Lower Socioeconomic Status (lower + socioeconomic_status)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis a Virus Infection in School-Aged Children on Two Isolated Neighborhood Islands in Taiwan

HELICOBACTER, Issue 3 2003
Liang-Kung Chen
ABSTRACT Background. The transmission routes of Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections have been extensively discussed in previous literature. However, whether H. pylori and HAV shared the same transmission pattern or not remains unclear. Lower socioeconomic status was recognized as a consistent risk factor to both infections. However, whether fecal-oral transmission was a risk factor to both infections is still under debate. Materials and Methods. In 1996, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibody to H. pylori and HAV among the randomly selected school-aged children (age between 13 and 15) on Green Island (n = 91) and Lanyu Island (n = 138) (two isolated neighborhood islands near Taiwan Main Island). Results. The seroprevalence of H. pylori and HAV on the Green Island were 82.4% and 5.5%, respectively. The seroprevalence of H. pylori and HAV on Lanyu Island were 71.0% and 90.6%, respectively. H. pylori seroprevalence of all children and the subgroup of 13-year-olds was significantly lower on Lanyu Island than Green Island. However, it was not significantly different in subgroups of 14- and 15-year-olds. HAV seroprevalence was significantly higher on Lanyu Island than Green Island among all children and in each age subgroup. The correlation of H. pylori infection and HAV infection did not demonstrate significant linear correlation on both islands. Conclusions. In conclusion, H. pylori and HAV infections in school-aged children of 13,15 years of age on Green Island and Lanyu Island did not demonstrate significant correlation. The results of this study imply that H. pylori and HAV may share different transmission routes of infection. [source]

Lifestyle risk factors for intrahepatic stone: Findings from a case,control study in an endemic area, Taiwan

Masato Momiyama
Abstract Background and Aim:, To examine associations between lifestyle risk factors and intrahepatic stone (IHS), we conducted a case,control study in Taiwan, which has the highest incidence of IHS in the world. Methods:, Study subjects were 151 patients newly diagnosed with IHS at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between January 1999 and December 2001. Two control subjects per case were selected randomly from patients who underwent minor surgery at the same hospital and from family members or neighbors of the hospital staff. Controls were matched to each case by age and gender. Information on lifestyle factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Strength of associations was assessed using odds ratios derived from conditional logistic models. Results:, Female patients were significantly shorter than female controls. Compared to subjects with two or fewer children, odds ratios for those with six or more children were 20.4 in men (95% confidence interval, 1.89,221) and 2.82 (0.97,8.22) in women. Increasing level of education lowered the risk of intrahepatic stone (trend P = 0.004 for men and < 0.0001 for women). Women who had consumed ground-surface water for a long period had a somewhat increased risk (trend P = 0.05). Conclusion:, Lower socioeconomic status and poor hygiene may be involved in the development of intrahepatic stones. [source]

Psychosocial factors involved in delayed consultation by patients with head and neck cancer

Olivier Rozniatowski DESS
Abstract Background. In the north of France, a delay in primary consultation has been noted among patients with head and neck cancer. This group is often correlated with lower socioeconomic status and a lack of medical information. Therefore, the choice to seek consultation is often influenced by symptoms such as pain and change in the size of tumors in the neck. We studied this delay in seeking consultation, focusing on psychosocial variables such as professional and social background, the involvement of a spouse/partner, and the presence of anxiety and depression. Methods. Two rating scales were administered to 50 patients with large tumors (T3/T4) and 50 patients with small tumors (T1/T2), and the results were compared. These rating scales were as follows: (1) a 17-item questionnaire assessing sociodemographic data, presenting symptoms, factors generating the consultation, and reasons for delay; and (2) the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results. Both groups were predominantly male and working-class. Significant differences were observed in time since symptom onset and in conscious delay in seeking medical attention. The group with large tumors was characterized by lower involvement of a spouse/partner, conscious delay before first consultation, greater social isolation, fewer medical visits, and lower HADS anxiety scores. The group with small tumors sought consultation sooner and was characterized by greater involvement of a spouse/partner, correlated with significant anxiety. Depression was not a factor influencing delay within either group. Conclusions. The interpersonal relationship with a spouse/partner seemed to be essential in the dynamics surrounding consultation. Anxiety, rather than socioeconomics status, was a discriminating factor in the delay in seeking consultation. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck27: XXX,XXX, 2005 [source]

Prevalence of Tooth Loss and Dental Service Use in Older Mexican Americans

Whitney M. Randolph BS
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of tooth loss, to examine risk factors for having fewer teeth or no teeth, and to describe the use of dental services in an older Mexican-American population. DESIGN: Data from the baseline phase of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly survey conducted from 1993 to 1994, a cross-sectional survey of older Mexican Americans. SETTING: Five southwestern states: Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. PARTICIPANTS: 3,050 noninstitutionalized Mexican Americans age 65 to 99. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the sample was completely edentulous and 22% reported visiting or speaking with a dental care professional in the preceding year. Logistic regression analyses showed that being older or being female was significantly associated with tooth loss, adjusting for education, income, smoking status, and diabetes mellitus. Current smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.31,2.20) and diabetics (OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.27,1.84) were more at risk for tooth loss, as were persons of lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of tooth loss and use of dental services in this population of older Mexican Americans is lower than what has been previously found among older people in the general population. [source]

Claiming HIV Infection From Improbable Modes as a Possible Coping Strategy

David A. Moskowitz
Despite the extreme improbability of contracting HIV from oral intercourse, individuals continue to claim seroconversion via such behaviors. Among a sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), those who attributed contracting HIV from oral intercourse or other non-anal intercourse sexual behaviors were 5 times more likely to be a racial minority and 2 times more likely to be of lower socioeconomic status. Those believing less in a just world were 2 times more likely to attribute contracting HIV from non-anal intercourse sexual behaviors. Attributing HIV contraction to improbable modes may be an attractive coping strategy to deflect the stigma more intensely felt among poorer, minority HIV-positive MSM, and among men who are sensitive to fairness and justice. [source]

Interracial and Intraracial Patterns of Mate Selection Among America's Diverse Black Populations

Christie D. Batson
Despite recent immigration from Africa and the Caribbean, Blacks in America are still viewed as a monolith in many previous studies. In this paper, we use newly released 2000 census data to estimate log-linear models that highlight patterns of interracial and intraracial marriage and cohabitation among African Americans, West Indians, Africans, and Puerto Rican non-Whites, and their interracial marriage and cohabitation with Whites. Based on data from several metropolitan areas, our results show that, despite lower socioeconomic status, native-born African Americans are more likely than other Blacks to marry Whites; they also are more likely to marry other Black ethnics. West Indians, Africans, and Puerto Rican non-Whites are more likely to marry African Americans than to marry Whites. Interracial relationships represent a greater share of cohabiting unions than marital unions. The majority of interracial unions, including native and immigrant Blacks, consist of a Black man and White woman. The implications for marital assimilation are discussed. [source]

Association Between Quality of Cheap and Unrecorded Alcohol Products and Public Health Consequences in Poland

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2009
Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Background:, The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. Methods:, A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. Results:, With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. Conclusions:, The contamination of unrecorded alcohols with ethyl carbamate should be analyzed in a larger sample that also should include legal alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the impacts of unrecorded alcohol on the health of people with lower socioeconomic status should be studied in detail. Overall, given the extent of the alcohol-attributable disease burden in Poland, the highest priority should be given to the problem of ethanol and its very high content in unrecorded alcohol products. [source]

School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

Jana A. Hovland MS
BACKGROUND: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved their dietary intake. METHODS: Dietary intake was measured for 238 third graders at the beginning of the 2007 to 2008 school year and for 224 third graders at the end of that year. The FoodMASTER curriculum was delivered to 204 students (test group). Intake was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2004. The final analysis included 138 students. RESULTS: The FoodMASTER curriculum did not significantly affect the diets of the students in the test group, as no significant differences in intake of macronutrients, specific nutrients, or food groups were found between the test and control groups. Majorities of students did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intakes for fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The students as a whole did not meet the MyPyramid recommendations for any food group, and nearly one fifth of their calories came from sweets. Significant differences in percentages of kilocalories from protein and sweets and in servings of fats, oils, and sweets were seen between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Energy-dense foods are replacing healthy foods in the diets of Ohio children living in rural Appalachia. The prevalence of poor dietary intake in Appalachia warrants further nutrition interventions involving programming for nutrition, such as future FoodMASTER curricula. [source]

Prevalence of obesity and associated socioeconomic factors among Tunisian women from different living environments

L. Beltaïfa
Summary Adult Tunisian women aged 20,59 (national random sample, n = 1849), were assessed with respect to environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with obesity (body mass index ,30 kg m,2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ,88 cm). At the national level, prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity were, respectively, 22.6% and 29.2%, but varied markedly (both P < 0.0001) among living environments classified as big cities (30.2% and 36.6%), other cities (25.9% and 32.4%), rural clustered (19.4% and 24.8%) and rural dispersed (9.5% and 16.5%). Adjusted prevalences of both types of obesity increased with age, parity and economic level of the household, while educationally, the risk was greatest in women with intermediate schooling. Differences between the four environments were accounted for by socioeconomic factors, mostly household wealth, except for most rural environment; socio-cultural factors were possibly influential. Observed differences between rural areas confirmed that finer measures of urbanization are necessary for the drivers of obesity prevalence at the national level. Obesity was still more prevalent in wealthy than in poor women, but given the high prevalence in all the environments, actions are needed at the national level before highly prevalent obesity extends into those of lower socioeconomic status and thereby increases health inequities. [source]

Long-Term Adjustment to Work-Related Low Back Pain: Associations with Socio-demographics, Claim Processes, and Post-Settlement Adjustment

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 8 2009
John T. Chibnall PhD
ABSTRACT Objective., Predict long-term adjustment (pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, and pain-related disability) from socio-demographic, claim process, and post-settlement adjustment variables in a cohort of 374 Workers' Compensation low back claimants. Methods., Age- and gender-matched subsamples of African Americans and Caucasians were randomly selected for long-term follow-up (6 years post-settlement) from a larger, existing cohort of Workers' Compensation low back claimants in Missouri. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to assess pain, catastrophizing, and disability. Path analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to predict long-term adjustment from socio-demographic variables (race, gender, age, and socioeconomic status), Workers' Compensation claim process variables (surgery, diagnosis, claim duration, treatment costs, settlement awards, and disability rating), and adjustment at baseline. Results., Poorer long-term adjustment (higher levels of pain, catastrophizing, and pain-related disability) was significantly predicted by relatively poorer adjustment at baseline, lower socioeconomic status, and African American race. African American race associations were also mediated through lower socioeconomic status. Higher levels of occupational disability, as measured by long-term rates of unemployment and social security disability, were also predicted by African American race (in addition to age and claim process factors). Conclusion., Long-term adjustment to low back pain in this cohort of Workers' Compensation claimants was stable, relative to short-term adjustment soon after settlement. Long-term adjustment was worse for people of lower socioeconomic status, particularly for economically disadvantaged African Americans, suggesting the possibility of race- and class-based disparities in the Workers' Compensation system. [source]

Effects of socioeconomic status on presentation with acute lower respiratory tract disease in children in Salvador, Northeast Brazil

Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho MD
Abstract Two different socioeconomic groups of children with pneumonia were studied, and their clinical and demographic aspects were evaluated. The diagnosis of pneumonia was based on findings of cough and tachypnea, or on crackles on auscultation or on radiologically confirmed infiltrate. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Professor Hosannah de Oliveira Pediatric Center, which cares for children of lower socioeconomic status (PHOPC), and at one private hospital which cares for children from middle to high socioeconomic status (Aliança Hospital, AH). Demographics and clinical differences were assessed by the Pearson chi-square test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate; means of continuous variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test. In a 26-month period, 3,431 cases were recruited. The 2,476 cases identified at the PHOPC were younger than the 955 identified at AH (2.2,±,2.3 vs. 4.5,±,3.1 years, P,<,0.0001) and had higher scores for severity (3.5,±,1.5 vs. 2.7,±,1.7, P,<,0.0001), duration of hospitalization (days) (10.9,±,12.1 vs. 6.2,±,7, P,<,0.0001), frequency of tobacco smoker in the household (48% vs. 31%, P,<,0.0001), cardiopathy (15.3% vs. 5.9%, P,=,0.003), fever (44.4% vs. 36.3%, P,=,0.0001), tachypnea (67.6% vs. 32.3%, P,<,0.0001), crackles (69.5% vs. 64.9%, P,=,0.02), somnolence (19.9% vs. 10.4%, P,<,0.0001), malnutrition (13.7% vs. 5%, P,<,0.0001), hospitalization rate (27.4% vs. 22.5%, P,=,0.003), and death (0.9% vs. 0.1%, P,=,0.009). However, other features were more frequent among AH cases: parent's university level of education (38.2% vs. 1.0%, P,<,0.0001), underlying chronic illness (40.6% vs. 28.5%, P,<,0.0001), asthma (62.7% vs. 50.8%, P,=,0.01), rhinitis (9.2% vs. 0.4%, P,<,0.0001), previous use of antibiotics (34.3% vs. 27.1%, P,=,0.001), and wheezing (53.1% vs. 42.2%, P,<,0.0001). Children of lower socioeconomic status have more serious lower respiratory tract disease, whereas children with pneumonia of middle to high socioeconomic status have more allergic diseases (rhinitis, asthma) and wheezing. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2002; 33:244,248. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Prevalence and Impact of Childhood Maltreatment in Incarcerated Youth

Daniel Coleman
The prevalence of childhood maltreatment and the magnitude of the association of maltreatment with internalizing mental health symptoms were examined in 398 incarcerated youth. The prevalence of abuse greatly exceeded general population rates. The proportion of variance in mental health symptoms accounted for by maltreatment was small but developmentally significant. Sexual abuse is a markedly stronger predictor of internalizing mental health problems in incarcerated youth than physical abuse. Consistent with a bio-psychological model of trauma, dissociation at the time of sexual abuse was the strongest nondemographic predictor of mental health symptoms. Physical abuse was associated with more internalizing mental health problems for children from families with mental health problems and families with lower socioeconomic status. Implications for practice and research are discussed. [source]

Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity Among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

Jihong Liu ScD
ABSTRACT:,Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, restricted to children aged 10-17 (unweighted N = 47,757). Overweight status was defined as the gender- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) values at or above the 95th percentile. Physical inactivity was defined using parentally reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity lasting for at least 20 minutes/d on less than three days in the past week. The 2003 Urban Influence Codes were used to define rurality. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine urban/rural differences in overweight status and physical inactivity after adjusting for potential confounders. Findings: Overweight status was more prevalent among rural (16.5%) than urban children (14.3%). After adjusting for covariates including physical activity, rural children had higher odds of being overweight than urban children (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.25). Minorities, children from families with lower socioeconomic status, and children living in the South experienced higher odds of being overweight. More urban children (29.1%) were physically inactive than rural children (25.2%) and this pattern remained after adjusting for covariates (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73-0.86). Conclusions: The higher prevalence of overweight among rural children, despite modestly higher physical activity levels, calls for further research into effective intervention programs specifically tailored for rural children. [source]

Quality of Diets Consumed by Older Rural Adults

Mara Z. Vitolins Dr.P.H.R.D
Older adults residing in rural communities are at risk for low dietary quality because of a variety of social, physical and environmental circumstances. Minority elders are at additional risk because of poorer health status and lower socioeconomic status. This study evaluated the food group intake of 130 older (>70 years) African American (34%), European American (36%), and Native American (30%) residents of two rural communities in central North Carolina. An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Food items were classified into food groups similar to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid and the National Cancer Institutés 5 A Day for Better Health program. None of the survey participants met minimum intake recommendations and most over-consumed fats, oils, sweets and snacks. African Americans and Native Americans consumed fewer servings of meats, fruits and vegetables, and fats, oils, sweets and snacks than European Americans. African American men consumed the fewest servings of fruits and vegetables of all gender/ethnic groups. Consumption of fats, oils and sweets was greatest among those 85 years and older and was more common among denture users. National strategies to educate the public about the importance of consuming a varied diet based on the recommendations presented in national nutrition education campaigns may not be reaching older adults in rural communities, particularly minority group members. [source]

Disparities in the Utilization of Live Donor Renal Transplantation

J. L. Gore
Despite universal payer coverage with Medicare, sociodemographic disparities confound the care of patients with renal failure. We sought to determine whether adults who realize access to kidney transplantation suffer inequities in the utilization of live donor renal transplantation (LDRT). We identified adults undergoing primary renal transplantation in 2004,2006 from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We modeled receipt of live versus deceased donor renal transplant on multilevel multivariate models that examined recipient, center and UNOS region-specific covariates. Among 41 090 adult recipients identified, 39% underwent LDRT. On multivariate analysis, older recipients (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.56,0.68 for 50,59 year-olds vs. 18,39 year-old recipients), those of African American ethnicity (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.50,0.59 vs. whites) and of lower socioeconomic status (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.67,0.79 for high school-educated vs. college-educated recipients; OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.71,0.87 for lowest vs. highest income quartile) had lower odds of LDRT. These characteristics accounted for 14.2% of the variation in LDRT, more than recipient clinical variables, transplant center characteristics and UNOS region level variation. We identified significant racial and socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of LDRT. Educational initiatives and dissemination of processes that enable increased utilization of LDRT may address these disparities. [source]

Coverage of recommended vaccines in children at 7,8 years of age in Flanders, Belgium

Heidi Theeten
Abstract Aim:, Evaluation of the coverage of primary diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), poliomyelitis, hepatitis B (HBV) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine doses recommended before the age of 18 months in 7-year-old school children in Flanders, Belgium. Meningococcal serogroup C and DT-polio vaccines offered respectively as catch-up and booster vaccinations were also evaluated. Methods:, Parents of 792 children born in Flanders in 1997 and selected by cluster sampling were interviewed at home in 2005. Vaccination data since infancy were collected retrospectively from vaccination documents and school health records. Results:, Coverage rates were 88.0% for the first dose of MMR, and 72.0%, 84.2% and 91.4% for the recommended HBV, DTP and poliomyelitis primary vaccine doses, respectively. These rates included catch-up of missed infant MMR (4.9%) and HBV (6.4%) vaccinations. In addition, 88.3% of the target group received the DT-polio booster dose recommended at 6 years of age and 83.1% a meningococcal C vaccine dose. Preventive public health services as well as private physicians were involved to a varying extent. A lower socioeconomic status of the family was associated with a higher risk of nonvaccination. Conclusion:, Vaccinators in Flanders reach children relatively well during infancy and at school age, but catch-up of missed infant vaccine doses, especially MMR, should be optimized. [source]