Lower Respiratory Infection (lower + respiratory_infection)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seasonal variation of enteric infections and inflammatory bowel disease

Amnon Sonnenberg MD
Abstract Background: The time trends of inflammatory bowel disease are characterized by short-term variations that affect Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis alike. The aim of the present study was to test whether these variations might be related to exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease secondary to superimposed gastrointestinal infection. Methods: The Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) comprises a data set of all patients admitted to hospitals throughout England, which includes inpatients and day cases. This data set was used to analyze the monthly variations in all hospital admissions for Crohn's disease (ICD10 code K50), ulcerative colitis (K51), bacterial intestinal infections (A04), viral intestinal infections (A08), diarrhea and infectious gastroenteritis (A09), upper respiratory infections (J06), pneumonia secondary to unspecified organism (J18), and unspecified acute lower respiratory infection (J22). Results: The temporal analysis revealed similar monthly fluctuations of hospital admissions for Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and bacterial intestinal infections. Viral intestinal infections and infectious gastroenteritis were characterized by different seasonal variations that showed no relationship with any of the fluctuations of inflammatory bowel disease or bacterial intestinal infections. Similarly, respiratory infections resulted in marked cyclical variations in hospital admissions unrelated to any changes in inflammatory bowel disease or enteric infections. Conclusions: The similarity in the time trends of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and bacterial intestinal infections suggests that superinfection by intestinal bacteria are responsible for the fluctuations in hospital admissions for inflammatory bowel disease. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

Occurrence and management of acute respiratory illnesses in early childhood

Merci MH Kusel
Aim: Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) impose massive economic burden on health services. The growing costs, limited benefits of pharmacotherapeutic agents, and alarming rise in antibiotic resistance poses a major health challenge. Analysis of the nature and burden of ARI through well-designed epidemiologic studies will help in the development of a uniform public health approach to identify methods to reduce disease transmission and maximise prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to analyse the nature and magnitude of the burden of ARI encountered by a cohort of children in the first 5 years of life. Methods: This community-based prospective study of ARI followed a cohort of children from birth until 5 years of age. Information on all episodes of ARI encountered, and their management, was collected through daily symptom diary and fortnightly telephone calls. Results: Four episodes of ARI/year were reported in the first 2 years and 2,3 episodes/year between 2 and 5 years. The majority were upper respiratory infections. 53% had at least one lower respiratory infection in the first year. For the majority, symptoms lasted 1,2 weeks. 53% were treated with antitussives or cough mixtures, 44% with paracetamol and 23% with antibiotics. A total of 46% of the episodes presented to a family physician, with younger children and those with lower respiratory infection more likely to seek attention. Conclusion: ARI are common in childhood and although symptoms may last for 4 weeks, the majority resolve spontaneously. Use of medication does not appear to significantly alter the course or duration of symptoms of ARI. [source]

Cystic fibrosis in India,

S.K. Kabra
Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) was considered to be non-existent in Indian subcontinent. Reports in last one decade have suggested that cystic fibrosis occurs in India but its precise magnitude is not known. Studies on migrant Indian population in United States and United Kingdom estimate frequency of CF as 1:10,000 to 1:40,000. The clinical features are similar to that reported in Caucasian population. CF in Indian children is usually diagnosed late and in advanced stage. Children are more malnourished and may have clinically evident deficiency of fat soluble vitamins. The frequency of clubbing, colonization with Pseudomonas, and laboratory evidence of pseudo-Bartter syndrome is relatively more at the time of diagnosis. Diagnostic facilities in form of sweat chloride estimation and genetic studies are not available readily. Mutation profile is different. The frequency of common mutation F508del in Indian children is between 19% and 34%. Other mutations are heterogeneous. Management of CF in India is difficult due to less number of trained manpower, limited availability, and high cost of pharmacologic agents. The determinants of early death include: severe malnutrition and colonization with Pseudomonas at the time of diagnosis, more than four episodes of lower respiratory infection per year and age of onset of symptoms before 2 months of age. To conclude, CF does occur in India; however, precise magnitude of problem is not known. There is need to create awareness amongst pediatricians, developing diagnostic facilities, and management protocols based on locally available resources. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007; 42:1087,1094. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Association of tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory syncitial virus infection with airways reactivity in early childhood

Alan Adler MD
Abstract Exposure to infectious agents and environmental tobacco smoke are thought to induce bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). This study was undertaken to determine the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) lower respiratory infection (LRI) during infancy on the occurrence of BHR in the first 2 years of life. Eighty-six cases of documented RSV (mean age, 188 days) and 78 controls (mean age, 162 days) were enrolled from the clinic and in-patient service of a single hospital. None had a history of prior LRI. Subjects were studied at 6-month intervals up to 19 months of age with a standardized respiratory illness and parental smoking questionnaire, partial expiratory flow-volume curves by the "hug" (rapid thoracic compression) technique, and methacholine challenge. Exposure to maternal and paternal cigarette smoking, maternal history of asthma, and mold exposure were associated with decreased levels of length-corrected maximal flow at functional residual capacity (V,maxFRC). RSV-LRI was not related to V,maxFRC. After adjustment of V,maxFRC for these factors, V,maxFRC was a significantly and positively correlated with a methacholine concentration provoking a 40% fall in V,maxFRC (PC40) and negatively correlated with dose-response slope. After adjustment for V,maxFRC, there were no independent effects of tobacco smoke exposure or RSV-LRI on methacholine responses. These data do not support a role for RSV as a risk factor for airways reactivity in childhood and indicate that exposure to tobacco smoke affects airways reactivity through its effects on airways. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001; 32:418,427. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Vitamin D status and acute lower respiratory infection in early childhood in Sylhet, Bangladesh

DE Roth
Abstract Aim: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is the most important global cause of childhood death. Micronutrient deficiencies may increase the risk of ALRI. A case,control study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D status and ALRI in rural Bangladesh. Methods: Children aged 1,18 months hospitalized with ALRI (cases) were individually matched to controls on age, sex, and village (N = 25 pairs). The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] in cases and controls was compared using paired t -test. The unadjusted and adjusted odds of ALRI were assessed by multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results: Mean [25(OH)D] was significantly lower among ALRI cases than controls (29.1 nmol/L vs. 39.1 nmol/L; p = 0.015). The unadjusted odds of ALRI was halved for each 10 nmol/L increase in [25(OH)D] (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30,0.96). Adjustment for confounders increased the magnitude of the association. Conclusion: Vitamin D status was associated with early childhood ALRI in a matched case,control study in rural Bangladesh. Randomized trials may establish whether interventions to improve vitamin D status can reduce the burden of ALRI in early childhood. [source]