Lower Side (lower + side)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Peripheral blood MDS score: A new flow cytometric tool for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes,

CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2005
Sindhu Cherian
Abstract Background Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic disorders diagnosed using morphologic and clinical findings supported by cytogenetics. Because abnormalities may be subtle, diagnosis using these approaches can be challenging. Flow cytometric (FCM) approaches have been described; however the value of bone marrow immunophenotyping in MDS remains unclear due to the variability in detected abnormalities. We sought to refine the FCM approach by using peripheral blood (PB) to create a clinically useful tool for the diagnosis of MDS. Methods PB from 15 patients with MDS was analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry using an extensive panel of monoclonal antibodies. Patterns of neutrophil antigen expression were compared with those of normal controls (n = 16) to establish light scatter and/or immunophenotypic abnormalities that correlated with MDS. A scoring algorithm was developed and validated prospectively on a blinded patient set. Results PB neutrophils from patients with MDS had lower side scatter and higher expression of CD66 and CD11a than did controls. Some MDS PB neutrophils demonstrated abnormal CD116 and CD10 expression. Because none of these abnormalities proved consistently diagnostic, we sought to increase the power of the assay by devising a scoring system to allow the association of multiple abnormalities and account for phenotypic variations. The PB MDS score differentiated patients with MDS from controls (P < 0.0001) in the test set. In a prospective validation, the PB MDS score successfully identified patients with MDS (sensitivity 73%, specificity 90%). Conclusions FCM analysis of side scatter and only four additional immunophenotypic parameters of PB neutrophils using the PB MDS score proved more sensitive than standard laboratory approaches and may provide an additional, more reliable diagnostic tool in the identification of MDS. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Study on flow past two spheres in tandem arrangement using a local mesh refinement virtual boundary method

Jian-Feng Zou
Abstract A local mesh refinement virtual boundary method based on a uniform grid is designed to study the transition between the flow patterns of two spheres in tandem arrangement for Re=250. For a small gap (L/D=1.5), the flow field is axisymmetric. As the spacing ratio increases to 2.0, the pressure gradient induces the circumferential fluid motion and a plane-symmetric flow is constructed through a regular bifurcation. For L/D,2.5, the vortices are periodically shed from the right sphere, but the planar symmetry remains. The case for L/D=3.0 is picked up to give a detail investigation for the unsteady flow. The shedding frequency of vortical structure from the upper side of the right sphere is found to be double of the frequency of the lower side. With the flow spectra of various gaps given, the underlying competitive mechanism between the two shedding frequencies is studied and a critical spacing gap is revealed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An Overview of the Biology of Reaction Wood Formation

Sheng Du
Abstract Reaction wood possesses altered properties and performs the function of regulating a tree's form, but it is a serious defect in wood utility. Trees usually develop reaction wood in response to a gravistimulus. Reaction wood in gymnosperms is referred to as compression wood and develops on the lower side of leaning stems or branches. In arboreal, dicotyledonous angiosperms, however, it is called tension wood and is formed on the upper side of the leaning. Exploring the biology of reaction wood formation is of great value for the understanding of the wood differentiation mechanisms, cambial activity, gravitropism, and the systematics and evolution of plants. After giving an outline of the variety of wood and properties of reaction wood, this review lays emphasis on various stimuli for reaction wood induction and the extensive studies carried out so far on the roles of plant hormones in reaction wood formation. Inconsistent results have been reported for the effects of plant hormones. Both auxin and ethylene regulate the formation of compression wood in gymnosperms. However, the role of ethylene may be indirect as exogenous ethylene cannot induce compression wood formation. Tension wood formation is mainly regulated by auxin and gibberellin. Interactions among hormones and other substances may play important parts in the regulation of reaction wood formation. [source]

Tension wood as a model for functional genomics of wood formation

Gilles Pilate
Summary Wood is a complex and highly variable tissue, the formation of which is developmentally and environmentally regulated. In reaction to gravitropic stimuli, angiosperm trees differentiate tension wood, a wood with specific anatomical, chemical and mechanical features. In poplar the most significant of these features is an additional layer that forms in the secondary wall of tension wood fibres. This layer is mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. Tension wood formation can be induced easily and strongly by bending the stem of a tree. Located at the upper side of the bent stem, tension wood can be compared with the wood located on its lower side. Therefore tension wood represents an excellent model for studying the formation of xylem cell walls. This review summarizes results recently obtained in the field of genomics on tension wood. In addition, we present an example of how the application of functional genomics to tension wood can help decipher the molecular mechanisms responsible for cell wall characteristics such as the orientation of cellulose microfibrils. [source]

Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase activity occur in the maize pulvinus in response to gravistimulation and are important for the bending response

ABSTRACT The maize (Zea mays L.) pulvinus was used as a model system to study the signalling events that lead to differential growth in response to gravistimulation in plants. The pulvinus functions to return tipped plants to vertical via differential elongation of the cells on its lower side. By performing immunokinase assays using total soluble protein extracts and an antibody against mammalian ERK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-like activity was assayed in pulvini halves harvested at various time points after tipping. We detected a reproducible alternation of higher levels of activity occurring between the upper and lower halves of the pulvinus between 75 and 180 min after tipping, with a sustained increase in the upper half occurring at the end of the time-course. This timing roughly corresponds to the presentation time for maize (i.e. the amount of time that the plant needs to be tipped before it is committed to bend), which occurs between 2 and 4 h. Treatment of maize stem explants with an inhibitor of MAPK activation, U0126, led to a reduction in the activity of this kinase, as well as an almost 65% reduction in bending as measured at 20 h. Rinsing out of the inhibitor resulted in recovery of both bending and kinase activity. It is possible that changes in MAPK activity in the gravistimulated pulvinus are part of a signalling cascade that may help to distinguish between minor perturbations in plant orientation and more significant and long-term changes, and may also help to determine the direction of bending. [source]

Gel point prediction of metal-filled castor oil-based polyurethanes system,

Anil Srivastava
Abstract Prediction of gel point conversion and network formation is of great importance in polycondensation during synthesis as well as processing. It enables one to estimate the safe conversions for reactor operation without gelation and the cycle time during processing, and plays an important role in controlling the molding parameters used for reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM), reaction injection molding (RIM) and compression molding. Theories of gelation have been extensively published in the literature and supported by experimental data for various polycondensation systems. However, most such studies relate to unfilled systems. In this work, metal-filled polyurethanes have been synthesized in bulk by reacting toluene di-isocyanate with castor oil and its polyols possessing different hydroxyl values. Metallic aluminum powder (10,40% by weight) was dispersed thoroughly in castor oil and its polyols before reacting at different temperatures (30,60,C) in a moisture-free, inert environment. The gel point conversions were measured experimentally and an empirical model from the experimental data has been developed to predict the gelation behavior. The proposed model could be of immense importance in the paints, adhesives and lacquers industries, which use castor oil in bulk. From these experiments it was concluded that: (i) fine metal powder gives a rise in viscosity; (ii) metal fillers not only restrict the molecular motion due to the increase in viscosity, but also lower the conversion; (iii) the vegetable oil and its polyols have a number of bulky groups, which also impart the delay tendency in gel time; (iv) there is a change in gelation dynamics at 50,C , this is due to the change in reactivity of di-isocyanates; (v) the presence of metal filler does not initiate the intermolecular condensation; (vi) there is a gap between theoretical and experimental gel point owing to the unequal reactivity of the secondary alcohol position; (vii) there is an inverse relationship of gel time with the reaction temperature and hydroxyl value of polyols. An empirical model based on process parameters, i.e., hydroxyl value, temperature, shape factor and filler concentration, has been derived and found to be adequate for the metal-filled system. The correlation coefficient on the data is on the lower side in some cases because the following were not taken into account: (i) the first-order kinetics followed by the reaction in the second half while it is tending towards gelation; (ii) the error in observing the gel point viscosity; (iii) errors in assuming the spherical shape of aluminum metal powder; (iv) errors due to failure to maintain the constant speed in agitation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Monoenergetic electron beam generation in a laser-driven plasma acceleration

M. Adachi
Abstract We obtained a 7-MeV monoenergetic electron beam from a plasma with the electron density ne of 1.5 1020 cm,3 produced by a 2-TW 50-fs laser pulse. In both higher and lower sides of the density region of 4 1019 4 1020 cm,3, energy spectra of electrons were bi-Maxwellian distribution function whose maximum electron energy and effective electron temperature were 30 MeV and approximately MeV, respectively. Observed first Stokes satellites in the forward scattering light spectra, and the density dependences of maximum electron energy and the effective temperature suggest that electrons are first accelerated by SMLWFA and are further accelerated by direct laser acceleration (DLA) in the ne region of more than 2 1020 cm,3; a cascade acceleration by SMLWFA and DLA. A Stokes satellite peak observed with the monoenergetic beam suggests that the monoenergetic beam would be accelerated by SMLWFA. ( 2006 by Astro, Ltd. Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]