MHz

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by MHz

  • mhz antenna
  • mhz band
  • mhz bandwidth
  • mhz transducer

  • Selected Abstracts


    Usefulness of a New Radiofrequency Thermal Balloon Catheter for Pulmonary Vein Isolation:

    JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    A New Device for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
    Introduction: A rapidly firing or triggered ectopic focus located within a pulmonary vein (PV) or close to the PV ostium could induce atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a radiofrequency thermal balloon catheter for isolation of the PV from the left atrium (LA). Methods and Results: Twenty patients with drug-resistant paroxysmal AF were treated by isolating the superior PVs using an RF thermal balloon catheter. Using a transseptal approach, the balloon, which had an inflated diameter 5 to 10 mm larger than that of the PV ostium, was wedged at the LA-PV junction. It was heated by a very-high-frequency current (13.56 MHZ) applied to the coil electrode inside the balloon for 2 to 3 minutes, and the procedure was repeated up to four times. The balloon center temperature was maintained at 60 to 75C by regulating generator output. Successful PV isolation was achieved in 19 of the 20 left superior PVs and in all 20 of the right superior PVs and was associated with a decrease in amplitude of the ostial potentials. Total procedure time was1.8 0.5hours, which included22 7minutes of fluoroscopy time. After a follow-up period of8.1 0.8months, 17 patients were free from AF, with 10 not taking any antiarrhythmic drugs and 7 taking the same antiarrhythmic agent as before ablation. Electron beam computed tomography revealed no complications, such as PV stenosis at ablation sites. Conclusion: The PV and its ostial region can be safely and quickly isolated from the LA by circumferential ablation around the PV ostia using a radiofrequency thermal balloon catheter for treatment of AF. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 609-615, June 2003) [source]


    Sonographic evaluation of the sciatic nerve in patients with lower-limb amputations

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 6 2010
    A. Salim Gktepe MD
    Abstract Hypertrophy of the sciatic nerve after lower-limb amputation in patients with sarcomas has been previously reported by magnetic resonance imaging; however, sonographic evaluation of the sciatic nerve after lower-limb amputation due to nonmalignant causes has not been done before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform imaging of the sciatic nerve in lower-limb amputees and to find out whether sonographic findings were related to clinical characteristics. Twenty-three males with lower-limb amputations due to traumatic injuries were enrolled. Sonographic evaluations were performed using a linear array probe (Aloka UST-5524-7.5 MHZ). Sciatic nerve diameters were measured bilaterally at the same level, and the values of the normal limbs were taken as controls. Sciatic nerve width and thickness values were found to be greater on the amputated sides than the normal sides (P = 0.001). The thickness values were greater in above-knee amputees than below-knee amputees (P = 0.05). Subjects with a neuroma also had thicker sciatic nerves (P = 0.04). The diameters were found not to change between subjects with different liners (P > 0.05), but they were correlated with time after amputation (r = 0.6, P = 0.006; r = 0.4, P = 0.05, respectively). Our results clearly show that the sciatic nerves were wider and thicker on the amputated sides. Amputation level, duration, and the presence of a neuroma seem to affect the eventual diameters of the nerves. Muscle Nerve, 2010 [source]


    Optimizing measurement of the electrical anisotropy of muscle

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 5 2008
    Anne B. Chin BS
    Abstract Skeletal muscle is electrically anisotropic, with applied high-frequency electrical current flowing more easily along than across muscle fibers. As an early step in harnessing this characteristic for clinical use, we studied approaches for maximizing the measured anisotropy by varying electrode size and applied current frequency in the tibialis anterior of 10 normal subjects. The results were compared to those from two patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Current was applied percutaneously, first parallel and then perpendicular to the major fiber direction of the muscle at frequencies ranging from 20 kHZ to 1 MHZ, using a fixed voltage,electrode length and varying the current,electrode length. The measured anisotropy was most pronounced using the longest length current electrodes and with a 125-kHZ applied frequency for the major outcome parameter phase. In addition, the two ALS patients showed very distinct anisotropic patterns. These results support the belief that, with the appropriate measurement technique, non-invasive assessment of electrical anisotropy of muscle may have useful clinical application. Muscle Nerve, 2008 [source]


    Phased-Array Intracardiac Echocardiography for Guiding Transseptal Catheter Placement: Utility and Learning Curve

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    SUSAN B. JOHNSON
    JOHNSON, S.B., et al.: Phased-Array Intracardiac Echocardiography for Guiding Transseptal Catheter Placement: Utility and Learning Curve. The utility of a new intracardiac 64-element, phased-array, longitudinal ultrasound imaging system for guiding transseptal catheterization was assessed during 69 crossing attempts in 45 dogs because of the inherent limitations of fluoroscopy and mechanical ultrasound. Multifrequency (7.5,8.5 MHZ) imaging of the membranous fossa ovalis, posterior left atrium, and left atrial appendage was conducted from the right atrium. Contact of the Brockenbrough needle with the interatrial septum as reflected by membranous fossa ovalis "tenting" was uniformly identified. Transseptal crossing and advancement of the dilator and sheath were adequately imaged because of deeper ultrasound tissue penetration. Transseptal catheterization was successfully accomplished in 44 of 45 dogs: on the first attempt in 40 and with additional attempts in 4 and confirmed by direct far-field imaging of nonagitated saline injection via the sheath. Total transseptal catheterization time was 3.0 1.8 minutes. Unsuccessful first attempts and/or subsequent sheath pullback into the right atrium with catheter manipulation were also readily recognized. Insertion of the transseptal needle beyond the ultrasound imaging plane resulted in perforation of the posterior left atrial wall in three attempts. Accompanying effusions in these animals and three others related to subsequent intracardiac ablation catheter manipulation were readily identified and monitored echocardiographically. In conclusion, phased-array intracardiac imaging provides a highly reliable means of guiding transseptal access to the left atrium. In addition, inadvertent complications such as perforation and pericardial effusion development can be readily recognized. [source]


    Characteristics of VHF H2 Plasma Produced at High Pressure

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 4 2008
    Y. Yamauchi
    Abstract A VHF H2 plasma was produced with the multi rod electrode at high pressure and the plasma parameters were measured as a function of pressure for different VHF powers at 60 MHz. It was found that when the pressure is increased, the ion saturation current peaks at certain pressure and finally decreases at high pressures, while the electron temperature is around 10 eV. The wall potential at high pressure was lower than the values estimated from the electron temperature using the probe theory. Furthermore, the anomalous reduction of the electron saturation current was observed. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Rotational and Vibrational Temperature Measurements in a High-Pressure Cylindrical Dielectric Barrier Discharge (C-DBD)

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 1 2005
    N. Masoud
    Abstract The rotational (TR) and vibrational (Tv) temperatures of N2 molecules were measured in a high-pressure cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge (C-DBD) source in Ne with trace amounts (0.02 %) of N2 and dry air excited by radio-frequency (rf) power. Both TR and Tv of the N2 molecules in the C 3,u state were determined from an emission spectroscopic analysis the 2nd positive system (C 3,u , B3,g). Gas temperatures were inferred from the measured rotational temperatures. As a function of pressure, the rotational temperature is essentially constant at about 360 K in the range from 200 Torr to 600 Torr (at 30W rf power) and increases slightly with increasing rf power at constant pressure. As one would expect, vibrational temperature measurements revealed significantly higher temperatures. The vibrational temperature decreases with pressure from 3030 K at 200 Torr to 2270 K at 600 Torr (at 30 W rf power). As a function of rf power, the vibrational temperature increases from 2520 K at 20 W to 2940 K at 60 W (at 400 Torr). Both TR and Tv also show a dependence on the excitation frequency at the two frequencies that we studied, 400 kHz and 13.56 MHz. Adding trace amounts of air instead of N2 to the Ne in the discharge resulted in higher TR and Tv values and in a different pressure dependence of the rotational and vibrational temperatures. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Synthesis, characterization and dielectric properties of EuBa2SbO6 nanocrystals

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    V. T. Kavitha
    Abstract Nanoparticles of EuBa2SbO6, a complex perovskite metal oxide were synthesized by a self-sustained combustion method employing citric acid as the complexing agent. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nanocrystals of EuBa2SbO6 were sintered to 97 % of theoretical density at 1450 C for 4 h without any sintering aid. The dielectric properties (dielectric constant, ,r and loss factor, tan,) of the ceramics have been measured in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at room temperature. The chemical non-reactivity of EuBa2SbO6 with YBa2Cu3O7-, makes it an ideal substrate for YBa2Cu3O7-, superconductors. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Characterization of gel grown iron-manganese-cobalt ternary levo-tartrate crystals

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    S. J. Joshi
    Abstract In the present investigation, iron,manganese,cobalt ternary levo-tartrate crystals of different compositions have been grown by single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydrogel medium. The metallic composition in the crystals was estimated by EDAX. The coloration of the crystals changed with composition of metallic content. The powder XRD study suggested the crystalline nature and indicated the presence of some extra phases. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, dielectric and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies. The FT-IR study suggested the presence of O-H, C=O, C-O and metal-oxygen bonds. The effect of composition of metallic content was observed in certain absorption regions in FT-IR spectra. The thermal stability of the crystals was studied by thermogravimetry and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration were calculated. The effect of composition of ternary levo-tartrate was observed in dielectric study. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations in dielectric constant, dielectric loss, a.c. resistivity and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field were studied. VSM study suggested that all crystals were of paramagnetic nature. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Growth and characterization of pure and doped nonlinear optical l-arginine acetate single crystals

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2007
    M. Gulam Mohamed
    Abstract Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material of pure, Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped L-arginine acetate (LAA) were successfully grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra of pure and doped LAA indicate that these crystals possess a wide optical transmission window from 240-1600 nm. Non-linear optical studies reveal that the SHG efficiency of LAA is nearly three times that of KDP. The dielectric response of the samples was studied in the frequency region 100 Hz to 2 MHz and the influence of Cu2+ and Mg2+ substitution on the dielectric behaviour had been investigated. Photoconductivity study proves that both pure and Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped LAA crystal exhibit positive photoconductivity. It is evident from the Vickers hardness study that the hardness of the crystal decreases with increasing load both for pure and doped samples. ESR studies confirmed the incorporation of Cu2+ into LAA and the value of g-factor was found to be 2.1654. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    DC conduction in bis(dimethylglyoximato)palladium(II) thin films

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2007
    A. A. Dakhel
    Abstract Bis(dimethylglyoximato)palladium (II) complex thin films of polycrystalline structure were prepared by sublimation in a vacuum at 140C on p-Si substrates. After carrying out the characterisation of the prepared films by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods, Al-complex-Si MIS devices were fabricated. The constructed MIS structure was characterised by measuring the capacitance as a function of gate voltage at 1 MHz. The dependence of dc-current density on gate voltage and temperature in the range of 293 - 328 K of the MIS device was measured. It was found that the experimental data follow the trap-charge-limited space-charge-limited conductivity mechanism, from which the total concentration and the exponential energy distribution of the trap density were determined. In general, the measured quantities suggest that the conduction can be realised by thermally assisted hopping between localised states bundled in a very narrow band lying energetically near the mobility band edge. Moreover, results show that it is possible to use a film of the complex in applications of low-k dielectric material. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Dielectric relaxation in ferroelectric TlInS2 layered crystals within metastable chaotic state

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    entrk
    Abstract The results of investigations low frequency dielectric relaxation in layered ferroelectric TlInS2 crystals are presented. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 180-230 K and in the frequency range of 5 kHz,1 MHz. Two different relaxation processes were observed in mentioned temperature interval. The crystal has "slow" and "fast" relaxation mechanisms in low and high frequency region, respectively. The presence of two different relaxation mechanisms in TlInS2 is discussed. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Fetal Mouse Imaging Using Echocardiography: A Review of Current Technology

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2006
    Christopher F. Spurney M.D.
    Advances in genetic research have led to the need for phenotypic analysis of small animal models. However, often these genetic alterations, especially when affecting the cardiovascular system, can result in fetal or perinatal death. Noninvasive ultrasound imaging is an ideal method for detecting and studying such congenital malformations, as it allows early recognition of abnormalities in the living fetus and the progression of disease can be followed in utero with longitudinal studies. Two platforms for fetal mouse echocardiography exist, the clinical systems with 15-MHz phased array transducers and research systems with 20,55-MHz mechanical transducers. The clinical ultrasound system has limited two-dimensional (2D) resolution (axial resolution of 440 ,m), but the availability of color and spectral Doppler allows quick interrogations of blood flows, facilitating the detection of structural abnormalities. M-mode imaging further provides important functional data, although, the proper imaging planes are often difficult to obtain. In comparison, the research biomicroscope system has significantly improved 2D resolution (axial resolution of 28 ,m). Spectral Doppler imaging is also available, but in the absence of color Doppler, imaging times are increased and the detection of flow abnormalities is more difficult. M-mode imaging is available and equivalent to the clinical ultrasound system. Overall, the research system, given its higher 2D resolution, is best suited for in-depth analysis of mouse fetal cardiovascular structure and function, while the clinical ultrasound systems, equipped with phase array transducers and color Doppler imaging, are ideal for high-throughput fetal cardiovascular screens. [source]


    Comparison of Coronary Flow Velocities Between Patients with Obstructive and Nonobstructive Type Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Noninvasive Assessment by Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2005
    Seden Celik M.D.
    Background: We aimed to compare coronary flow velocity (CFV) measurements of patients with nonobstructive (NHCM) and obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) by using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). Methods and Results: In 11 patients with NHCM and 26 with HOCM, CFV in the distal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary was measured by TTDE (3.5 MHz) under the guidance of color Doppler flow mapping in addition to standard 2D and Doppler echocardiography. The results were compared with 24 normal participants who had no evidence of cardiac disease. Peak diastolic velocity of LAD was also higher in NHCM and HOCM than controls (52 14 cm/sec and 54 20 cm/sec vs 41 11 cm/sec, respectively, P < 0.01). The analysis of systolic velocities revealed abnormal flow patterns in 16 (61%) patients with HOCM (12 systolic-reversal flow and 4 no systolic flow) and 6 (54%) (5 reversal flow and 1 zero flow) patients with NHCM (,11 30 cm/sec and ,13 38 cm/sec, vs 24 9 cm/sec, respectively, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated no correlation between intraventricular pressure gradient and coronary flow velocities in HOCM patients. However, there were significant positive and negative correlations between septal thickness and diastolic and systolic velocities, respectively (r = 0.50, P < 0.002, and r =,0.43, P < 0.005). Conclusion: We conclude that the coronary flow velocity abnormalities are independent from the type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. [source]


    Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 24 2006
    Zhenyu Wang
    Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DEP. The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell is measured by integrated polymer optical elements (waveguide, lens, and fiber coupler). By comparing the cell counting rates measured by the two FCs, the collection efficiency of the DEP filter can be determined. The chips were used for quantitative determination of the effect of flow rate, applied voltage, conductivity of the sample, and frequency of the electric field on the sorting efficiency. A theoretical model for the capture efficiency was developed and a reasonable agreement with the experimental results observed. Viable and non-viable yeast cells showed different frequency dependencies and were sorted with high efficiency. At 2,MHz, more than 90% of the viable and less than 10% of the non-viable cells were captured on the DEP filter. The presented approach provides quantitative real-time data for sorting a large number of cells and will allow optimization of the conditions for, e.g., collecting cancer cells on a DEP filter while normal cells pass through the system. Furthermore, the microstructure is simple to fabricate and can easily be integrated with other microstructures for lab-on-a-chip applications. [source]


    Mixed-Ligand Oxidovanadium(V) Complexes with N, -Salicylidenehydrazides: Synthesis, Structure, and 51V Solid-State MAS NMR Investigation,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2008
    Simona Nica
    Abstract The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a series of three oxidovanadium(V) complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline and Schiff-base ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and ,-hydroxy-functionalized carbohydrazides with different chain lengths are reported. The complex with the hydrazone ligand containing the shortest chain length was crystallographically characterized. This complex crystallizes in the triclinic space group P with two structurally similar but crystallographically independent oxidovanadium(V) complexes. Each vanadium atom is six-coordinate in a distorted-octahedral geometry. The two molecules are assembled through hydrogen-bonding interactions between the hydroxyl groups of the side-chain substituted Schiff-base ligand and the oxido group of one of the two complexes. Electrochemical measurements performed in acetonitrile solution reveal two reversible one-electron reduction steps. The observed pre-wave feature of the second reduction step indicates the presence of dissociation equilibria related to the 8-hydroxyquinoline coligand. Magic-angle spinning solid-state 51V NMR spectroscopy allowed to characterize the full series of complexes with alkyl and hydroxy alkyl-substituted hydrazone ligands that were used. The quadrupolar coupling constants are small with a value of about 4 MHz and show little variation within the series. The asymmetry of the chemical shift tensor indicates a rather axial symmetric environment around the vanadium(V) center. The isotropic chemical shifts observed in the solid state occur at about 30 ppm, which is in the same order of magnitude as the solvent induced variations, about 10 ppm, found for different solvents.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]


    Understanding the partial discharge activity of conducting particles in GIS under DC voltages using the UHF technique

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 5 2010
    R. Sarathi
    Abstract The major cause of failure of DC-GIS is due to presence of foreign particles causing partial discharges in the insulation structure. The particle movement in gas insulated system (GIS) radiates electromagnetic waves and the bandwidth of the signal lies in the range 1,2,GHz. Increase in applied DC voltage/pressure has not altered the frequency content of the ultra high frequency (UHF) signal generated due to partial discharge formed by particle movement. The UHF sensor could recognize the breakdown of sulfur-hexa-fluoride (SF6) gas under DC and Lightning impulse voltages and the frequency content of the signal captured by the UHF sensor lies up to 500,MHz. Mounting UHF sensor in GIS could allow one to classify internal partial discharges from breakdown, at the time of testing/during operation. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Coupled FEM and lumped circuit model of the electromagnetic response of coaxially insulated windings in two slot cores

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 6 2007
    Pr Holmberg
    Abstract This paper presents a coupled FEM and lumped circuit modelling approach that is primarily intended for high-frequency and overvoltage simulations of rotating electric machines with coaxially insulated windings, such as Powerformer and Motorformer. The magnetic fields and their interaction with the conductors of the winding are simulated with the aid of a FEM-program. The displacement current and its losses are modelled with an external lumped circuit. To consider eddy current losses, the stranded conductors and the laminated steel cores are replaced by homogeneous bodies with similar losses over a wide frequency range. The approach is illustrated and experimentally verified for a set-up with a cable wound around two slot cores. The model agrees well with measurements up to 1,MHz. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Comparison of electromagnetic field for two different lightning pulse current models

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER, Issue 4 2001
    A. Andreotti
    In this paper the electromagnetic field produced by a lightning current analytically described by the so called double exponential model is compared with the field produced by the same current (same peak, rise and decay time) analytically described by the model proposed by Heidler. The exponential model has been widely used in literature for its simplicity and its relatively good accuracy. The Heidler model is more complex, but removes the main problem shown by the double exponential: the non-zero derivative at the beginning of the lightning pulse in contrast with the physical phenomenon. In the lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) simulations both models are now used. In the paper we aim to make a comparison between the two. In particular we show that the two models are fairly equivalent in the frequency range up to 2 MHz, namely the range of interest of typical lightning phenomena. In addition, the double exponential model is shown to be conservative for higher frequencies. [source]


    High-resolution estimation for time-variant MIMO channel sounding,

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 7 2008
    Sofia Martinez Lopez
    A wideband vector channel sounder with 16 parallel RF chains is proposed for parameter estimation in an indoor channel. Low-cost and high-resolution are obtained by using a chirp probe signal, five-port receivers and the MUSIC algorithm. The system covers up to 500,MHz centred at 2.45,GHz. Experimental results show errors inferior to 1,ns in the time domain and of few degrees in the angular domain. Accurate results are found in static as well as in time-variant scenarios. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Array antenna assisted doppler spread compensator for OFDM

    EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Issue 5 2002
    Minoru Okada
    This paper proposes a novel array-antenna-assisted Doppler spread compensator for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which is sensitive to fast time-variation of the radio propagation channel. In the proposed compensator, a linear array antenna is installed on top of the vehicle. The compensator estimates the received signal at a certain point on the linear array antenna by using space domain interpolation. Because the relative position of the estimated receiving point with respect to the ground does not change during the effective symbol duration of an OFDM signal, the time variation due to the movement of the vehicle can be compensated for. Computer simulation shows that the compensator can compensate for the bit error rate performance degradation due to time-variation of the channel when the velocity of the vehicle is up to 180km/h and a two-element array antenna is used at the carrier frequency of 600 MHz. The bit error rate performance can be further improved by using a four-element array antenna. [source]


    Thickness-Dependent Properties of Relaxor-PbTiO3 Ferroelectrics for Ultrasonic Transducers

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2010
    Hyeong Jae Lee
    Abstract The electrical properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 -PbTiO3 (PMN-PT)-based polycrystalline ceramics and single crystals were investigated as a function of scale ranging from 500 ,m to 30 ,m. Fine-grained PMN-PT ceramics exhibited comparable dielectric and piezoelectric properties to their coarse-grained counterpart in the low frequency range (<10 MHz), but offered greater mechanical strength and improved property stability with decreasing thickness, corresponding to higher operating frequencies (>40 MHz). For PMN-PT single crystals, however, the dielectric and electromechanical properties degraded with decreasing thickness, while ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 -Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 -PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) exhibited minimal size-dependent behavior. The origin of property degradation of PMN-PT crystals was further studied by investigating the dielectric permittivity at high temperatures, and domain observations using optical polarized light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the thickness-dependent properties of relaxor-PT ferroelectrics are closely related to the domain size with respect to the associated macroscopic scale of the samples. [source]


    Reversibly Deformable and Mechanically Tunable Fluidic Antennas

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 22 2009
    Ju-Hee So
    Abstract This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of fluidic dipole antennas that are reconfigurable, reversibly deformable, and mechanically tunable. The antennas consist of a fluid metal alloy injected into microfluidic channels comprising a silicone elastomer. By employing soft lithographic, rapid prototyping methods, the fluidic antennas are easier to fabricate than conventional copper antennas. The fluidic dipole radiates with ,90% efficiency over a broad frequency range (1910,1990,MHz), which is equivalent to the expected efficiency for a similar dipole with solid metallic elements such as copper. The metal, eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), is a low-viscosity liquid at room temperature and possesses a thin oxide skin that provides mechanical stability to the fluid within the elastomeric channels. Because the conductive element of the antenna is a fluid, the mechanical properties and shape of the antenna are defined by the elastomeric channels, which are composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The antennas can withstand mechanical deformation (stretching, bending, rolling, and twisting) and return to their original state after removal of an applied stress. The ability of the fluid metal to flow during deformation of the PDMS ensures electrical continuity. The shape and thus, the function of the antenna, is reconfigurable. The resonant frequency can be tuned mechanically by elongating the antenna via stretching without any hysteresis during strain relaxation, and the measured resonant frequency as a function of strain shows excellent agreement (0.1,0.3% error) with that predicted by theoretical finite element modeling. The antennas are therefore sensors of strain. The fluid metal also facilitates self-healing in response to sharp cuts through the antenna. [source]


    Functional Chromium Wheel-Based Hybrid Organic,Inorganic Materials for Dielectric Applications

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Vito Di Noto
    Abstract The first example of organic,inorganic hybrid materials based on the embedding of a chromium,nickel wheel cluster {[(n-C3H7)2NH2]- [Cr7NiF8(O2C4H5)16]} (Cr7Ni) into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the characterization of the dielectric properties of the obtained material is described. By an optimized copolymerization of the methacrylate-functionalized chromium,nickel wheel with methyl methacrylate in a cluster/monomer 1:200 molar mixture, a homogeneous hybrid material CrNi_MMA200 is obtained. The electrical responses of the non-doped PMMA and of the hybrid material were studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) from 0.01,Hz to 10,MHz and over the temperature range of 5,115,C. The permittivity profiles reveal two relaxation peaks in the materials, which correspond to the , and , relaxation modes of the PMMA matrix. The position of these modes shifts toward higher frequencies as temperature increases. BDS is a powerful tool revealing the intimate miscibility of the various components of the hybrid material, thus indicating that, on a molecular scale, the material proposed is a homogeneous system. Finally, a value of the dielectric constant of 2.9 at 25,C and 1,kHz is determined. This value is noticeably lower than the value of 3.2 obtained for pristine PMMA prepared following the same synthesis protocol. Thus, these results classify the hybrid CrNi_MMA200 as an appealing starting material for the development of dielectric polymeric layers for the development of innovative capacitors, transistors, and other microelectronic devices. The vibrational properties of the hybrid materials are investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, whereas the thermal behavior is analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Swelling experiments are used to qualitatively evaluate the crosslinking density of the hybrid materials. The integrity of the wheels once embedded in the macromolecular backbone is confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron spin resonance (EPR) spectroscopic measurements. [source]


    Insulator Polarization Mechanisms in Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Oscar Larsson
    Abstract Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) hold promise for robust printed electronics operating at low voltages. The polarization mechanism of thin solid electrolyte films, the gate insulator in such OFETs, is still unclear and appears to limit the transient current characteristics of the transistors. Here, the polarization response of a thin proton membrane, a poly(styrenesulfonic acid) film, is controlled by varying the relative humidity. The formation of the conducting transistor channel follows the polarization of the polyelectrolyte, such that the drain transient current characteristics versus the time are rationalized by three different polarization mechanisms: the dipolar relaxation at high frequencies, the ionic relaxation (migration) at intermediate frequencies, and the electric double-layer formation at the polyelectrolyte interfaces at low frequencies. The electric double layers of polyelectrolyte capacitors are formed in ,1,s at humid conditions and an effective capacitance per area of 10,F cm,2 is obtained at 1,MHz, thus suggesting that this class of OFETs might operate at up to 1,MHz at 1,V. [source]


    Beam to String Transition of Vibrating Carbon Nanotubes Under Axial Tension

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2009
    Xianlong Wei
    Abstract State-of-the-art nanoelectromechanical systems have been demonstrated in recent years using carbon nanotube (CNT) based devices, where the vibration of CNTs is tuned by tension induced through external electrical fields. However, the vibration properties of CNTs under axial tension have not been quantitatively determined in experiments. Here, a novel in situ method for precise and simultaneous measurement of the resonance frequency, the axial tension applied to individual CNTs and the tube geometry is demonstrated. A gradual beam-to-string transition from multi-walled CNTs to single-walled CNTs is observed with the crossover from bending rigidity dominant regime to extensional rigidity dominant regime occur much larger than that expected by previous theoretical work. Both the tube resonance frequency under tension and transition of vibration behavior from beam to string are surprisingly well fitted by the continuum beam theory. In the limit of a string, the vibration of a CNT is independent of its own stiffness, and a force sensitivity as large as 0.25,MHz (pN),1 is demonstrated using a 2.2,nm diameter single-walled CNT. These results will allow for the designs of CNT resonators with tailored properties. [source]


    Internal structure of an alpine rock glacier based on crosshole georadar traveltimes and amplitudes

    GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 3 2006
    Martin Musil
    ABSTRACT Rapid melting of permafrost in many alpine areas has increased the probability of catastrophic rock slides. In an attempt to provide critical structural information needed for the design and implementation of suitable mitigation procedures, we have acquired low frequency (22 MHz) cross-hole radar data from within a fast-moving rock glacier, an important form of alpine permafrost. Since the ice, rock and pockets of water and air found in the underground of high alpine areas have very different dielectric permittivities and electrical conductivities, the radar method was well-suited for investigating the structure and state of the rock glacier. Our interpretation of the radar velocities and attenuations was constrained by geomorphological observations, borehole lithological logs and the results of a surface seismic survey. The radar data revealed the existence of a discontinuous 7,11 m thick ice-rich zone distinguished by high velocities (0.14,0.17 m/ns) and low attenuations (0.04,0.09 m,1) and a thin underlying ice-free zone characterized by moderate velocities (0.11,0.12 m/ns) and low attenuations (0.04,0.09 m,1). Beneath these two zones, we observed a prominent band of high velocities (0.14,0.17 m/ns) and moderately high attenuations (0.10,0.20 m,1) associated with unconsolidated glacial sediments and numerous large air-filled voids, which in the past were probably filled with ice. At greater depths, the variably dry to water-saturated sediments were represented by generally lower velocities (0.08,0.10 m/ns) and higher attenuations (0.16,0.24 m,1). The bedrock surface was represented by an abrupt ,0.03 m/ns velocity increase. We speculate that the disappearance of ice, both laterally and with depth, occurred during the past one to two decades. [source]


    An electromagnetic modelling tool for the detection of hydrocarbons in the subsoil

    GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 2 2000
    Carcione
    Electromagnetic geophysical methods, such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR), have proved to be optimal tools for detecting and mapping near-surface contaminants. GPR has the capability of mapping the location of hydrocarbon pools on the basis of contrasts in the effective permittivity and conductivity of the subsoil. At radar frequencies (50 MHz to 1 GHz), hydrocarbons have a relative permittivity ranging from 2 to 30, compared with a permittivity for water of 80. Moreover, their conductivity ranges from zero to 10 mS/m, against values of 200 mS/m and more for salt water. These differences indicate that water/hydrocarbon interfaces in a porous medium are electromagnetically ,visible'. In order to quantify the hydrocarbon saturation we developed a model for the electromagnetic properties of a subsoil composed of sand and clay/silt, and partially saturated with air, water and hydrocarbon. A self-similar theory is used for the sandy component and a transversely isotropic constitutive equation for the shaly component, which is assumed to possess a laminated structure. The model is first verified with experimental data and then used to obtain the properties of soils partially saturated with methanol and aviation gasoline. Finally, a GPR forward-modelling method computes the radargrams of a typical hydrocarbon spill, illustrating the sensitivity of the technique to the type of pore-fluid. The model and the simulation algorithm provide an interpretation methodology to distinguish different pore-fluids and to quantify their degree of saturation. [source]


    Ultrabubble: A Laminated Ultrasound Contrast Agent with Narrow Size Range

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 38-39 2009
    Pei-Lun Lin
    A laminated shell microcapsule is described resisting aggregation and withstanding ultrasound destruction, showing a good backscatter signal, as shown in the figure. Templated synthesis produces versatile monodisperse capsules <3 m, with ultrasound-pressure dependency allowing rupture above MI , 1.5 (at 2 MHz), suitable for future development as both controlled-delivery agent and contrast agent. [source]


    Measuring thaw depth beneath peat-lined arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 14 2005
    John H. Bradford
    Abstract In arctic streams, depth of thaw beneath the stream channel is likely a significant parameter controlling hyporheic zone hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. As part of an interdisciplinary study of this system, we conducted a field investigation to test the effectiveness of imaging substream permafrost using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). We investigated three sites characterized by low-energy water flow, organic material lining the streambeds, and water depths ranging from 02 to 2 m. We acquired data using a 200 MHz pulsed radar system with the antennas mounted in the bottom of a small rubber boat that was pulled across the stream while triggering the radar at a constant rate. We achieved excellent results at all three sites, with a clear continuous image of the permafrost boundary both peripheral to and beneath the stream. Our results demonstrate that GPR can be an effective tool for measuring substream thaw depth. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    High-frequency Impedance and Sensitivity of Micro-fluxgate Sensors Fabricated with Cobalt Base Amorphous Films

    IEEJ TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2008
    Kwang-Ho Shin Non-member
    Abstract Micro-fluxgate sensors 2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide were fabricated with CoZrNb amorphous films. Their high-frequency input/output impedance was measured and evaluated to investigate whether the sensor output and/or sensitivity could be estimated by the complex impedance, especially the reactance. The output reactance changed from 11.1 to 6.1 ohm at 8 MHz by applying the external magnetic field of 10.5 Oe, whereas the input impedance changed from 12.3 to 10.1 ohm. The parasitic capacitance was driven from the measured reactance and resonance frequency. The inductance and inductive reactance could be evaluated with the parasitic capacitance and measured reactance. The tendency of output voltage dependent on frequency is similar to that of inductive reactance. The sensitivity of the fabricated sensor was 17.6 mV/VOe at 8 MHz. Copyright 2008 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]