Lower Serum Concentration (lower + serum_concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Supplementation of diets for lactating sows with zinc amino acid complex and gastric nutriment-intubation of suckling pigs with zinc methionine on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation in lipopolysaccharide-challenged weaned pigs

B. U. Metzler-Zebeli
Summary Sixty-four pigs from 16 sows were used to evaluate addition of zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) to lactating sows and gastric nutriment-intubation of zinc methionine (ZnMet) to suckling pigs on mineral status, intestinal morphology and bacterial translocation after weaning. Sows were fed a barley-based diet supplying 120 ppm zinc (Zn; control) or the control diet supplemented with 240 ppm Zn from ZnAA. At birth, day-10 and day-21 (weaning) of age, pigs from each litter were nutriment-intubated with 5 ml of an electrolyte solution without or with 40 mg Zn from ZnMet. At weaning, 24 h prior to the collection of small and large intestinal lymph nodes and sections of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the pigs received an intramuscular injection of saline without or with 150 ,g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli O26:B6 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). With the exception of a tendency (p = 0.09) for lower serum concentration of copper in pigs at weaning from ZnAA-supplemented sows, there were no differences (p > 0.1) than for pigs from control-fed sows for mineral status or intestinal morphology. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum (p = 0.001) and liver (p = 0.003) Zn concentrations, number of goblet cells per 250 ,m length of jejunal villous epithelium (p = 0.001) and tended (p = 0.06) to enhance jejunum mucosa thickness. Interactive effects (p < 0.05) for higher jejunal villi height and villi:crypt ratio and increased ileal goblet cell counts were apparent for pigs from ZnAA-supplemented sows that also received nutriment-intubation of ZnMet. Challenge with LPS increased (p = 0.05) ileal villous width. Nutriment-intubation of ZnMet decreased (p = 0.05) anaerobic bacteria colony forming unit counts in the large intestinal mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, nutriment-intubation of ZnMet increased serum and liver tissue concentrations of Zn and resulted in limited improvement to intestinal morphology of weaned pigs. [source]

Measurement of Free Thyroxine Concentration in Horses by Equilibrium Dialysis

Babetta A. Breuhaus
The purpose of the study reported here was to validate measurement of free thyroxine (fT4) concentration in equine serum by equilibrium dialysis (fT4D), and to compare values with fT4 concentration measured directly and with total T4 (TT4) concentration. The fT4D, fT74, and TT4 concentrations were measured over a range of values in euthyroid horses and horses made hypothyroid by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU). Concentrations of fT4D (<1.8,83 pmol/L) were consistently higher than those of fT4 (<1,40 pmol/L). There was a significant (P < .001) regression of fT4D on fT4 in 503 samples from normal horses (y = 2.086x - 0.430). In baseline samples from 71 healthy euthyroid horses, fT4 concentration ranged from 6- 21 pmol/L (median, 11 pmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI]10.5,11.8 pmol/L), and fT4D concentration ranged from 7,47 pmol/L (median, 22 pmol/L; 95% CI 20.9,25.1 pmol/L). Free T4D, fT4, and TT4 concentrations were also measured in 34 ill horses. Horses consuming PTU and ill horses had significantly (P < .05) lower serum concentration of TT4, fT4, and fT4D than did clinically normal, healthy horses. If serum samples from ill horses were further subdivided into samples from horses that lived and samples from horses that died, fT4D concentration was not significantly different in ill horses that lived, compared with that in healthy horses, whereas fT4 concentration was still significantly decreased in ill horses that died (P < 0.001). We conclude that measurement of fT4 concentration by equilibrium dialysis is a valid technique in the horse, and its use may provide improved ability to distinguish nonthyroidal illness syndrome from hypothyroidism in that species. [source]

Effects of oyster extract on the reproductive function of zinc-deficient mice: Bioavailability of zinc contained in oyster extract

Yoshikazu Matsuda
ABSTRACT Zinc is a vital nutrient in the normal reproductive function and embryonic development of mammals, and it is well known that oyster extract contains significant amounts of zinc. The effects of oyster extract on reproductive function, such as embryonic development, serum levels of zinc and sperm maturation were examined in zinc-deficient mice. Zinc deficiency in dams during pregnancy induced a decrease in the successful pregnancy rate, maternal weight gain, the number of live fetuses and fetal body weight. Zinc deficiency for 12 weeks in male mice induced a decrease in body weight, testis weight and sperm count in the epididymis. However, reproductive failure, embryonic defects and decreased sperm motility in zinc-deficient mice were improved by supplementation with oyster extract. Some nutrients contained in oyster extract, such as taurine and glycogen, may be related to the recovery of reproductive function. There were significantly lower serum concentrations of zinc in dams fed a zinc-deficient diet However, the serum zinc concentration was normal in the oyster extract-supplemented group. No difference in the concentration of serum zinc was observed between the oyster extract- and zinc carbonate-supplemented groups. From these findings, it is suggested that oyster extract is a useful supplement that can prevent reproductive defects from zinc deficiency, and the bioavailability of zinc may be identical to zinc carbonate. [source]

Toxicity to Candida albicans mediated by human serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Joseph M. Bliss
Abstract This study evaluates the conditions in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells mediate toxicity to Candida albicans opsonized with heat-inactivated human serum. Serum concentrations as low as 1% resulted in 50% inhibition of C. albicans metabolic activity after incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells at an effector to target ratio of 8. Measurable inhibition was also achieved at lower effector to target ratios and lower serum concentrations, and at least a portion of the metabolic inhibition reflected fungal cell death. Depletion of C. albicans -specific antibody decreased the toxic effect while opsonization with purified human IgG restored toxicity, and cell,cell contact between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fungus was required. Depletion of or enrichment for monocytes from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparation diminished the toxic effect and the monocytic cell line, THP-1, was likewise incapable of toxicity. These studies provide evidence that antibody augments antifungal host defense and underscore the complex interrelationship between humoral and cellular immunity in these infections. [source]