6.35 mm Steinmann pins incorporated into MMA bars reinforced with steel; and 4.5 mm or 5.5 mm ASIF cortical bone screws incorporated into MMA bars reinforced with steel or a ventral MMA splint. Fourteen horses were presented to the hospital for fixator removal at an average of 56.2 days. At removal, fractures were stable and occlusion of incisor and cheek teeth was considered adequate. Complications of the procedure occurred in 3 horses. Two horses with persistent drainage and ring sequestra from pin tracts required curettage 4 or 5 months after ESF removal. A third horse required replacement of the original fibreglass ESF with MMA bars to regain access to open, infected wounds. Another horse required removal of the second premolar at the time of fixator removal because the tooth root had been damaged in the original injury. ESF for the surgical management of mandibular fractures in horses has produced good results, with incisive and cheek tooth alignment reestablished in all horses. Horses that were managed via ESF had a rapid return to full feed and did not require any supplementation via nasogastric tube or oesophagostomy to maintain bodyweight or hydration status. [source]

    Synthesis and Reactivity of Oxametallacyclic Niobium Compounds by Using ,,,-Unsaturated Carbonyl Ligands,

    Roco A. Arteaga-Mller
    Abstract Reduction of mono(cyclopentadienyl)niobium complexes [NbCpRCl4] [CpR = C5Me4H (1), C5H4SiMe2Cl (2), C5H4SiMe3 (3)] with Na/Hg in the presence of methyl methacrylate [MMA, CH2=C(Me)C(O)OMe (a)], methyl acrylate [MA, CH2=CHC(O)OMe (b)] and mesityl oxide [MO, CMe2=CHC(O)Me (c)] afforded the corresponding derivatives [NbCpRCl2(LL)] [CpR = C5Me4H, LL = MMA (1a); CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl, LL = MMA (2a), MA (2b), MO (2c); CpR = C5H4SiMe3, LL = MMA (3a), MA (3b)] in variable yields depending on both the cyclopentadienyl and the ,,,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The reactivity of these complexes was studied toward protic and Lewis acids. Addition of triflic acid TfOH (Tf = CF3SO2) to 3b gave the triflate complex [NbCpRCl2{(CH2)2C(O)OMe}(OTf)] [CpR = C5H4SiMe3 (4)]. The Lewis acids E(C6F5)3 (E = B, Al) reacted with complexes 2b and 3b to give the three-membered metallacyclic (or ,2 -enone) compounds [NbCpRCl2{,2 -CH2=CHC(OMe){OE(C6F5)3}}] [CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl, E = B (5), Al (6); CpR = C5H4SiMe3, E = B (7), Al (8)], which decomposed to the corresponding adducts MAE(C6F5)3. The same reaction with the 2a and 3a derivatives only allowed the observation of the corresponding adducts MMAE(C6F5)3. Complexes 2a,b and 3a,b reacted with CO with elimination of the acrylate compounds, MA and MMA, respectively, to give the carbonylniobium(III) compounds [NbCpRCl2(CO)2]2 [CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl (9), C5H4SiMe3 (10)]. Analogous reactions with CNAr showed the elimination of the free MA and MMA compounds. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Physicochemical evaluation of silica-glass fiber reinforced polymers for prosthodontic applications

    Gke Meri
    This investigation was designed to formulate silica-glass fiber reinforced polymeric materials. Fused silica-glass fibers were chosen for the study. They were heat-treated at various temperatures (500C, 800C and 1100C), silanized, sized and incorporated in two modified resin mixtures (A and B). The flexural properties in dry and wet conditions were tested and statistically analyzed, and the content of residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, dimensional changes with temperature, water sorption and solubility were determined. Woven fibers [36.9% (wt/wt)], heat-treated at 500C, gave the highest strength values for the polymeric composites (an ultimate transverse strength of 200 Mpa and a flexural modulus of 10 GPa) compared with the fibers heat-treated at other temperatures. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured flexural properties between resins A and B regarding fiber treatment and water storage time. These fiber composites had a small quantity of residual MMA content [0.37 0.007% (wt/wt)] and very low water solubility, indicating good biocompatibility. It was suggested that silica-glass fibers could be used for reinforcement as a result of their anticipated good qualities in aqueous environments, such as the oral environment. [source]

    High-Strain Shape-Memory Polymers

    Walter Voit
    Abstract Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are self-adjusting, smart materials in which shape changes can be accurately controlled at specific, tailored temperatures. In this study, the glass transition temperature (Tg) is adjusted between 28 and 55,C through synthesis of copolymers of methyl acrylate (MA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and isobornyl acrylate (IBoA). Acrylate compositions with both crosslinker densities and photoinitiator concentrations optimized at fractions of a mole percent demonstrate fully recoverable strains at 807% for a Tg of 28,C, at 663% for a Tg of 37,C, and at 553% for a Tg of 55,C. A new compound, 4,4,-di(acryloyloxy)benzil (referred to hereafter as Xini) in which both polymerizable and initiating functionalities are incorporated in the same molecule, was synthesized and polymerized into acrylate shape-memory polymers, which were thermomechanically characterized yielding fully recoverable strains above 500%. The materials synthesized in this work were compared to an industry standard thermoplastic SMP, Mitsubishi's MM5510, which showed failure strains of similar magnitude, but without full shape recovery: residual strain after a single shape-memory cycle caused large-scale disfiguration. The materials in this study are intended to enable future applications where both recoverable high-strain capacity and the ability to accurately and independently position Tg are required. [source]

    Dye-Doped Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Modified Polymeric Matrices for Highly Efficient and Photostable Solid-State Lasers

    Roberto Sastre
    Abstract Here, the design, synthesis, and characterization of laser nanomaterials based on dye-doped methyl methacrylate (MMA) crosslinked with octa(propyl-methacrylate) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (8MMAPOSS) is reported in relation to their composition and structure. The influence of the silicon content on the laser action of the dye pyrromethene 567 (PM567) is analyzed in a systematic way by increasing the weight proportion of POSS from 1 to 50%. The influence of the inorganic network structure is studied by replacing the 8MMAPOSS comonomer by both the monofunctionalized heptaisobutyl-methacryl-POSS (1MMAPOSS), which defines the nanostructured linear network with the POSS cages appearing as pendant groups of the polymeric chains, and also by a new 8-hydrogenated POSS incorporated as additive to the polymeric matrices. The new materials exhibit enhanced thermal, optical, and mechanical properties with respect to the pure organic polymers. The organization of the molecular units in these nanomaterials is studied through a structural analysis by solid-state NMR. The domain size of the dispersed phase assures a homogeneous distribution of POSS into the polymer, thus, a continuous phase corresponding to the organic matrix incorporates these nanometer-sized POSS crosslinkers at a molecular level, in agreement with the transparency of the samples. The silicon,oxygen core framework has to be covalently bonded into the polymer backbone instead of being a simple additive and both the silica content and crosslinked degree exhibit a critical influence on the laser action. [source]

    Synthetic Strategies for Hybrid Materials to Improve Properties for Optoelectronic Applications,

    Olga Garca
    Abstract We report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a systematic study to relate the laser action from BODIPY dyes, doped into monolithic hybrid matrices, with the synthetic protocols of the final materials prepared via sol-gel. To this aim, the influence of both the hydrolysis time, increased in a controlled way, and the nature of the neutralization agent (pyridine, 3-amino-propyltriethoxy-silane (APS), N -[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-ethylene diamine (TSPDA), and N1 -[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]- diethylene triamine (TSPTA) on the laser action of PM567, incorporated into hybrid matrices based on copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), with methyltriethoxysilane (TRIEOS) as inorganic precursor, was analyzed. The presence of the amine-modified silane TSPDA as neutralization agent, which is able at the same time to be anchored to the inorganic network enhancing the inorganic-organic compatibility through the matrix interphase, and utilization of hydrolysis times lower than 10 minutes, increased significantly the lasing efficiency and photostability of dye. The extension of this study to the laser behavior of BODIPY dyes embedded in other different hybrid materials based on hydrolyzed-condensed copolymers of MMA with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) in a 1/1 volumetric proportion, validates the generalization of the above conclusions, which provide guides for the optimization of the synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials with optoelectronic innovative applications independently of their composition. [source]

    Structural Changes in the BODIPY Dye PM567 Enhancing the Laser Action in Liquid and Solid Media,

    I. Garca-Moreno
    Abstract In the search for more efficient and photostable solid-state dye lasers, newly synthesized analogs of the borondipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye PM567, bearing the polymerizable methacryloyloxypropyl group at position 2 (PMoMA) or at positions 2 and 6 (PDiMA), have been studied in the form of solid copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA). The parent dye PM567, as well as the model analogs bearing the acetoxypropyl group in the same positions, PMoAc and PDiAc, respectively, have been also studied both in liquid solvents and in solid poly(MMA) (PMMA) solution. Although in liquid solution PMoAc and PDiAc have the same photophysical properties as PM567, PDiAc exhibited a photostability up to 10 times higher than that of PM567 in ethanol under 310,nm-irradiation. The possible stabilization factors of PDiAc have been analyzed and discussed on the basis of the redox potentials, the ability for singlet molecular oxygen [O2(1,g)] generation, the reactivity with O2(1,g), and quantum mechanical calculations. Both PMoAc and PDiAc, pumped transversally at 532,nm, lased in liquid solution with a high (up to 58,%), near solvent-independent efficiency. This enhanced photostabilization has been also observed in solid polymeric and copolymeric media. While the solid solution of the model dye PDiAc in PMMA showed a lasing efficiency of 33,%, with a decrease in the laser output of ca.,50,% after 60,000 pump pulses (10,Hz repetition rate) in the same position of the sample, the solid copolymer with the double bonded chromophore, COP(PDiMA-MMA), showed lasing efficiencies of up to 37,%, and no sign of degradation in the laser output after 100,000 similar pump pulses. Even under the more demanding repetition rate of 30,Hz, the laser emission from this material remained at 67,% of its initial laser output after 400,000 pump pulses, which is the highest laser photostability achieved to date for solid-state lasers based on organic polymeric materials doped with laser dyes. This result indicates that the double covalent linkage of the BODIPY chromophore to a PMMA polymeric matrix is even more efficient than the simple linkage, for its photostabilization under laser operation. [source]

    CdS-Nanoparticle/Polymer Composite Shells Grown on Silica Nanospheres by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization,

    T. Cui
    Abstract In this paper we describe the combined use of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and a gas/solid reaction in the direct preparation of CdS-nanoparticle/block-copolymer composite shells on silica nanospheres. The block copolymer, consisting of poly(cadmium dimethacrylate) (PCDMA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is obtained by repeatedly performing the surface-initiated ATRP procedures in N,N -dimethylformamide (DMF) solution at room temperature, using cadmium dimethacrylate (CDMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the monomers. CdS nanoparticles with an average size of about 3,nm are generated in situ by exposing the silica nanospheres coated with block-copolymer shells to H2S gas. These synthetic core,shell nanospheres were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). These composite nanospheres exhibit strong red photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. [source]

    Genetic and cellular studies of oxidative stress in methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) cobalamin deficiency type C (cblC) with homocystinuria (MMACHC),

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 11 2009
    Eva Richard
    Abstract Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) cobalamin deficiency type C (cblC) with homocystinuria (MMACHC) is the most frequent genetic disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism. The aim of this work was to identify the mutational spectrum in a cohort of cblC -affected patients and the analysis of the cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis processes, in the presence or absence of vitamin B12. The mutational spectrum includes nine previously described mutations: c.3G>A (p.M1L), c.217C>T (p.R73X), c.271dupA (p.R91KfsX14), c.331C>T (p.R111X), c.394C>T (p.R132X), c.457C>T (p.R153X), c.481C>T (p.R161X), c.565C>A (p.R189S), and c.615C>G (p.Y205X), and two novel changes, c.90G>A (p.W30X) and c.81+2T>G (IVS1+2T>G). The most frequent change was the known c.271dupA mutation, which accounts for 85% of the mutant alleles characterized in this cohort of patients. Owing to its high frequency, a real-time PCR and subsequent high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for this mutation has been established for diagnostic purposes. All cell lines studied presented a significant increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and also a high rate of apoptosis, suggesting that elevated ROS levels might induce apoptosis in cblC patients. In addition, ROS levels decreased in hydroxocobalamin-incubated cells, indicating that cobalamin might either directly or indirectly act as a scavenger of ROS. ROS production might be considered as a phenotypic modifier in cblC patients, and cobalamin supplementation or additional antioxidant drugs might suppress apoptosis and prevent cellular damage in these patients. Hum Mutat 30:1,9, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An improved weighting method with multibounds formulation and convex programming for multicriteria structural optimization

    W. H. Zhang
    Abstract This paper presents an improved weighting method for multicriteria structural optimization. By introducing artificial design variables, here called as multibounds formulation (MBF), we demonstrate mathematically that the weighting combination of criteria can be transformed into a simplified problem with a linear objective function. This is a unified formulation for one criterion and multicriteria problems. Due to the uncoupling of involved criteria after the transformation, the extension and the adaptation of monotonic approximation-based convex programming methods such as the convex linearization (CONLIN) or the method of moving asymptotes (MMA) are made possible to solve multicriteria problems as efficiently as for one criterion problems. In this work, a multicriteria optimization tool is developed by integrating the multibounds formulation with the CONLIN optimizer and the ABAQUS finite element analysis system. Some numerical examples are taken into account to show the efficiency of this approach. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Copolymerization of n -butylacrylate with methylmethacrylate by a novel photoinitiator, 1-(bromoacetyl)pyrene

    Anuradha Mishra
    The photopolymerization efficiency of pyrene (Py), 1-acetylpyrene (AP), and 1-(bromoacetyl)pyrene (BP) for copolymerization of n -butylacrylate (BA) with methylmethacrylate (MMA) was compared. A kinetic study of solution copolymerization in DMSO at 30 0.2C showed that the Py could not initiate copolymerization even after 20 h, whereas with AP as initiator, less than 1% conversion was observed. However, introduction of a Br in ,-methyl group of AP significantly enhanced the percent conversion. The kinetics and mechanism of copolymerization of BA with MMA using BP as photoinitiator have been studied in detail. The system follows nonideal kinetics (Rp,, [BP]0.67[BA]1[MMA]0.98), and degradative solvent transfer reasonably explains these kinetic nonidealities. The monomer reactivity ratios (MRRs) of MMA and BA have been estimated by the Finemann,Ross and Kelen,Tudos methods, by analyzing copolymer compositions determined by 1H-NMR spectra. The values of r1 (MMA) and r2 (BA) were found to be 2.17 and 0.44, respectively, which suggested the high concentration of alternating sequences in the random copolymers obtained. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 39: 261,267, 2007 [source]

    Field evaluation of the efficacy of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spores, on the health status and performance of sows and their litters

    C. Alexopoulos
    Summary The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of BioPlus 2B, a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis spores, on the health status and productivity of sows and their litters. A total of 109 gilts and sows were allocated into two experimental groups, as follows: untreated controls (UC) and BioPlus 2B (same feeding as the UC group plus BioPlus 2B) at a dose of 400 g/ton of feed (equal to 1.28 106 viable spores/g of feed). Treatment started from the day of allocation (14 days prior to the expected farrowing) up to the weaning day. Homogeneity of the groups was satisfied with regard to the parity. From the results it was evident that BioPlus 2B supplementation of the feed improved gilt/sow performance as shown by: (i) the increase of sow feed consumption during the first 14 days postpartum and (ii) the decrease of sow weight loss during the suckling period. Certain blood and milk parameters were significantly improved, as shown by higher serum cholesterol and total lipids concentrations and higher milk fat and protein content at mid-suckling period. As a consequence, a positive effect was also noticed as regard litter health and performance characteristics in terms of: (i) decrease in piglet diarrhoea score, (ii) decrease in pre-weaning mortality thus leading to increase in the number of weaned piglets per litter and (iii) increase in piglet body weight at weaning. Moreover, BioPlus 2B tended to improve the health status and fertility of sows demonstrating: (i) tendency to a lower proportion of sows with Mastitis-Metritus-Agalactia (MMA) problems and (ii) lower proportion of sows returning to oestrus. [source]

    Novel amphiphilic polymer gel electrolytes based on (PEG- b -GMA)- co -MMA

    Dan Luo
    Abstract Amphiphilic conetwork,structured copolymers containing different lengths of ethylene oxide (EO) chains as ionophilic units and methyl methacrylate (MMA) chains as ionophobic units were prepared by free radical copolymerization and characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. Polymer gel electrolytes based on the copolymers complexed with liquid lithium electrolytes (dimethyl carbonate (DMC) : diethyl carbonate (DEC) : ethylene carbonate (EC) = 1 : 1 : 1 (W/W/W), LiPF6 1.0M) were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and impedance spectroscopy. A maximum ion conductivity of 4.27 10,4 S/cm at 25oC was found for the polymer electrolyte based on (PEG2000- b -GMA)- co -MMA with long EO groups. Moreover, the effect of temperature on conductivity of the amphiphilic polymer electrolytes obeys the Arrhenius equation. The good room temperature conductivity of the polymer electrolytes is proposed to relate to the enhancement in the amorphous domain of the copolymers due to their amphiphilic conetwork structure. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Study on bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by low intensity ultrasonic irradiation

    Sude Ma
    Abstract Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was polymerized in bulk solutions using low intensity ultrasonic radiation of 0.25 W/cm2. The polymerization occurred after 1 h of irradiation time was applied. The polymerization rate was greatly accelerated either by increasing the amount of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) granular added into the system or by elongating the irradiation time. However, it was found that the reaction rate increased with the decreasing of the ultrasonic frequencies when the exposure time of the polymerization under the irradiation was less than 3 h. Experimental results verified that the polymerization was initiated by free radicals, which were mainly generated from the degradation of PMMA macromolecular chains, the friction between the polymer macromolecular chains and the solvent monomer. These findings were obviously different from those obtained when high intensity ultrasonic irradiation was used. The polymers fabricated in this study by using ultrasound irradiation have a narrower molecular weight distribution compared to those obtained from the polymerizations induced by the conventional initiators. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of a nonpolar hydrocarbon solvent.


    Abstract This article presents the ternary phase diagram for methyl methacrylate (MMA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and n -hexane system at 70C. It was constructed by both theoretical calculations and online laser light scattering (LLS) technique. In situ polymerization of MMA in a nonpolar nonsolvent carried out in a LLS cell provides a new means for the accurate detection of the cloud points of highly viscous polymer mixtures, with polymer weight fractions over 0.6. The ternary phase diagram measured in this study can be used to design the reaction conditions for the precipitation and/or dispersion polymerization in a nonpolar nonsolvent medium where polymerization kinetics as well as polymer particle morphologies are strongly affected by thermodynamic phase separation phenomena. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Kinetics of methyl methacrylate grafting polymerization onto flaky aluminum powder

    Hui Liu
    Abstract With ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator, the kinetics of methyl methacrylate (MMA) grafting polymerization onto flaky aluminum powder (Al) was studied. It was found that the experimental apparent grafting polymerization rate, Rg = KC C C, was basically consistent with the theoretical result based on the theory of stable polymerization and equivalent activity, Rg = KC C CMMA. The activation energy of grafting, homogenous, and total polymerization rate was calculated as 65.1, 35.4, and 37.5 kJ mol,1, respectively. It could be validated that the relationship among these activation energies accorded with the theoretical result of parallel reactions. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Polymer electrolyte membranes having sulfoalkyl grafts into ETFE film prepared by radiation-induced copolymerization of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate

    Truong Thi Hanh
    Abstract Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) containing alkylsulfonic acid grafts can be prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) into a poly(ethylene- co -tetrafluoroethylene) film followed by sulfonation of the MA units in the copolymer grafts using an equimolar complex of chlorosulfonic acid and 1,4-dioxane (ClSO3H-Complex). PEMs with MA/MMA copolymer grafts that are 33%,79% MA units were prepared by preirradiation with a dose of 20 kGy and grafting in bulk comonomers at 60C. The grafted films are treated with ClSO3H-Complex to obtain PEMs with ion exchange capacity of 0.36-0.81 mmol/g (sulfonation degrees of 20%,40%) and proton conductivity of 0.04-0.065 S/cm. These values can be controlled by changing the MA content the sulfonation occurring at an ,-carbonyl carbon. The PEMs with higher MMA content showed higher durability in water (80C) and under oxidative conditions (3% H2O2) at 60C. This is because the PMMA grafts in the PEMs have no proton at an ,-carbonyl carbon, which is considered to be a trigger of the degradation of grafting polymers. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    The role of auxiliary monomers and emulsifiers on wet scrub resistance of various latex paints at different pigment volume concentrations

    M. Khorassani
    Abstract This work is an attempt to study the effect of different latex types containing various auxiliary monomers and emulsifiers on their pigmentation and their corresponding behavior on scrub resistance. The auxiliary monomers investigated were acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MAA), and itaconic acid and the emulsifiers contained sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). It was shown that a semibatch polymerization technique which led to smaller particles and sharper size distributions is preferable. The best wet scrub results were obtained by using MAA and SLS. It was also shown that the proper selection of an auxiliary monomer generally depended on the range of incorporated pigment volume concentration (PVC). At high PVCs, AA gave better performances compared with MMA. The reverse effect was shown to occur at low PVCs. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Synthesis and properties of organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization

    Tzong-Liu Wang
    Abstract The synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials was conducted by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) from the surface of silica colloids. Colloidal initiators were prepared by the functionalization of silica nanoparticles with (3-(2-bromoisobutyryl)propyl) dimethylethoxysilane (BIDS). Well-defined polymer chains were grown from the nanoparticle surfaces to yield individual particles composed of a silica core and a well-defined outer polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid state 13C and 29Si-NMR spectroscopy confirmed the successful modification of nanosilica surfaces. Subsequent grafting of polymers on silica surfaces by ATRP was also performed with success based on FTIR and NMR data. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and silicon mapping showed both hybrid materials were homogeneous dispersion systems. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis indicated that the BIDS initiator was covalently attached on surfaces of silica nanoparticles and ATRP of styrene and MMA were accomplished. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results displayed higher thermal stabilities for both nanohybrids in comparison with the linear-type vinyl polymers. Contact angle measurements revealed the nanomaterials character for both silica-based hybrid materials. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Properties of styrene-methyl methacrylate grafted DPNR latex at different monomer concentrations

    Siti Hajjar Che Man
    Abstract The graft copolymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) on to deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) latex was carried out. The effect of monomer concentrations on grafting efficiency, thermal and mechanical properties was studied. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and the highest grafting efficiency was found at 20 wt % monomer concentration. At low monomer concentration (10 wt %) the grafting was not significant and at 30 wt %, the grafting efficiency was slightly decreased. The thermal properties of graft copolymers were analyzed using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The degradation temperature (Tdeg) of the graft copolymer was increased with the increase in monomer concentration which indicates the improvement in thermal stability. The DSC result showed improvement in miscibility between the components as the monomer concentration increased. The mechanical properties of gum and filled modified NR were also investigated in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with an increase in monomer concentration while tensile modulus increased as the monomer concentration increased. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Novel jute yarns grafted with methyl methacrylate

    M. Montazer
    Abstract This research work involves graft copolymerization of jute fibers with methyl methacrylate (MMA), initiated by cerric ions, and optimization of the grafting parameters as a function of different polymerization conditions. It was considered to produce a hydrophobic jute fiber with enhanced properties. To achieve this, the effects of monomer concentration and grafting percentage on FTIR spectra, mechanical properties, moisture regain, oil-adsorption capacity, and surface morphology were investigated, and optimum percentage of MMA with reasonable properties was suggested. The results indicated that cerric ions initiated graft copolymerization of MMA onto jute with 30% of weight of monomers at optimum conditions of acid concentration and temperature. The FTIR studies proposed grafting of MMA onto jute at hydroxyl groups. The results showed that mechanical properties and moisture regain (%) of samples decrease with increasing of graft percentage. The most remarkable features of this investigation include reducing oil-adsorption capacity with increasing of lipophilic monomer percentages after one limitation. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate: Effect of stabilizer concentration

    Sheng Jiang
    Abstract In dispersion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA), little difference was found in the polymerization kinetics with varying stabilizer (PVP K-30) concentration, indicating that in contrast to emulsion polymerization, the kinetics of these dispersion polymerizations are independent of the number of particles. Comparing MMA precipitation and dispersion polymerizations revealed that nuclei formation in the latter results from precipitation polymerization occurring in the continuous phase, which can contribute significantly to the kinetics, and especially to the molecular weight distributions. No change was found in the molecular weight distribution of the PVP during a dispersion polymerization, nor was there any measurable difference between using fresh and recycled stabilizer. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Restraining the associations of anthracene fluorophore by chemically linking to poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Fu-Kun Su
    Abstract Associations (dimer or aggregate) of anthracene (An) fluorophores tend to interrupt the monomer emission and reduce the quantum yield (,PL); therefore, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chain was used in this study to chemically link to anthracene and to block the mutual associations among the anthracene fluorophores. With this aim, the target polymers were prepared by anionic polymerizations with 9,10-dibromoanthracene/s -butyllithium as initiating system to proceed polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) directly or in the presence of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE). Use of DPE before addition of MMA produces stable initiating anionic species and avoids potential side reactions during polymerization; however, it also introduces four ,-phenylene rings around the central anthracene ring, which interfere with the corresponding emission pattern and reduce the ,PL (32%) value due to potential interactions between phenylene rings and anthracene. On the contrast, polymerization without participation of DPE results in polymer with central anthracene ring directly connected to two PMMA chains, which gives clean vibronic emission pattern with limited association emissions and enhanced ,PL (52%) value. Physical blending of anthracene by PMMA is less efficient to restrain the associations and results in a film of lower ,PL (20%). 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    The synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)- g -poly(methylmethacrylate) brush type graft copolymers by atom transfer radical polymerization method

    Hlya Arslan
    Abstract Brush type of poly (3-hydroxy butyrate), PHB, copolymer synthesis has been reported. Natural PHB was chlorinated by passing chlorine gas through PHB solution in CHCl3/CCl4 mixture (75/25 v/v) to prepare chlorinated PHB, PHB-Cl, with the chlorine contents varying between 2.18 and 39.8 wt %. Toluene solution of PHB-Cl was used in the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate, MMA, in the presence of cuprous bromide (CuBr)/2,2,-bipyridine complex as catalyst, at 90C. This "grafting from" technique led to obtain poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)-g-poly(methylmethacrylate) (PHB- g -PMMA) brush type graft copolymers (cylindrical brush). The polymer brushes were fractionated by fractional precipitation methods and the , values calculated from the ratio of the volume of nonsolvent to volume of solvent of brushes were ranged between 2.8 and 9.5 depending on the molecular weight, grafting density, and side chain length of the brushes, while the , values of PHB, PHB-Cl, and homo-PMMA were 2.7,3.8, 0.3,2.4, and 3.0,3.9, respectively. The fractionated brushes were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, 1H-NMR spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. PHB- g -PMMA brush type graft copolymers showed narrower molecular weight distribution (mostly in range between 1.3 and 2.2) than the PHB-Cl macroinitiator (1.6,3.5). PHB contents in the brushes were calculated from their TGA thermograms and found to be in range between 22 and 42 mol %. The morphologies of PHB- g -PMMA brushes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]