Lower Quartiles (lower + quartile)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Factors affecting vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born between 23 and 28 weeks' gestation

Louise Marston MSc
Language development is often slower in preterm children compared with their term peers. We investigated factors associated with vocabulary acquisition at 2 years in a cohort of children born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. For children entered into the United Kingdom Oscillation Study, language development was evaluated by using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories score, completed by parents as part of a developmental questionnaire. The effect of demographic, neonatal, socioeconomic factors, growth, and disability were investigated using multifactorial random effects modelling. Questionnaires were returned by 288 participants (148 males, 140 females). The mean number of words vocalized was 42 (SD 29). Multifactorial analysis showed only four factors were significantly associated with vocabulary acquisition. These were: (1) level of disability (mean words: no disability, 45; other disability, 38; severe disability, 30 [severe disability is defined as at least one extreme response in one of the following clinical domains: neuromotor, vision, hearing, communication, or other physical disabilities]; 95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference between no and severe disability 7- 23); (2) sex (39 males, 44 females; 95% CI 0.4-11); (3) length of hospital stay (lower quartile, 47; upper quartile, 38; 95% CI -12 to -4); and (4) weight SD score at 12 months (lower quartile, 39; upper quartile, 44; 95% CI 1,9). There was no significant association between gestational age and vocabulary after multifactorial analysis. There was no significant effect of any socioeconomic factor on vocabulary acquisition. We conclude that clinical factors, particularly indicators of severe morbidity, dominate the correlates of vocabulary acquisition at age 2 in children born very preterm. [source]

Early neurodevelopmental markers predictive of mortality in infants infected with HIV-1

Antolin Llorente PhD
One-hundred and fifty-seven vertically infected HIV-1 positive infants (85 males, 72 females) underwent longitudinal assessment to determine whether early neurodevelopmental markers are useful predictors of mortality in those infants who survive to at least 4 months of age. Survival analysis methods were used to estimate time to death for quartiles of 4-month scores (baseline) on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Cox proportional hazards progression was used to estimate relative hazard (RH, 95% CI) of death for BSID scores and potential confounders. Thirty infants with BSID scores at 4 months of age died during follow-up. Survival analysis revealed greater mortality rates in infants with BSID (Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index) scores in the lower quartile(p=0.004,p=0.036). Unadjusted univariate analyses revealed increased mortality associated with baseline CD4+ 29%, gestational age <37 weeks, smaller head circumference, advanced HIV and higher plasma viral load. BSID scores independently predicted mortality after adjusting for treatment, clinical category, gestational age, plasma viral load and CD4+ percentage. [source]

Bed Stability and Sedimentation Associated With Human Disturbances in Pacific Northwest Streams,

Philip R. Kaufmann
Abstract:, To evaluate anthropogenic sedimentation in United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest coastal streams, we applied an index of relative bed stability (LRBS*) to summer low flow survey data collected using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program field methods in a probability sample of 101 wadeable stream reaches. LRBS* is the log of the ratio of bed surface geometric mean particle diameter (Dgm) to critical diameter (D*cbf) at bankfull flow, based on a modified Shield's criterion for incipient motion. We used a formulation of LRBS* that explicitly accounts for reductions in bed shear stress that result from channel form roughness due to pools and wood. LRBS* ranged from ,1.9 to +0.5 in streams within the lower quartile of human riparian and basin disturbance, and was substantially lower (,4.2 to ,1.1) in streams within the upper quartile of human disturbance. Modeling results suggest that the expected range of LRBS* in streams without human disturbances in this region might be generally between ,0.7 and +0.5 in either sedimentary or volcanic lithology. However, streams draining relatively soft, erodible sedimentary lithology showed greater reductions in LRBS* associated with disturbance than did those having harder, more resistant volcanic (basalt) lithology with similar levels of basin and riparian disturbance. At any given level of disturbance, smaller streams had lower LRBS* than those with larger drainages. In sedimentary lithology (sandstone and siltstone), high-gradient streams had higher LRBS* than did low-gradient streams of the same size and level of human disturbance. High gradient streams in volcanic lithology, in contrast, had lower LRBS* than low-gradient streams of similar size and disturbance. Correlations between Dgm and land disturbance were stronger than those observed between D*cbf and land disturbance. This pattern suggests that land use has augmented sediment supplies and increased streambed fine sediments in the most disturbed streams. However, we also show evidence that some of the apparent reductions in LRBS*, particularly in steep streams draining small volcanic drainages, may have resulted in part from anthropogenic increases in bed shear stress. The synoptic survey methods and designs we use appear adequate to evaluate regional patterns in bed stability and sedimentation and their general relationship to human disturbances. More precise field measurements of channel slope, cross-section geometry, and bed surface particle size would be required to use LRBS* in applications requiring a higher degree of accuracy and precision, such as site-specific assessments at individual streams. [source]

Quantification of intracellular homocysteine by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

Yuehua Huang
Abstract A precise and accurate stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of intracellular homocysteine has been developed. An internal standard, [2H8]-homocystine, was added to cell pellets from EA.hy 926 cells grown in culture under low and high folate concentrations. d,l -dithiothreitol was used to reduce cellular homocystine to homocysteine. Cellular proteins were precipitated by the addition of formic acid in acetonitrile. After centrifugation, a portion of the supernatant was analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Using a Supelcosil cyano column with an Applied Biosystems API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the SRM transitions for homocysteine (m/z 136 to m/z 90) and [2H4]-homocysteine (m/z 140 to m/z 94) were monitored. The method was validated by conducting five replicate analyses on three different days at four different concentrations (concentrations at the lower limit of quantitation and expected lower quartile, mid-range and upper quartile). The limit of detection was 2 ng/106 EA.hy 926 cells. Using this method, the intracellular homocysteine concentration in EA.hy 926 cells ranged from 10 to 36 ng/106 cells. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Calcifications in the Abdominal Aorta Predict Fractures in Men: MINOS Study,

Pawel Szulc MD
In a cohort of 781 men ,50 yr of age followed up for 10 yr, extended calcifications in the abdominal aorta were associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in the risk of osteoporotic fractures regardless of BMD and falls. Introduction: Cardiovascular disease and osteoporotic fractures are public health problems that frequently coexist. Materials and Methods: We assessed the relation of the severity of aortic calcifications with BMD and the risk of fracture in 781 men ,50 yr of age. During a 10-year follow-up, 66 men sustained incident clinical fractures. Calcifications in the abdominal aorta expressed as an aortic calcification score (ACS) were assessed by a semiquantitative method. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, hip, whole body, and distal forearm. Results: ACS > 2 was associated with a 2-fold increase in the mortality risk after adjustment for age, weight, smoking, comorbidity, and medications. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and comorbidity, men in the highest quartile of ACS (>6) had lower BMD of distal forearm, ultradistal radius, and whole body than men in the lower quartiles. Log-transformed ACS predicted fractures when adjusted for age, BMI, age by BMI interaction, prevalent fractures, BMD, and history of two or more falls (e.g., hip BMD; OR = 1.44; p < 0.02). ACS, BMD at all the skeletal sites, and history of two or more falls were independent predictors of fracture. Men with ACS > 6 had a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of fracture after adjustment for confounding variables (OR = 2.54-3.04; p < 0.005-0.001 according to the site). Conclusions: This long-term prospective study showed that elevated ACS (>6) is a robust and independent risk factor for incident fracture in older men regardless of age, BMI, BMD, prevalent fractures, history of two or more falls, comorbidities, and medications. [source]

Dairy and milk consumption and child growth: Is BMI involved?

An analysis of NHANES 199
Humans are unique among mammals in that many consume cow's milk or other dairy products well beyond the traditional age of weaning. Milk provides various nutrients and bioactive molecules to support growth and development, and the question arises as to whether this dietary behavior influences growth parameters. There is evidence that milk makes positive contributions to growth in height, but its associations with other aspects of body size, such as body mass index (BMI), are not well-established. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and multivariate regression analysis were used to test the hypothesis that milk (g) or total dairy product consumption (kJ) is associated with higher BMI percentile among US White, Black, and Mexican-American children of age 2,4 years (n = 1,493) and 5,10 years (n = 2,526). Younger children in the highest quartile of dairy intake had higher BMIs (, = 7.5,8.0; P < 0.01) than those in the lowest two quartiles. Controlling for energy intake eliminated differences between QIV and QI. Among children of 5,10 years of age dairy intake had no relationship to BMI. Young children in the highest quartile of milk intake had higher BMIs than all lower quartiles (, = 7.1,12.8; , = 6.3,11.8 in energy-controlled models; P < 0.05). Among children of 5,10 years of age, those in QIV for milk intake had higher BMIs than those in QII (, = 8.3; , = 7.1 in energy-controlled model; P < 0.01). Controlling for total protein or calcium did not change the results. Milk had more consistent positive associations with BMI than did dairy products, and these were strongest among children of 2,4 years of age. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Solar UVR exposures of indoor workers in a Working and a Holiday Period assessed by personal dosimeters and sun exposure diaries

E. Thieden
Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to quantify ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of fully employed indoor workers during a Working Period and a Holiday Period in the summer months. A further aim was to investigate the correlation between individual personal UVR dosimeter reading and self-reported data in a diary about sun exposure habits and to investigate whether skin type, age and gender influence sun exposure. Methods: The solar UVR, in standard erythema doses (SED) measured by UV sensitive spore-film filter type personal dosimeters (VioSpor®), and sun exposure diaries were compared. The study included 44 healthy Danish adult indoor workers during a Working Period of a mean of 13 days and a Holiday Period of a mean of 17 days from June to September. Results: The individual total UVR exposure correlated significantly (P<0.001) in both the Holiday and Working Periods with individual total hours spent outdoors from 07:00 to 19:00 and with skin area exposure hours. There was no significant correlation between sun exposure dose and gender, age or skin type I-IV, or between the individual solar exposure dose in the Working and the Holiday Period. However, subjects with UVR exposures in the upper quartile spent their Holiday Period in Southern Europe, and/or had been more than the mean time outdoors at the beach/sea and/or between 12:00 and 15:00. Subjects with UVR exposure in the lower quartiles spent their holidays in Denmark or Northern Europe and did not stay at the beach at all. They received an average solar UVR dose which was 22% of ambient in Denmark in the same period while subjects having their holidays in Southern Europe received as much as 90% of the ambient dose in Denmark. Conclusions: Despite information campaigns to avoid the midday sun, on average 35% of the recorded hours outdoors were spent between 12:00 and 15:00 in the Holiday Period. Total hours outdoors give the best estimate of the total sun exposure dose. Registration in a diary of total hours outdoors and whether the Holiday Period was in Northern or Southern Europe can be used to predict the solar exposure dose in a Holiday Period of a few weeks. [source]

Using Dominance-Diversity Curves to Assess Completion Criteria After Bauxite Mining Rehabilitation in Western Australia

C. D. Grant
Abstract Dominance-diversity curves have been previously constructed for a range of ecosystems around the world to illustrate the dominance of particular species and show how their relative abundances compare between communities separated in time or space. We investigate the usefulness of dominance-diversity curves in rehabilitated areas to compare the floristic composition and abundance of "undisturbed" areas with disturbed areas, using bauxite mining rehabilitation in Western Australia as an example. Rehabilitated pits (11,13 years old) subjected to prescribed fire in autumn and spring were compared with unburned rehabilitated areas and the native jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest. Dominance diversity curves were constructed by ranking the log of the species density values from highest to lowest. Species were categorized according to a variety of functional responses: life form (trees, shrubs, subshrubs, and annuals), fire response syndrome (seeder or resprouter), nitrogen fixing capability, and origin (native or adventive). Exponential functions showed extremely good fits for all sites (r2 = 0.939,0.995). Dominance diversity graphs showed that after burning of rehabilitated areas, sites exhibited a more similar dominance-diversity curve than before burning. This was emphasized in a classification (UPGMA) of the regression equations from the dominance-diversity curves that showed that sites burned in spring were more similar to the native forest than sites burned in autumn. There was no significant segregation of the nitrogen-fixing and species origin categories, although the life form and fire response groupings showed significant segregation along the dominance-diversity curve. Resprouters tended to be over-represented in the lower quartiles and under-represented in the upper quartiles of post-burn sites. It is suggested that using dominance-diversity curves in the monitoring of rehabilitated areas may be a useful approach because it provides an easily interpretable visual representation of both species richness and abundance relationships and may be further utilized to emphasize categories of plants that are over- or under-represented in rehabilitated areas. This will assist in the post-rehabilitation management of these sites. [source]

Extraordinary diversity in vasopressin (V1a) receptor distributions among wild prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster): Patterns of variation and covariation

Steven M. Phelps
Abstract The vasopressin V1a receptor is a gene known to be central to species differences in social behavior, including differences between the monogamous prairie vole and its promiscuous congeners. To examine how individual differences compare with species differences, we characterize variability in the expression of the vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR) in a large sample of wild prairie voles. We find a surprising degree of intraspecific variation in V1aR binding that does not seem attributable to experimental sources. Most brain regions exhibit differences between upper and lower quartiles that are comparable to differences between species in this genus. Regions that are less variable have been implicated previously in regulating monogamous behaviors, suggesting that the lack of variation at these sites could reflect natural selection on mating system. Many brain regions covary strongly. The overall pattern of covariation reflects the developmental origins of brain regions. This finding suggests that shared mechanisms of transcriptional regulation may limit the patterns of gene expression. Such biases may shape both the efficacy of selection and the pattern of individual and species differences. Overall, our data indicate that the prairie vole would be a useful model for exploring how individual differences in gene expression influence complex social behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 466:564,576, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Significance of CD 105 expression for tumour angiogenesis and prognosis in endometrial carcinomas

APMIS, Issue 11 2003
Angiogenesis is a key process in tumour growth and metastasis, and Factor-VIII microvascular density has been found to influence prognosis among endometrial carcinoma patients. The CD105/endoglin antibody has been reported to preferentially bind to activated endothelial cells in tissues participating in angiogenesis, and we therefore wanted to compare the prognostic significance of CD105/endoglin to that of Factor-VIII. In a population-based endometrial carcinoma study with long (median 11.5 years) and complete patient follow-up, mean intratumour microvascular density (MVD) assessed using CD105/endoglin was investigated and compared with previous data for MVD assessed using Factor-VIII. MVD by CD105/endoglin was significantly correlated with MVD by Factor-VIII (p=0.001). However, tumours within the two groups defined by the upper and lower quartiles for CD105/endoglin-MVD were both significantly more often metastatic (FIGO-stage III/IV; p=0.03), with high tumour cell proliferation by Ki67 (p=0.007) and with reduced survival (p=0.036) as compared with the intermediate groups. In Cox regression analysis, CD105/endoglin-MVD showed independent prognostic influence when analysed together with patient age, FIGO stage, histologic subtype, histologic grade and Factor-VIII-MVD, while the latter lost its prognostic impact when CD105/endoglin was included. In the subgroup with high MVD, there was a tendency towards improved response to radiation therapy. In conclusion, CD105/endoglin-MVD is significantly associated with FIGO stage, tumour proliferation and prognosis in endometrial carcinoma, indicating that this is a better angiogenic marker in these tumours. [source]

Household food security is associated with early childhood language development: results from a longitudinal study in rural Bangladesh

K. K. Saha
Abstract Background Although household food security (HHFS) has been linked to academic performance in school children, its association with early childhood development has received less attention, particularly in low-income countries. We investigated the association of HHFS with subsequent language development of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Methods We followed 1439 infants born in 2002,2003 to the mothers in Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab study, a large intervention trial conducted in rural Bangladesh. A HHFS scale was created from data collected from mothers during pregnancy. At 18 months, children's language (expression and comprehension) development was assessed using a Bengali adaptation of MacArthur's Communicative Development Inventory which was based on mothers' report of their children's ability to comprehend and express words in different categories. General linear regression models were used to examine the association between HHFS and language development at 18 months of age adjusting for potential confounders. Results Household food security was associated with language comprehension (B = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.30, P < 0.001) and expression (B = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.02, P < 0.01) at 18 months of age. Mean language comprehension and expression at 18 months of the children in higher quartiles of HHFS were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the children in lower quartiles. Conclusions Household food security is positively associated with subsequent language development of rural Bangladeshi children. Early language development has been reported to predict later child development. Therefore, strategies to ensure HHFS status in Bangladesh and similar settings should be considered for optimum child development. [source]