Lower River (lower + river)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Do dams increase genetic diversity in brown trout (Salmo trutta)?

Microgeographic differentiation in a fragmented river
Abstract , Local genetic differentiation may potentially arise in recently fragmented populations. Brown trout is a polytypic species exhibiting substantial genetic differentiation, which may evolve in few generations. Movement (semi-)barriers in rivers may cause fragmentation, isolation and genetic differentiation in fish. In the Måna River (28 km) flowing from the alpine Lake Møsvatn to the boreal Lake Tinnsjø, construction of four hydropower dams during the period 1906,1957 have fragmented the previously (since last Ice Age) continuous wild resident brown trout population. Samples from the two lakes (N = 40) and six sites in the river (N = 30) isolated at different times were analysed at nine microsatellite loci. All populations showed substantial genetic variation (mean number of alleles per locus 5.3,8.9, observed heterozygosity 0.57,0.65 per population, overall Fst = 0.032). Pairwise multilocus Fst estimates indicated no significant differentiation between populations in the two lakes, and no or little differentiation in the lower river (Fst = 0.0035,0.0091). The microgeographic differentiation among wild resident trout at these sites was less than expected based on similar previous studies. However, results from the upper river, in particular the site immediately below the Lake Møsvatn outlet and dam, indicated isolation (Fst > 0.035). Calculation of genetic distances and assignment tests corroborated these results, as did a significant correlation between years of isolation (since dam construction) and Fst. The population structuring is most likely a result of fragmentation by dams, which has increased overall genetic diversity. This increased local differentiation may be caused by natural selection, but more likely by genetic drift in small, recently fragmented populations. Increased local genetic diversity by genetic drift does not justify conservation measures aiming at preserving genetic diversity. [source]

Distribution of cytochrome P4501A1,inducing chemicals in sediments of the Delaware River-Bay system, USA

Daniel L. McCoy
Abstract The Delaware River-Bays system, USA, was the subject of a study by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that involved chemical and biological analyses, including the use of the biomarker P450 human reporter gene system (HRGS) to document the occurrence and distribution of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1-inducing compounds. Sediment extracts from 81 locations along the Delaware River, Delaware Bay and immediate coastline were tested by utilizing HRGS as an inexpensive screening test, and were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls, with selected stations analyzed for dioxins and furans. Benthic community degradation has been observed when benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (BaPEq) exceeded 60 ,g/g. The average levels of BaPEq for the largely industrialized upper, middle, and lower regions of the Delaware River were 107, 62, and 5 ,g/g, respectively, excluding outliers. Tributaries leading into river averaged 21 ,g/g BaPEq, whereas the central Bay and open coast had relatively low values (2.0 and 0.5 ,g/g BaPEq, respectively). The HRGS values were highly correlated with total PAHs measured in the same sediment samples (r2 = 0.81). Overall, contamination levels consistently decreased from the upper and middle river sites as collection locations progressed down through the lower river and bay to the coast. Thus, despite the relatively high contaminant load in the river system, Delaware Bay and the immediate coastline seem to have relatively low levels of contaminants, and, therefore, impacts on the benthic organisms in the bay and coast would not be expected from these findings. [source]

Kootenai River velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection , a mystery unraveled?

V. L. Paragamian
Summary The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0,246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a ,short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam water management has reduced velocities and shear stress, thus sediment is now covering the cobbles and gravels. Although higher discharges will likely provide more suitable spawning and rearing conditions, this would be socially and politically unacceptable because it would bring the river elevation to or in excess of 537.66 m, which is flood stage. Thus, support should be given to habitat modifications incorporated into a management plan to restore suitable habitat and ensure better survival of eggs and larvae. [source]

Diversity, abundance, and size structure of bivalve assemblages in the Sipsey River, Alabama,

Wendell R. Haag
Abstract 1.Patterns of mussel diversity and assemblage structure in the Sipsey River, Alabama, are described. Qualitative data were used to describe river-wide patterns of diversity. Quantitative data were used to describe the structure of mussel assemblages at several sites based on whole-substrate sampling that ensured all size classes were detected. 2.Major human impacts to the stream are limited to apparent effects of coal mining in the headwaters and the impoundment of the lower 9,km of the river by a dam on the Tombigbee River. These impacts resulted in a sharp decline in mussel diversity in the headwaters, and extirpation or decline of populations of several large-river species in the lower river that were probably dependent on colonization from the Tombigbee River. 3.Despite localized impacts, mussel assemblages throughout much of the river appear to be mostly intact and self-sustaining. These assemblages have several attributes that differ substantially from those in more degraded streams: (1) high retention of historical species richness; (2) gradual, longitudinal increase in species richness from upstream to downstream, resulting in distinctive headwater and downstream assemblages; (3) ubiquity of most species within particular river segments; (4) low dominance and high evenness with large populations of many species; and (5) frequent recruitment for most species resulting in occurrence of individuals in many size classes. 4.Few detailed and demographically unbiased descriptions of relatively intact mussel assemblages exist. We propose that characteristics described in the Sipsey River can be used as a baseline comparison for assessing relative degree of assemblage alteration in other streams and can serve as goals for restoration efforts. Published in 2010 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. [source]