Lower Body Mass (lower + body_mass)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Lower Body Mass

  • lower body mass index

  • Selected Abstracts

    Toxicity of nitrogenous fertilizers to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) in field and laboratory exposures

    Shane Raymond de Solla
    Abstract Many reptiles oviposit in soil of agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of two commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers, urea and ammonium nitrate, on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. Eggs were incubated in a community garden plot in which urea was applied to the soil at realistic rates of up to 200 kg/ha in 2004, and ammonium nitrate was applied at rates of up to 2,000 kg/ha in 2005. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed in the laboratory in covered bins so as to minimize loss of nitrogenous compounds through volatilization or leaching from the soil. Neither urea nor ammonium nitrate had any impact on hatching success or development when exposed in the garden plot, despite overt toxicity of ammonium nitrate to endogenous plants. Both laboratory exposures resulted in reduced hatching success, lower body mass at hatching, and reduced posthatching survival compared to controls. The lack of toxicity of these fertilizers in the field was probably due to leaching in the soil and through atmospheric loss. In general, we conclude that nitrogenous fertilizers probably have little direct impacts on turtle eggs deposited in agricultural landscapes. [source]

    Multiple Paternity and Similar Variance in Reproductive Success of Male and Female Wood Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) Housed in an Enclosure

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2001
    Susan Bartmann
    The mating system and variance in individual reproductive success in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were analysed genetically and using observational studies within a large cage system in an outdoor enclosure. Four experimental groups contained four males and four females, each individually marked with a transponder (small computer chips injected under the skin) allowing individual detection of animals underground or within nest boxes without disturbance. The probability of paternity was analysed by comparing frequencies of cohabitation of males and females. In addition, DNA microsatellite analysis revealed reproductive success of each individual. Multiple paternity was found in 85% of all litters, which were sired by up to all four males. Males with a greater body mass, possibly indicative of a higher rank, sired more offspring than those with lower body mass. Interestingly, variance in the reproductive success of males and females did not differ. There was no indication that paternity could be assessed by the time males resided with a female shortly before she became pregnant. Our results indicate wood mice probably have a promiscuous mating system. [source]

    Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Mechanical Stimuli: A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance, Efficacy, and Safety,

    Clinton Rubin
    Abstract A 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of 70 postmenopausal women demonstrated that brief periods (<20 minutes) of a low-level (0.2g, 30 Hz) vibration applied during quiet standing can effectively inhibit bone loss in the spine and femur, with efficacy increasing significantly with greater compliance, particularly in those subjects with lower body mass. Introduction: Indicative of the anabolic potential of mechanical stimuli, animal models have demonstrated that short periods (<30 minutes) of low-magnitude vibration (<0.3g), applied at a relatively high frequency (20,90 Hz), will increase the number and width of trabeculae, as well as enhance stiffness and strength of cancellous bone. Here, a 1-year prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial in 70 women, 3,8 years past the menopause, examined the ability of such high-frequency, low-magnitude mechanical signals to inhibit bone loss in the human. Materials and Methods: Each day, one-half of the subjects were exposed to short-duration (two 10-minute treatments/day), low-magnitude (2.0 m/s2 peak to peak), 30-Hz vertical accelerations (vibration), whereas the other half stood for the same duration on placebo devices. DXA was used to measure BMD at the spine, hip, and distal radius at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-six women completed the 1-year treatment. Results and Conclusions: The detection threshold of the study design failed to show any changes in bone density using an intention-to-treat analysis for either the placebo or treatment group. Regression analysis on the a priori study group demonstrated a significant effect of compliance on efficacy of the intervention, particularly at the lumbar spine (p = 0.004). Posthoc testing was used to assist in identifying various subgroups that may have benefited from this treatment modality. Evaluating those in the highest quartile of compliance (86% compliant), placebo subjects lost 2.13% in the femoral neck over 1 year, whereas treatment was associated with a gain of 0.04%, reflecting a 2.17% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.06). In the spine, the 1.6% decrease observed over 1 year in the placebo group was reduced to a 0.10% loss in the active group, indicating a 1.5% relative benefit of treatment (p = 0.09). Considering the interdependence of weight, the spine of lighter women (<65 kg), who were in the highest quartile of compliance, exhibited a relative benefit of active treatment of 3.35% greater BMD over 1 year (p = 0.009); for the mean compliance group, a 2.73% relative benefit in BMD was found (p = 0.02). These preliminary results indicate the potential for a noninvasive, mechanically mediated intervention for osteoporosis. This non-pharmacologic approach represents a physiologically based means of inhibiting the decline in BMD that follows menopause, perhaps most effectively in the spine of lighter women who are in the greatest need of intervention. [source]

    Density-dependent reproduction in the European rabbit: a consequence of individual response and age-dependent reproductive performance

    OIKOS, Issue 3 2004
    Heiko G. Rödel
    Density dependence of reproduction has generally been proposed to be caused by habitat heterogeneity and by the individual response of reproductive output. However, a further mechanism might generate density dependence of average reproductive rates. High density situations might be associated with a high proportion of first-season breeders which often show a principally lower reproductive performance. We tested for the existence of the latter mechanism as well as for density-dependent individual changes of reproductive effort in a population of European rabbits living in a homogeneous grassland habitat. The study was conducted over a period of eleven years. Overall, a strong relationship between mean reproductive rates and the breeding density of females was apparent. All necessary conditions for the presence of a density-dependent effect caused by age-dependent reproduction were fulfilled: Fluctuations of breeding density were paralleled by variations in the proportion of one-year-old females. These one-year-old, first-season breeders showed a consistently lower reproductive performance than older females, which might be caused by their lower body mass and their lower social rank. However, we also found strong evidence for density-dependent response of individual reproductive effort: Individual changes in fecundity over successive years were explained by changes in the breeding density of females. The results suggest that density dependence of reproduction in European rabbits is due to an interaction of age-dependent reproductive performance together with short-term fluctuations in breeding density, and a density-dependent, individual based response of reproductive rates. We further conclude that the lower reproductive performance of first-season breeders in age-structured animal populations may contribute substantially to interannual, and under particular circumstances to density-dependent variations of mean reproductive rates. [source]