Lower Social Classes (lower + social_class)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The effect of socioeconomic factors on voter turnout in Finland: A register-based study of 2.9 million voters

The analyses are based on individual-level register data from electoral wards from the parliamentary elections of 1999 linked to population registration data on personal characteristics covering the whole 25 to 69 year-old Finnish electorate. The results show that income and housing tenure are more important determinants of turnout among older voters than among younger voters, whereas education has a dominant role in determining young people's turnout. Moreover, class has maintained its discriminatory power in determining turnout in all age groups even though working-class under-representation in participation can be partly attributable to previously obtained educational attainment. Furthermore, the lower turnout of younger voters remains unexplained even if socioeconomic factors are held constant. Lower turnout among lower social classes and among the young will affect the legitimacy of the prevalent model of party democracy. [source]

A Comparison of Dental Caries Levels in Two Communities with Different Oral Health Prevention Strategies Stratified in Different Social Classes

Darius Sagheri PhD
Abstract Objectives: To compare dental caries levels of schoolchildren stratified in different social classes whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth (Dublin) with those living in an area where fluoridated salt was available (Freiburg). Methods: A representative, random sample of twelve-year-old children was examined and dental caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. Results: A total of 699 twelve-year-old children were examined, 377 were children in Dublin and 322 in Freiburg. In Dublin the mean decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 0.80 and in Freiburg it was 0.69. An examination of the distribution of the DMFT score revealed that its distribution is highly positively skewed. For this reason this study provides summary analyses based on medians and inter-quartile range and nonparametric rank sum tests. In both cities caries levels of children in social class 1 (highest) were considerably lower when compared with the other social classes regardless of the fluoride intervention model used. The caries levels showed a reduced disparity between children in social class 2 (medium) and 3 (lowest) in Dublin compared with those in social class 2 and 3 in Freiburg. Conclusions: The evidence from this study confirmed that water fluoridation has reduced the gap in dental caries experience between medium and lower social classes in Dublin compared with the greater difference in caries experience between the equivalent social classes in Freiburg. The results from this study established the important role of salt fluoridation where water fluoridation is not feasible. [source]

Dental Health Differences by Social Class in Home-Dwelling Seniors of Barcelona, Spain

Vladimir Pizarro DDS
Abstract Background:The aim of this study was to assess dental health differences by social class in home-dwelling seniors in Spain. Methods:A cross-sectional household survey of a cohort of senior residents in Barcelona (Spain) was undertaken. Of 891 survivors (72 years or older), 561 (62.9%) oral examinations were completed according to the DMF Index (Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth). Results:42% of participants were edentate. The individuals of social class IV-V were more likely to be edentate, and to have fewer than 15 teeth compared to those in social class I-II. The DMF Index in dentate individuals (Adjusted mean=16.4) also showed significantly worse dental health for lower social classes (p = 0.001). Conclusions:The results of this study indicate a different level of utilization of dental health services and dental health by social class in home-dwelling seniors. Further research is needed to understand the barriers of access and social inequality. [source]

Agreement between normative and perceived orthodontic need amongst deprived multiethnic school children in London

Bilal Ahmed
The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) has been used in dental epidemiology and to prioritize orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper was to use the aesthetic component (AC) of the IOTN to measure agreement between normative and perceived orthodontic need amongst school children. Three hundred and seventy-eight children aged 11,14 years, enrolled in London UK state schools participated in this survey. The study focused on three ethnic groups: white, black and South Asian. Townsend deprivation scores suggested that the children were from areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Logistic regression analysis was carried out for agreement between normative and perceived need at each threshold value. Perceived need for braces, ethnic background, social class and hours of television viewing were significant variables. Black pupils were significantly less likely to concur on normative and perceived need scores, tending to perceive less need for treatment than did the dentist. Subjects from lower social classes were significantly more likely to concur on normative and perceived need scores. In conclusion, the study showed that using the IOTN AC at various points along the scale, different influences play a significant role in agreement/disagreement between normative and perceived needs, indicating that patient,clinician agreement regards orthodontic treatment is sensitive to several cultural factors. [source]

Prevalence of allergic symptoms among children with diabetes mellitus type 1 of different socioeconomic status

Kyriaki Karavanaki
Abstract:, The aim of the study was to assess the possible associations between allergies and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), stratified by social class. We studied 127 children with DM1 with a median age of 10.8 yr and 150 controls of comparable age and sex distribution. The parents completed questionnaires on their education and occupation and on their children's history of allergic symptoms, breast-feeding, viral infections, and measles,mumps,rubella (MMR) vaccination. Lower family's social class was more frequently encountered among the DM1 families than in the controls (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35,0.92). The occurrence of any allergic symptoms among children with DM1 (35.45%) was not significantly different from the controls (38.78%), neither in the total group (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.52,1.45) nor in the stratified analysis by social class. Similar findings were observed regarding the different types of allergic symptoms. In the univariate analysis, breast-feeding, the experience of viral infections, and MMR vaccination were found to be protective of DM1 presentation in both upper and lower social classes. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the experience of more than 2 infections/yr (OR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.04,0.34), the origin from middle and upper social classes (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22,0.80) and breast-feeding (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.31,1.07) were protective of DM1 occurrence. In children with DM1, the presence of allergic symptoms was not associated with the development of DM1. Among the environmental factors, the origin from middle or upper social classes, breast-feeding, the experience of viral infections, and MMR vaccination were found to have a protective effect on DM1 presentation. [source]