Lower Results (lower + result)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Measurement of HIV RNA in patients infected by subtype C by assays optimized for subtype B results in an underestimation of the viral load

Bat-Sheva Gottesman
Abstract Quantitation assays of HIV-1 RNA used currently were designed and optimized for subtype B viruses. However, infection with non-B HIV viruses has become more common worldwide. Unfortunately, little information is available regarding the suitability of these assays for measurement of viral load in specific non-B subtypes. The performance of two commercial HIV-1 RNA quantitation assays was evaluated in 82 HIV subtype C-infected patients and in 43 HIV-1 subtype B-infected patients. Blood samples were tested by the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Assay, Version 1.5, and by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification HIV-1 assay (NucliSens). The results were compared by using a paired, two-tailed Student's t -test; the difference between the assays was found to be significant only for subtype C. Discordant results (>0.5 log difference) between the two assays were detected in 39% of subtype C samples, compared to 23.2% of subtype B samples. In all cases in which a discordant result was detected, the lower results were obtained by the NucliSens assay. Discordant results between CD4 and viral load (CD4,<,200 cells/ml with a viral load <5,000 copies/ml) were observed in eight of the subtype C-infected patients when a viral load was measured by NucliSens (9.7%), compared to three patients (3.6%) when measured by the Amplicor assay. In conclusion, in patients with HIV subtype C infection, measurement of HIV RNA by the NucliSens assay resulted in a significant underestimation of the viral load as compared to the Amplicor assay. As a consequence, such an underestimation may result in sub-optimal care of patients infected with HIV subtype C. J. Med. Virol. 73:167,171, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Quality of life and socioeconomic factors in Polish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

L Kulczycka
Abstract Objective, To determinate health related quality of life (HRQoL) in SLE patients and correlate it with socioeconomic factors. Methods, The study was conducted on 83 SLE patients who fulfilled at least 4 out of 11 ACR criteria. HRQoL was measured by SF-36. Socioeconomic data were collected from the patients at the time of filling-up SF-36 questionnaire. Results, SLE patients presented decreased HRQoL. Duration of the disease, as well as age of the patients, had an influence on it. Patients who lived in the villages obtained lower results than those from the cities. More educated patients assessed their HRQoL as higher. Surprisingly, patients who described their social conditions as worse presented better quality of life. There was a statistically significant correlations between HRQoL and socioeconomic factors. [source]

Berry anthocyanins: isolation, identification and antioxidant activities,

Marja P Kähkönen
Abstract Anthocyanins from bilberry, blackcurrant and cowberry were isolated for antioxidant evaluation. Individual compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC and HPLC/ESI,MS techniques. Antioxidant and radical-scavenging capacities of the isolates were studied in emulsified methyl linoleate and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. The total anthocyanin contents in the phenolic extracts of bilberry, blackcurrant and cowberry were 6000, 2360 and 680 mg kg,1 fresh weight respectively. There were four dominant compounds in blackcurrant (glucosides and rutinosides of cyanidin and delphinidin), three in cowberry (monoglycosides of cyanidin) and 15 in bilberry (monoglycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin and petunidin). Quantification as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents gave markedly lower results regarding the total anthocyanin concentration and the content of individual delphinidin and malvidin compounds compared with quantification based on corresponding standard compounds. Berry anthocyanins were highly active radical scavengers in the DPPH test and effective antioxidants in emulsion and human LDL. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Development of a liquid extraction method and comparison with dynamic thermal stripping,thermal desorption (DTS,TD) method: sorption of D -limonene by flexible packaging films

Cengiz Caner
Abstract The sorption of D -limonene into polymeric structures in contact with food simulant liquids (ethanol and acetic acid solutions) was determined using two methods, liquid extraction (LE) and dynamic thermal stripping,thermal desorption (DTS,TD). The polymeric films studied were PP (polypropylene), PE/nylon/EVOH/PE (polyethylene/nylon/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polyethylene) and metPET/VA EVA/LLDPE (metallized polyethylene terephthalate/ethylenevinyl acetate/linear low density polyethylene). Our assessment showed that both LE and DTS,TD techniques are valuable procedures. LE was evaluated as an alternative method with the advantage of being a simplified process. It was possible to measure the amount of D -limonene in the polymers using both methods. Correlation between methods was >82% and for the single layer polymers >92%. The respective sorption values obtained by the two methods were also found to be in good agreement. LE is simple and rapid to perform and, in general, gives slightly lower results compared to DTS,TS sorption tests conducted with adequate food simulants. The results indicate that the liquid extraction method is an excellent technique for the determination of sorbate concentration in polymeric structures. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Minor neurological dysfunction, cognitive development and somatic development at the age of 3 to 11 years in very-low-birthweight infants with transient periventricular echodensities

Abstract Aim: To determine, using strict exclusion criteria, whether transient periventricular echodensities (TPE) in very-low-birthweight infants lead to minor neurological dysfunction and problems in cognitive and somatic development in children without major neurological impairments. Methods: 23 children with TPE were matched to 23 children without TPE. Exclusion criteria were small for gestational age, microcephaly at birth, diplegia, asphyxia, psychomotor retardation, intraventricular haemorrhage grade III/IV, major surgical interventions and malformations. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Draw-a-Man Test and neuropaediatric examination were used for evaluation. Results: There were no differences in demographic data, growth and socio-economic status. Significant differences with lower results in the TPE group were found in fine motor skills and in the Draw-a-Man Test. In the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, all subscales were below average in the TPE group, except the sequential processing scale. In the control group, all subscales were within the average range. Conclusion: By using strict exclusion criteria to eliminate other risk factors for minimal neurological dysfunction and poor cognitive development, we were able to focus on the effect of TPE. TPE seem to affect cognitive development and cause minor neurological dysfunction. [source]